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Andrews-Hanna Jeffrey C - - 2008
The most prominent feature on the surface of Mars is the near-hemispheric dichotomy between the southern highlands and northern lowlands. The root of this dichotomy is a change in crustal thickness along an apparently irregular boundary, which can be traced around the planet, except where it is presumably buried beneath ...
O'Bryan Corliss A - - 2008
For more than 100 years research on food irradiation has demonstrated that radiation will make food safer and improve the shelf life of irradiated foods. Using the current food safety technology, we may have reached the point of diminishing returns even though recent figures from the CDC show a significant ...
Canterino Marisa - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Synthetic musk compounds are widely used as additives in personal care and household products. The photochemical degradation of musk tibetene in aqueous solutions or in acetonitrile/water mixtures under different conditions was studied in order to assess its environmental fate. METHODS: Musk tibetene dissolved (or suspended) in water and/or acetonitrile/water ...
Pakvasa Sandip - - 2008
Current experimental data on neutrino mixing are very well described by tribimaximal mixing. Accordingly, any phenomenological parametrization of the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata-Pontecorvo matrix must build upon tribimaximal mixing. We propose one particularly natural parametrization, which we call "triminimal." The three small deviations of the Particle Data Group angles from their tribimaximal values, ...
Simon Steven H - - 2008
We examine the effect of Landau level mixing on the braiding statistics of quasiparticles of Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states. While path dependent geometric phases can perturb the Abelian part of the statistics, we find that the non-Abelian properties remain unchanged to an accuracy that is exponentially small in ...
Turnbull David J - - 2008
Currently, there is a major gap in the knowledge that is needed to optimize the beneficial effects related to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at wavelengths that induce vitamin D(3) synthesis (UV(D3)) compared to reducing the biologically damaging overexposure to UV radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the use ...
Tedesco S - - 2008
Little is known about potential environmental impact of nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles can cause unexpected biological responses. Here, Mytilus edulis were exposed (24h) to gold-citrate nanoparticles (GNP), menadione and both compounds simultaneously (GNP/menadione). Protein ubiquitination and carbonylation were determined in gill, mantle and digestive gland, along with traditional oxidative stress biomarkers; ...
Aubert B - - 2008
A search for lepton flavor violating decays of a tau to a lighter-mass charged lepton and an omega vector meson is performed using 384.1 fb(-1) of e(+)e(-) annihilation data collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center PEP-II storage ring. No signal is found, and the upper ...
Jo Deokjo - - 2008
Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and thermo-luminescence (TL) analyses were conducted to detect irradiated kiwifruits. Samples were irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays at 0-2 kGy. The freeze-dried kiwifruit peel showed 309 photon counts (PCs) for nonirradiated samples that accounted for less than the lower threshold value (700 counts/60 s, negative) and above 9306 ...
Thomas Brian C - - 2008
Recently, Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of approximately 10(44) Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to eta Carinae, which resides in our own Galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. ...
Adachi Yuka - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Combining phototherapy with topical vitamin D3 analogues is a useful therapy for the treatment of psoriasis by reducing the cumulative UV dose required for clearance of lesions. Experimental investigations demonstrated that calcipotriol is degraded by UV radiation, and suggested that calcipotriol should be applied after phototherapy but not immediately ...
Chen Xu - - 2008
Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (5PTase) is a key enzyme in the phosphatidylinositol metabolic pathway, which plays critical roles in a number of cellular processes in plants. Our previous work implicated the role of 5PTase13, which encodes a WD40-containing type II 5PTase, in hormone-mediated cotyledon vein development. Here, we show that 5PTase13 ...
Morita Kenji - - 2008
We investigate possible mass shift and width broadening of J/psi in hot gluonic matter using QCD sum rules. Input values of gluon condensates at finite temperature are extracted from lattice QCD data for the energy density and pressure. Although stability of the moment ratio is achieved only up to T/Tc ...
Vinther Jakob - - 2008
The systematic affinities of several Palaeozoic skeletal taxa were only resolved when their soft-tissue morphology was revealed by the discovery of exceptionally preserved specimens. The conodonts provide a classic example, their tooth-like elements having been assigned to various invertebrate and vertebrate groups for more than 125 years until the discovery ...
Seever Katinka - - 2008
Irradiation of the melatonin metabolite N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) with UV light of 254 nm causes the release of carbon monoxide (CO) and, thus, deformylation to N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK). Liberation of CO was demonstrated by reduction of PdCl(2) to metallic palladium, under avoidance of actions by other reductants. Photochemical AMK formation was not ...
Ananda K - - 2008
PEGylation induced increase in colloidal osmotic pressure (COP) of Hb, one of the unique molecular properties of PEG-Hb conjugates, facilitates the neutralization of the vasoconstrictive activity of acellular Hb is a function of chemistry of conjugation of PEG-chains. The dependence of COP with the chemistry is a consequence of PEGylation ...
Levine Michael W - - 2008
Grid illusions, including the Hermann grid and scintillating grid (in which light disks are superimposed upon the grid intersections), are diminished by curving the alleys that limn the repeating pattern. Curvature might either disrupt the processes that induce the illusion, or simply make the illusory effects harder to see. To ...
Obana Hirotaka - - 2007
2-Alkylcyclobutanones, such as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone, were analyzed to assess the irradiation history of irradiated meats or fish, and cooked foods with irradiated ingredients, which had been stored frozen for up to one year. The purpose of the study was to show that irradiated meats could be detected even after ...
Razjouyan Faezeh - - 2007
The objective was to create an inexpensive, portable, and accurate absorptive radiation force balance to measure acoustic powers of up to 100 watts generated by the high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer. This paper describes the process of making an effective absorbing target with commercially available ingredients. Four different absorbing ...
Milly P J - - 2007
Ultraviolet (UV)-induced chemical reactions and inactivation of microorganisms in transparent and opaque fluids are strongly dependent upon the homogenous exposure of the target species to the UV irradiation. Current UV technologies used in water disinfection and food preservation applications have limited efficacy due to suspended particles shading target species. An ...
Sirikantaramas Supaart - - 2007
We have investigated the subcellular accumulation and transport of camptothecin (CPT), a monoterpene indole alkaloid, in hairy roots of Ophiorrhiza pumila. This hairy root produces high amounts of CPT and excretes it into the culture medium. When the hairy roots were exposed to UV radiation, autofluorescence emitted from CPT showed ...
Matafonova Galina - - 2008
2-Chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) at initial concentrations of 10, 20, 50 and 100mg l(-1) were degraded in aqueous media by direct UV photolysis using dielectric barrier discharge XeBr( *) excilamp (283nm) in a flow-through photoreactor. The pseudo-first order rate constants were highest and half-life times were lowest ...
Li Li - - 2007
This paper reports our recent efforts to develop novel tricycles based on 4H-benzo[1,4]thiazin-3-one ( 2) and 1,1-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-2H-1lambda(6)-benzo[1,4]thiazin-3-one (3) using 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (1). All of these tricycles integrate two privileged structures into one skeleton, including 3,8-dihydro-5-thia-1,3,8-triaza-cyclopenta[b]naphthalene-7-one (4, 10, 12), 5,5-dioxo-3,5,6,8-tetrahydro-5lambda(6)-thia-1,3,8-triaza-cyclopenta[b]naphthalene-7-one (5, 11), 3,8-dihydro-5-thia-1,2,3,8-tetraaza-cyclopenta[b]naphthalene-7-one (6), 5,5-dioxo-3,5,6,8-tetrahydro-5lambda(6)-thia-1,2,3,8-tetraaza-cyclopenta[b]naphthalene-7-one (7), 3,8-dihydro-1H-5-thia-1,3,8-triaza-cyclopenta[b]naphthalene-2,7-dione (8), and 5,5-dioxo-3,5,6,8-tetrahydro-1H-5lambda(6)-thia-1,3,8-triaza-cyclopenta[b]naphthalene-2,7-dione (9). A ...
Sakashita Tetsuya - - 2008
Ionizing radiation (IR) is known to impair learning by suppressing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, in a mature nervous system, IR-induced functional alterations that are independent of neurogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of IR on a food-NaCl associative learning paradigm of adult ...
Verbeek F - - 2008
Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionising radiation in order to disinfect, sanitise, sterilise and preserve food or to provide insect disinfestation. Irradiated food should be adequately labelled according to international and national guidelines. In many countries, there are furthermore restrictions to the product-specific maximal dose that ...
Jönsson K Ingemar - - 2007
Exposure of living organisms to open space requires a high level of tolerance to desiccation, cold, and radiation. Among animals, only anhydrobiotic species can fulfill these requirements. The invertebrate phylum Tardigrada includes many anhydrobiotic species, which are adapted to survive in very dry or cold environmental conditions. As a likely ...
Palm Melanie D - - 2007
Photoprotection is an effective method for preventing damaging effects from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Photoprotection is accomplished through the use of sunscreens, protective clothing, and safe sun practices. Sunscreens are composed of various UV filters, including inorganic/physical blockers and organic/chemical sunscreen agents. New technologies are emerging in sunscreen development and may ...
Hansson Lars-Anders - - 2007
In order to avoid environmental threats, organisms may respond by altering behavior or phenotype. Using experiments performed in high-latitude Siberia and in temperate Sweden, we show for the first time that, among freshwater crustacean zooplankton, the defense against threats from ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a system where phenotypic plasticity and ...
Torres Ricardo A - - 2008
Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical compound largely used in the plastics industry, can end up in aquatic systems, which it disturbs by its endocrine disrupting effect (EDE). This study investigated the BPA degradation upon ultrasonic action under different experimental conditions. The effect of saturating gas (oxygen, argon and air), BPA ...
Gonçalves Rodrigo J - - 2007
During an annual cycle, Daphnia spinulata collected from a plankton community of Patagonia was exposed outdoors to assess the impact of recently received solar radiation on motility (i.e. swimming speed and gravitaxis). Individual values of these parameters were obtained by video recordings and image analysis at different time intervals during ...
Cornwell Kevin G - - 2007
In this study, we report on the development of discrete fibrin microthreads as well as novel scaffolds composed of arrays of fibrin threads. These scaffolds exhibit mechanical properties that are significantly greater than fibrin gels and cellular responses suggesting that the materials are conducive to the development of organized, aligned ...
Hartwig A - - 2007
Food irradiation has been considered as a safe processing technology to improve food safety and preservation, eliminating efficiently bacterial pathogens, parasites and insects. This study aims to characterize the toxicological potential of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), radiolytic derivatives of triglycerides, formed uniquely upon irradiation of fat-containing food. In irradiated food they are ...
Fleming Erich D - - 2007
Scytonemin is an ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-screening compound synthesized by some sheathed cyanobacteria exposed to high solar and sky radiation. It is primarily produced in response to UVA radiation, but certain environmental stresses can enhance synthesis. This study focuses on the effects of periodic desiccation on scytonemin synthesis in three desiccation-tolerant ...
Yakovenko Anton V - - 2007
[structure: see text]. A diastereomeric mixture of chiral 25-(1S)-camphorsulfonyloxy-26-isopropoxycalix[4]arene 2a (de 15%) and 25-isopropoxy-26-((1S)-10-camphorsulfonyl)calix[4]arene 2b has been obtained by asymmetrical lower rim (1S)-camphorsulfonylation of the monoisopropoxycalix[4]arene. Pure diastereomer 2a has been obtained by simple crystallization, and its absolute configuration has been determinated by X-ray analysis. Enantiomerically pure inherently chiral 5,11-dibromo-26-isopropoxycalix[4]arene ...
Aubert B - - 2007
We present an observation of B-->eta'K*. The data sample corresponds to 232x10(6) BB[over ] pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We measure the branching fractions (in units of 10(-6)) B(B(0)-->eta'K*0)=3.8+/-1.1+/-0.5 and B(B+-->eta'K*+)=4.9(1.7)(+1.9)+/-0.8, where the first error is statistical ...
Ferrero L - - 2007
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the influence of plate roughness on well-known absolute or relative UV spectroscopic indices such as the in vitro SPF, in vitro UVA PF (PPD), UVA/UVB ratio, critical wavelength and SPF/UVA PF (PPD) ratio. Firstly, a roughness index was measured by non-contact surface ...
Nakui H - - 2007
The degradation of hydrazine (N(2)H(4)) with concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/L was investigated as a function of pH under the stirring (300 rpm) and ultrasonic irradiation (200 kHz, 200 W) conditions. It was found that the hydrazine degradation depended greatly upon pH under the ultrasonic irradiation condition, while it ...
Blaskovicova Marika - - 2007
Simultaneous application of UV light and ultrasonic irradiation to a reaction mixture containing 1-iodocyclohexene is reported. The irradiation of 1-iodocyclohexene in methanol was carried out with or without addition of zinc. The effect of ultrasound or mechanical stirring on this solid-liquid system was also compared. The irradiation of 1-iodocyclohexene in ...
Neczaj E - - 2007
In this study, the effects of low energy ultrasound irradiation on landfill leachate treatment by means of sequencing bath reactor were investigated. The aim of this work was to estimate the influence of leachate irradiation time on aerobic treatment efficiency. The sonification of the leachate was carried out in static ...
Gonzalez Helena - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Sunscreens are being widely used to reduce exposure to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The fact that some sunscreens are photounstable has been known for many years. Since the UV-absorbing ingredients of sunscreens may be photounstable, especially in the long wavelength region, it is of great interest to determine their ...
Soares Anderson Ricardo - - 2007
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L: -DOPA), an allelochemical exuded from the roots of velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis], presents a highly inhibitory action to plant growth. The effects of L-DOPA on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activities, and phenolic compound and lignin content in soybean ...
Kelton Nadia - - 2007
Fluorescence measurements were used to compare characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from distinctly different origins: boreal, agricultural and urban streams as well as a storm runoff pond and the outlet of a tertiary wastewater treatment plant. The primary goal was to determine if differences among stream types could be ...
Watanabe-Akanuma Mie - - 2007
We investigated the photomutagenicity of maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) in bacterial cells. Maltol has a caramel-butterscotch odour and is used as a food additive to impart flavour to bread and cakes. Unirradiated maltol was not mutagenic up to 5 mg/plate in the Ames test. When maltol was irradiated with either UVA (a ...
Bari M L - - 2006
Gamma radiation effectively controls Listeria monocytogenes in uncooked and in ready-to-eat foods. This study was conducted to determine if gamma radiation could be used to control L. monocytogenes in ground pork. Ground pork was contaminated with L. monocytogenes, kept at refrigeration (4 degrees C), chilling (0 degrees C), and freezing ...
Ablikim M - - 2006
Using a data sample of 58 x 10(6) J/psi decays collected with the Beijing Spectrometer II detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider, searches for invisible decays of eta and eta' in J/psi to phi eta and phi eta' are performed. The phi signals, which are reconstructed in K+K- final ...
Montanari J - - 2007
Hydrophobic ([tetrakis(2,4-dimetil-3-pentyloxi)-phthalocyaninate]zinc(II)) (ZnPc) and hydrophilic ([tetrakis(N,N,N-trimethylammoniumetoxi)-phthalocyaninate]zinc(II) tetraiodide) (ZnPcMet) phthalocyanines were synthesized and loaded in ultradeformable liposomes (UDL) of soybean phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate (6:1, w/w, ratio), resulting 100 nm mean size vesicles of negative Zeta potential, with encapsulation efficiencies of 85 and 53%, enthalpy of phase transition of 5.33 and ...
Erickson Marilyn C - - 2006
Protozoan parasites can survive under ambient and refrigerated storage conditions when associated with a range of substrates. Consequently, various treatments have been used to inactivate protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Cyclospora) in food, water, and environmental systems. Physical treatments that affect survival or removal of protozoan parasites include freezing, heating, ...
Fan Xuetong - - 2006
Furan and acrylamide are two possible carcinogens commonly found in many thermally processed foods. The possibility of using ionizing radiation to reduce the levels of thermally induced furan and acrylamide in water and selected foods was investigated. Aqueous furan solutions, and foods (frankfurters, sausages, infant sweet potatoes) that contained furan ...
Hussain S - - 2006
We examine the dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes on the neutrino-nucleon cross section for neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV, and contrast the results with those for cosmic ray experiments. Scaling of the standard model cross sections leaves the rate of upward events essentially unchanged. Details, such as ...
Kasai Kouichi - - 2006
We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to clinically evaluate the protective and ameliorative effects of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate extract on pigmentation in the skin after ultraviolet ray (UV) irradiation, using female subjects in their 20s to 40s. Thirteen healthy volunteers per group were randomly assigned to three groups; namely, high ...
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