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Results 251 - 300 of 997
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Hayden Brian - - 2009
Feasting has been proposed as the major context and impetus behind the intensification of production leading to the domestication of plants and animals. This article examines the way feasting contributes to fitness in traditional societies through the reduction of risks involving subsistence, reproduction, and violent confrontations. As other authors have ...
Kuijt Ian - - 2009
In studying the origins of agriculture it is critical that we envision food production as a long-term human process that centers on the control and management of cycles of plant reproduction, including the harvesting, storage, and planting of seed stock. Drawing upon a growing body of literature illustrating multiple trajectories ...
Bellwood Peter - - 2009
This paper offers a perspective on the spread of early food-producing populations, with their crops, animals, other cultural attributes, languages, and genes. A multidisciplinary approach is taken in which perspectives from different disciplines (especially archaeology and comparative linguistics in this instance) are used for what L. Fogelin recently called "inference ...
Pearsall Deborah M - - 2009
Because understanding the transition to food production is fundamentally an exercise in dietary reconstruction, research designs that incorporate multiple lines of evidence provide the most rigorous tests. An approach is advocated that evaluates multiple lines of evidence critically, verifying one indicator by one or more different ones. Theoretical and methodological ...
Seiber James N - - 2009
The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD) and the American Chemical Society had the foresight to launch the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 1953. JAFC, still closely connected with the Division, has grown to be the premier international journal in the field, providing an outlet for publishing ...
da Silva Rui - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyse the worldwide trends of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), in 1961-1965 and 2000-2003. DESIGN: Data were obtained from the FAO food balance sheets in two periods: 1961-1965 and 2000-2003. In order to have a sample from across the world, forty-one countries were ...
Lim Jason LitJeh - - 2009
The AMPATH program is a leading initiative in rural Kenya providing healthcare services to combat HIV. Malnutrition and food insecurity are common among AMPATH patients and the Nutritional Information System (NIS) was designed, with cross-functional collaboration between engineering and medical communities, as a comprehensive electronic system to record and assist ...
G?mez-Galera Sonia - - 2010
Staple food crops, in particular cereal grains, are poor sources of key mineral nutrients. As a result, the world's poorest people, generally those subsisting on a monotonous cereal diet, are also those most vulnerable to mineral deficiency diseases. Various strategies have been proposed to deal with micronutrient deficiencies including the ...
Hockings Kimberley J - - 2009
Increased human population growth and more conversions of natural habitat to agricultural land have resulted in greater proximity between humans and nonhuman primate species. Consequent increases in resource competition including crop-raiding are a by-product of both natural resources becoming less available and the nutritional benefits of cultivated foods becoming more ...
Fox Glen - - 2009
Maize is a highly important crop to many countries around the world, through the sale of the maize crop to domestic processors and subsequent production of maize products and also provides a staple food to subsistance farms in undeveloped countries. In many countries, there have been long-term research efforts to ...
Morad Mohammed - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are the fifth leading cause of death in the general population, but even more of a concern in the population of persons with intellectual disability. The present study was conducted to investigate trends in choking resulting in death of persons with intellectual disability in residential care centers ...
Kuijt Ian - - 2009
Food storage is a vital component in the economic and social package that comprises the Neolithic, contributing to plant domestication, increasingly sedentary lifestyles, and new social organizations. Recent excavations at Dhra' near the Dead Sea in Jordan provide strong evidence for sophisticated, purpose-built granaries in a predomestication context approximately 11,300-11,175 ...
Lee Charlotte T - - 2009
The population dynamics of preindustrial societies depend intimately on their surroundings, and food is a primary means through which environment influences population size and individual well-being. Food production requires labor; thus, dependence of survival and fertility on food involves dependence of a population's future on its current state. We use ...
Peller Cassandra R - - 2009
Mutation of the gene drop-dead (drd) causes adult Drosophila to die within 2 weeks of eclosion and is associated with reduced rates of defecation and increased volumes of crop contents. In the current study, we demonstrate that flies carrying the strong allele drd(lwf) display a reduction in the transfer of ...
Shrimpton Roger - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Although much is known about risk factors for low birthweight, an important cause of neonatal death, little is known about how to reduce or prevent low birthweight. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify a low rate in the incidence of low birthweight reported in the Bhutanese refugee camps in ...
Mikkola Minna - - 2009
Catering for sustainability is often presented as a legitimate perspective for caterers to promote more equitable economic development locally and across distances through food procurement, integrated with environmental protection and concern for the welfare of customers and staff. Caterers are thus seen as agents responsible for sustainable food systems within ...
Aizen Marcelo A - - 2009
The prospect that a global pollination crisis currently threatens agricultural productivity has drawn intense recent interest among scientists, politicians, and the general public. To date, evidence for a global crisis has been drawn from regional or local declines in pollinators themselves or insufficient pollination for particular crops. In contrast, our ...
Campbell J E - - 2009
The quantity of land available to grow biofuel crops without affecting food prices or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion is limited. Therefore, bioenergy should maximize land-use efficiency when addressing transportation and climate change goals. Biomass could power either internal combustion or electric vehicles, but the relative land-use efficiency ...
Beck Jeffrey L - - 2010
Wildlife conservationists design monitoring programs to assess population dynamics, project future population states, and evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations. Because agency mandates and conservation laws call for monitoring data to elicit management responses, it is imperative to design programs that match the administrative scale for which management ...
Pain, Deborah J.
Gyps vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent collapsed in the 1990s and continue to decline. Repeated population surveys showed that the rate of decline was so rapid that elevated mortality of adult birds must be a key demographic mechanism. Post mortem examination showed that the majority of dead vultures had ...
Crepin Sabrina - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A link between malnutrition and epilepsy has been suspected for many years. METHODS: Different aspects of the question were studied with a review of previous published data. RESULTS: Several studies performed on animal models or humans highlight the possible adverse effects of malnutrition in the onset of ...
Starkhouse, Benjamin A.
Coral reef-based fisheries, which have long provided food, income and livelihoods to millions of coastal inhabitants in tropical developing countries around the world, are regularly overlooked and underappreciated in regard to their economic and social values. Despite their importance, there is limited formal information that can be used to help ...
Pandve Harshal T - - 2009
Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture - further endangering food security - to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity ...
Lytle Leslie A - - 2009
The past decades have seen an increased interest in understanding how the environment affects population health. In particular, public health practitioners and researchers alike are eager to know how the food environments of neighborhoods, schools, and worksites affect food choices and, ultimately, population risk for obesity and other diet-related chronic ...
Stoeglehner Gernot - - 2009
By using biofuels bioproductive land is devoted to supply energy. As the bioproductive land area on our planet is confined and actually decreasing, biofuels compete against other demands like the production of food, industrial resources, nature conservation etc. This not only results in higher prices for agricultural and forestry products, ...
Knight Andrew J - - 2009
Compared to their European counterparts, the American public has been characterized as relatively unknowledgeable and indifferent about genetically modified foods. To evaluate these claims, six focus groups were held in three Arkansas cities to: (1) determine the extent of knowledge the public possesses about genetically modified foods; (2) detail perceived ...
Hulman B - - 2009
As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of ...
Zobolo, AM; ; azobolo@pan.uzulu.ac.za
This study was conducted at Richards Bay in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa during the 1997-1998 and 2001-2002 cropping seasons. It was motivated by the observation that indigenous food crops, including vegetables, seem to be suffering from low acceptability status in contemporary society in rural northern KwaZulu-Natal. The study was an ...
Leakey Andrew D B - - 2009
Crops with the C(4) photosynthetic pathway are vital to global food supply, particularly in the tropical regions where human well-being and agricultural productivity are most closely linked. While rising atmospheric [CO(2)] is the driving force behind the greater temperatures and water stress, which threaten to reduce future crop yields, it ...
Ramírez Alvaro - - 2009
There are always risks associated with silos when the stored material has been characterized as prone to self-ignition or explosion. Further research focused on the characterization of agricultural materials stored in silos is needed due to the lack of data found in the literature. The aim of this study was ...
Ghosh Dilip - - 2009
Nutrigenomics, defined as the application of high-throughput genomics tools in nutrition research is now past its incubation phase. The poorly understood associations of diet and disease prevention in particular will likely be the single most important catalyst to its accelerated and continued growth. Whether the goal of matching foods to ...
Wahlquist Asa K - - 2009
Water is vital to food production: every calorie of plant food requires at least one litre of water, while one calorie of meat or dairy product can require up to 10 litres of water. Water is supplied either through rainfall or through irrigation. Irrigated agriculture uses 18 per cent of ...
Wang Yue-Wen - - 2009
The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous ...
Butler Colin D - - 2009
This is the first of two articles on the steepening challenges which confront global agriculture, food security and hence nutrition and population health. The recent deterioration in global food security has caught most experts by surprise. While the Asia Pacific region as a whole has so far fared reasonably well, ...
Pan Wen-Harn - - 2009
People rely on foods to provide energy and nutrients to sustain life and to ensure health. In the entire chain from acquiring foods to ingesting them, women contribute in unique ways to the food system. Although foods or nutrients requirements for both sexes are biologically similar in many aspects, women ...
Liao I Chiu - - 2009
Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has ...
Chen Yixin - - 2009
This article examines how Mao's grand strategy for Cold War competition inflicted a catastrophic agricultural failure in China and victimized tens of millions of Chinese peasants. It argues that Khrushchev's 1957 boast about the Soviet Union surpassing the United States in key economic areas inspired Mao to launch an industrialization ...
Butler Colin D - - 2009
This is the second of two articles on challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on five mechanisms, which can be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios, described in the first paper, may become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water ...
Zhu Yong-Guan - - 2009
Soil is a basic natural resource for food production, the vast majority of food we consume is either directly or indirectly derived from soil. Soil quality determines the quantity (calories) and quality (nutritional value and safety) of the foods grown. Protecting the soil's physical, chemical and biological integrity is therefore ...
Wahlqvist Mark L - - 2009
Health is intrinsic to human security (HumS) although it is somewhat anthropocentric and about our own psychosocial and biomedical status more than various external threats. The 1994 United Nations Development Program definition of HumS includes economic, food, environmental, personal, community and political security with freedom from fear and want. Environmental ...
Steiner Achim - - 2009
The last year was marked by food, fuel, and financial crises and the latter has translated itself into a global economic crisis. Climate change is accelerating and, unless checked, it promises to be the greatest market failure of all time with serious and significant implications for employment and economic activity. ...
Ransom Pamela E - - 2009
We pilot-tested a street-level study of availability of physical resources to assess ethnic disparities in community capacity for cancer prevention in forty Brooklyn, NY, census tracts with high proportions of White, African American, or Jamaican immigrant populations. Interns with GIS maps made street-level inventories of food retailers, fast-food restaurants, and ...
Liu Fu-Kuo - - 2009
As combined new factors could further complicate the food supply and health security for regional countries, new perspective on human security should be prioritized on securing health security in the region. In recent years, food production and supply has been affected by unpredictable climate change and unaccountable manmade factors in ...
Moon Hyun-Kyung - - 2009
Food and health security in North East Asia including South Korea, North Korea, China and Japan was compared. Because this region contains countries with many complex problems, it is worthwhile to study the current situation. With about 24% of the world's population, all North East Asian countries supply between 2400 ...
Tuyen Le Danh le - - 2009
With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as ...
Lemaux Peggy G - - 2009
Genetic engineering provides a means to introduce genes into plants via mechanisms that are different in some respects from classical breeding. A number of commercialized, genetically engineered (GE) varieties, most notably canola, cotton, maize and soybean, were created using this technology, and at present the traits introduced are herbicide and/or ...
Wahlqvist Mark L - - 2009
The advent of multiple global crises, especially those of climate change, economics, energy, water, food and health evident in 2008, is of considerable moment to those who are suffering their consequences and for those with responsibility and interest in the systems affected. A coalition of parties in the Asia Pacific ...
Krawinkel Michael B - - 2009
Challenges for food and health security encompass food production and distribution, smallholder income generation, access to health care, harmful child care practices and epidemics (e.g. HIV), and tackling of the coexistence of undernutrition and caloric over-nutrition. The recently re-defined primary health care approach addresses the whole field of nutrition and ...
Yang Ray-Yu - - 2009
Food security requires that all people can access sufficient food for a healthy life. Enough food is produced to feed the global population, but more than 1.02 billion people are malnourished. Malnutrition and chronic food insecurity are widespread in some countries of the Asia-Pacific region; as much as 20 to ...
Weinberger Katinka M - - 2009
The Asia-Pacific region was on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving the prevalence of extreme poverty by 2015, but recent dramatic rises in the price of rice and other staples have pushed millions of people back into hunger and poverty. This indicates that the region's food supply ...
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