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Burney Jennifer A - - 2010
As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion ...
Flavell Richard - - 2010
Knowledge and technologies will always continue to be developed, as they have always, to bring new efficiencies to plant breeding and crop production, which suffer from many constraints and inefficiencies. These constraints need to be overcome throughout the world to help increase the rate of improvements in food production and ...
Bruyeron Olivier - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. OBJECTIVE: To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and ...
Stadler Teodoro - - 2010
The worldwide need to produce an inexpensive and abundant food supply for a growing population is a great challenge that is further complicated by concerns about risks to environmental stability and human health triggered by the use of pesticides. The result is the ongoing development of alternative pest control strategies, ...
Miura Kotaro - - 2010
Identification of alleles that improve crop production and lead to higher-yielding varieties are needed for food security. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus WFP (WEALTHY FARMER'S PANICLE) encodes OsSPL14 (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 14, also known as IPA1). Higher expression of OsSPL14 in the reproductive stage promotes panicle ...
Apel Andrew - - 2010
Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the ...
Burachik Moisés - - 2010
Argentina is the second largest grower of genetically modified (GM) crops. This high level of adoption of this new agricultural technology is the result of a complex combination of circumstances. We can identify four main causes that led to this: political support (from agriculture officials), ability to solve prevalent farmers' ...
Anderson Kym - - 2010
Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to boost food security in developing countries by offering higher incomes for farmers and lower priced and better quality food for consumers. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because the European Union and some other countries have implemented strict regulatory ...
Palm Cheryl A - - 2010
Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops--green manures--and agroforestry--legume improved tree fallows) are compared ...
Kullander Sven - - 2010
Humankind is currently faced with the huge challenge of securing a sustainable energy supply and biofuels constitute one of the major options. However, the commercially traded edible crops are barely sufficient to meet food demand of the present world population. Certain regions, for example EU-27, do not even have a ...
Rockström Johan - - 2010
Humanity has entered a new phase of sustainability challenges, the Anthropocene, in which human development has reached a scale where it affects vital planetary processes. Under the pressure from a quadruple squeeze-from population and development pressures, the anthropogenic climate crisis, the anthropogenic ecosystem crisis, and the risk of deleterious tipping ...
Sosnicki Andrzej A - - 2010
Ongoing meat and food industry consolidation has resulted in the creation of larger and more complex, vertically integrated and/or coordinated food production systems. These systems have also been focused on development of differentiated 'Value Chains' as a departure from the traditional commodity oriented 'Supply Chains'. The main goal of value ...
Nam Ki-Chang - - 2010
Food consumption is a basic activity necessary for survival of the human race and evolved as an integral part of mankind's existence. This not only includes food consumption habits and styles but also food preparation methods, tool development for raw materials, harvesting and preservation as well as preparation of food ...
Englberger L - - 2010
This paper presents a summary of Pohnpei, Federated States Micronesia's involvement in a global health study focused on documenting traditional food systems in different parts of the world and providing evidence that local resources are critical for food security, nutrition and health. The Pohnpei study was based in Mand Community, ...
Englberger L - - 2010
Dietary- and lifestyle-related diseases are problems of epidemic proportion in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Public health resources to help prevent nutrition-related problems are limited. There is also concern about biodiversity, neglect of traditional staple foods, and threatened loss of traditional knowledge. A "Go Local" campaign was initiated to ...
Nancarrow Tanya L - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Inuit from communities across the Arctic are still existing in subsistence living. Hunting, fishing and gathering is an important part of the culture and the harvested 'country food' provides sources of nutrients invaluable to maintaining the health of the populations. However, Inuit are voicing their concerns on how observed ...
Pardue S L - - 2010
During the 2009 annual meeting of the Poultry Science Association, a symposium entitled "Global Views of New Agriculture: Food, Energy, and the Environment" was held that focused on several major issues affecting agriculture. Issues included future funding for basic agricultural research, sustainability, bioenergy, and their effects on global food markets. ...
Bevan Michael W - - 2010
Grass crops are the most important sources of human nutrition, and their improvement is centrally important for meeting the challenges of sustainable agriculture, for feeding the world's population and for developing renewable supplies of fuel and industrial products. We describe the complete sequence of the compact genome of Brachypodium distachyon ...
Moseley William G WG Department of Geography, Macalester College, St Paul, MN 55105, USA. - - 2010
This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market ...
Fahrenkrug S C SC Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA. - - 2010
Indirect modification of animal genomes by interspecific hybridization, cross-breeding, and selection has produced an enormous spectrum of phenotypic diversity over more than 10,000 yr of animal domestication. Using these established technologies, the farming community has successfully increased the yield and efficiency of production in most agricultural species while utilizing land ...
Johansson Kersti - - 2010
A database of global agricultural primary production has been constructed and used to estimate its energy content. The portion of crops available for food and biofuel after postharvest losses was evaluated. The basic conditions for agriculture and plant growth were studied, to ensure sustainable scenarios regarding use of residues. The ...
Ronald Pamela - - 2010
By the year 2050, the number of people on Earth is expected to increase from the current 6.7 to 9.2 billion. What is the best way to produce enough food to feed all these people? If we continue with current farming practices, vast amounts of wilderness will be lost, millions ...
Van Andel Tinde - - 2010
African Rice (Oryza glaberrimaSteud.): Lost Crop of the Enslaved Africans Discovered in Suriname. African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) was introduced to the Americas during the slave trade years and grown by enslaved Africans for decades before mechanical milling devices facilitated the shift towards Asian rice (O. sativa L.). Literature suggests ...
Herrero M - - 2010
Farmers in mixed crop-livestock systems produce about half of the world's food. In small holdings around the world, livestock are reared mostly on grass, browse, and nonfood biomass from maize, millet, rice, and sorghum crops and in their turn supply manure and traction for future crops. Animals act as insurance ...
Tester Mark - - 2010
To feed the several billion people living on this planet, the production of high-quality food must increase with reduced inputs, but this accomplishment will be particularly challenging in the face of global environmental change. Plant breeders need to focus on traits with the greatest potential to increase yield. Hence, new ...
Gebbers Robin - - 2010
Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality ...
Rind E - - 2010
In New Zealand Campylobacter infection rates have increased steadily since 1980, reaching a peak in 2003 (396/100,000 population). Compared to other nations, disease rates are unfavourably high (e.g. Australia 117/100,000 population, UK 85/100,000 population, USA 13/100,000 population). This ecological study investigated spatial variations in Campylobacter infection rates across New Zealand's ...
Richards Paul - - 2010
Those who intervene in crises must take care to ensure that assistance does not undermine the processes through which social cohesion is generated or restored. From a neo-Durkheimian analytical perspective, feeding creates social loyalties as well as saves lives. Humanitarian agencies provide practical assistance to livelihoods, but they need also ...
Belton Ben - - 2010
Tilapia, a tropical freshwater fish native to Africa, is an increasingly important global food commodity. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), a major environmental nongovernmental organization, has established stakeholder dialogues to formulate farm certification standards that promote "responsible" culture practices. As a preface to its "tilapia aquaculture dialogue," the ...
Godfray H Charles J - - 2010
Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the ...
Beddington John - - 2010
There is an intrinsic link between the challenge we face to ensure food security through the twenty-first century and other global issues, most notably climate change, population growth and the need to sustainably manage the world's rapidly growing demand for energy and water. Our progress in reducing global poverty and ...
Yang Andrew - - 2010
When we think about food undoubtedly we are the protagonists, the eaters. However, within the broader biological context our own bodies are also living meals for a myriad of parasites. It is often through the very food we eat that we animals become unsuspecting hosts to a variety of parasites, ...
Fredga Karl - - 2010
Prof. Ulgiati stresses that we should always use an ecosystem view when transforming energy from one form to another. Sustainable growth and development of both environmental and human-dominated systems require optimum use of available resources for maximum power output. We have to adapt to the laws of nature because nature ...
Takahashi Sakiko - - 2010
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a popular food supplement. Earlier, we successfully produced CoQ10 in rice, which normally produces predominately CoQ9. Here we developed efficient production of CoQ10 in rice by introducing the gene for decaprenyl diphosphate synthase into rice sugary and shrunken mutants. These rices produced 1.3 to 1.6 times ...
White Ben - - 2010
This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway ...
Azadi Hossein - - 2010
Since two decades ago, when the first GM crops were introduced, there have increasingly been hot debates on the applications of gene manipulation. Currently, the development of GM crop varieties has raised a wide range of new legal, ethical and economic questions in agriculture. There is a growing body of ...
Augoustinos Martha - - 2010
This paper analyses a corpus of articles on GM crops and food which appeared in six UK newspapers in the first three months of 2004, the year following the GM Nation? debate (2003). Using the methods of critical discourse analysis we focus on how specific and pervasive representations of the ...
Martin Ambroise - - 2010
During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and ...
Solomon Barry D - - 2010
Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, ...
Tan Aaron C - - 2010
Investigation into phytochemicals from foods for disease prevention has increased substantially in the last few decades. However, a clear strategy on the selection of the most promising foods for research has been lacking. An ethnobotanical approach represents an effective method which may improve the outcomes of phytochemical research. Research on ...
Dauvergne Peter - - 2010
The global political economy of biofuels emerging since 2007 appears set to intensify inequalities among the countries and rural peoples of the global South. Looking through a global political economy lens, this paper analyses the consequences of proliferating biofuel alliances among multinational corporations, governments, and domestic producers. Since many major ...
Tan Tianwei - - 2010
The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the ...
Lewis Christopher P - - 2010
Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and ...
Wu Gang - - 2010
The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of numerous crops, and it causes economic damage in China. Use of secondary metabolic compounds in plants is an important method used to control this insect as a part of integrated pest management. In this study the growth, ...
Addai F K - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The Maya of Central America are credited with the first consumption of cocoa and maintaining its ancient Olmec name kakawa translated in English as "God Food", in recognition of its multiple health benefits. The legend of cocoa is receiving renewed attention in recent years, on account of epidemiological and ...
Waterlander Wilma E WE Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2010
Pricing strategies are an important component in the marketing mix and may also be useful in stimulating healthier food choices. However, due to competing interests and feasibility problems, the introduction of pricing strategies is complicated. For successfully introducing food pricing strategies, it is essential to explore incentives that are not ...
S?nchez Carmen - - 2010
Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other ...
Fiedler John L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Food fortification is a promising strategy for combating micronutrient deficiencies, which plague one-third of the world's population. Which foods to fortify, with which micronutrients, and in which countries remain essential questions that to date have not been addressed at the global level. OBJECTIVE: To provide a tool for international ...
Pelletier Nathan - - 2009
We present a global-scale life cycle assessment of a major food commodity, farmed salmon. Specifically, we report the cumulative energy use, biotic resource use, and greenhouse gas, acidifying, and eutrophying emissions associated with producing farmed salmon in Norway, the UK, British Columbia (Canada), and Chile, as well as a production-weighted ...
Marshall Andrew J - - 2009
Physical anthropologists use the term "fallback foods" to denote resources of relatively poor nutritional quality that become particularly important dietary components during periods when preferred foods are scarce. Fallback foods are becoming increasingly invoked as key selective forces that determine masticatory and digestive anatomy, influence grouping and ranging behavior, and ...
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