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Results 201 - 250 of 969
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Wu Gang - - 2010
The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of numerous crops, and it causes economic damage in China. Use of secondary metabolic compounds in plants is an important method used to control this insect as a part of integrated pest management. In this study the growth, ...
Addai F K - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The Maya of Central America are credited with the first consumption of cocoa and maintaining its ancient Olmec name kakawa translated in English as "God Food", in recognition of its multiple health benefits. The legend of cocoa is receiving renewed attention in recent years, on account of epidemiological and ...
Waterlander Wilma E WE Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2010
Pricing strategies are an important component in the marketing mix and may also be useful in stimulating healthier food choices. However, due to competing interests and feasibility problems, the introduction of pricing strategies is complicated. For successfully introducing food pricing strategies, it is essential to explore incentives that are not ...
S?nchez Carmen - - 2010
Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other ...
Fiedler John L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Food fortification is a promising strategy for combating micronutrient deficiencies, which plague one-third of the world's population. Which foods to fortify, with which micronutrients, and in which countries remain essential questions that to date have not been addressed at the global level. OBJECTIVE: To provide a tool for international ...
Pelletier Nathan - - 2009
We present a global-scale life cycle assessment of a major food commodity, farmed salmon. Specifically, we report the cumulative energy use, biotic resource use, and greenhouse gas, acidifying, and eutrophying emissions associated with producing farmed salmon in Norway, the UK, British Columbia (Canada), and Chile, as well as a production-weighted ...
Marshall Andrew J - - 2009
Physical anthropologists use the term "fallback foods" to denote resources of relatively poor nutritional quality that become particularly important dietary components during periods when preferred foods are scarce. Fallback foods are becoming increasingly invoked as key selective forces that determine masticatory and digestive anatomy, influence grouping and ranging behavior, and ...
Constantino Paul J - - 2009
The role of fallback foods in shaping primate ranging, socioecology, and morphology has recently become a topic of particular interest to biological anthropologists. Although the use of fallback resources has been noted in the ecological and primatological literature for a number of decades, few attempts have been made to define ...
Ruel Marie T - - 2010
The vulnerability of the urban poor to the recent food and fuel price crisis has been widely acknowledged. The unfolding global financial crisis, which brings higher unemployment and underemployment, is likely to further intensify this vulnerability. This paper reviews the evidence concerning the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban compared with ...
de Pee Saskia - - 2010
The global economic crisis, commodity price hikes, and climate change have worsened the position of the poorest and most vulnerable people. These crises are compromising the diet and health of up to 80% of the population in most developing countries and threaten the development of almost an entire generation of ...
Brinkman Henk-Jan - - 2010
A global economic and financial crisis is engulfing the developing world, coming on top of high food and fuel prices. This paper assesses the impact of the crises on food consumption, nutrition, and health. Several methods were applied, including risk analysis using the cost of the food basket, assessment surveys, ...
Sprent Janet I - - 2010
Although nodulated legumes have been used by indigenous peoples in Africa for centuries, their full potential has never been realized. With modern technology there is scope for rapid improvement of both plant and microbial germplasm. This review gives examples of some recent developments in the form of case studies; these ...
Darnton-Hill Ian - - 2010
Rising food prices, resulting from the ongoing global economic crisis, fuel price volatility, and climate change, have an adverse impact upon the poor, especially those in food-importing, resource-limited countries. The conventional approach by large organizations has been to advocate for increased staple crop yields of mainly cereals. High food prices ...
Linares Olga F - - 2009
Jola women farmers in the Casamance region of southern Senegal use their "traditional" knowledge and farming skills to shift crop repertoires and techniques so as to embark on market-gardening, thus innovating in response to new needs and perceived opportunities. The argument is relevant to present-day concerns about regional food systems ...
Webb Patrick - - 2010
The combined food, fuel, and financial crises of 2007-2009 had severe and widespread negative impacts around the world. Two key questions challenging governments were: how long would the high prices last and with what effects on food security and nutrition over the longer run? This paper considers the drivers of ...
Bloem Martin W - - 2010
The global food supply system is facing serious new challenges from economic and related crises and climate change, which directly affect the nutritional well-being of the poor by reducing their access to nutritious food. To cope, vulnerable populations prioritize consumption of calorie-rich but nutrient-poor food. Consequently, dietary quality and eventually ...
Dhyani D - - 2010
AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on research findings this study is aimed to generate database on ethnobotanical aspects, sustainable utilization by value addition and awareness generation through outreach programme related to Hippophae salicifolia D. Don. (Elaeagnaceae) in the higher Himalayan zone of Uttarakhand in Central Himalaya, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
Carrasco Vargas Ramón - - 2009
Research into ancient societies frequently faces a major challenge in accessing the lives of those who made up the majority of their populations, since the available evidence so often concerns only the ruling elite. Our excavations at the ancient Maya site of Calakmul, Mexico, have uncovered a "painted pyramid:" a ...
Grob Koni - - 2009
There are good reasons to devote a special issue to food analysis. First of all it is a challenging field, extremely wide and complex. There is a need for many more methods and plenty of room for technical improvements, as will be shown in the articles presented in this issue. ...
Mignouna Hodeba D - - 2009
Dioscorea (true yams) is a large genus that contains species important as food (with edible tubers) or as sources of bioactive substances used in a range of applications. Dioscorea is a major staple food in many parts of the world, especially in West Africa and the Pacific islands, and serves ...
Brown Molly E - - 2009
Food price fluctuations, which will be exacerbated by climate change, make West African food security even more tenuous.
Camire Mary Ellen - - 2009
The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have ...
Gerber P J - - 2010
The growth of the livestock sector is being achieved at substantial environmental costs. Today, livestock are a major stressor of the global environmental, occupying a quarter of emerged land (including a third of arable land), contributing close to a fifth of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, using eight percent of ...
Hayden Brian - - 2009
Feasting has been proposed as the major context and impetus behind the intensification of production leading to the domestication of plants and animals. This article examines the way feasting contributes to fitness in traditional societies through the reduction of risks involving subsistence, reproduction, and violent confrontations. As other authors have ...
Kuijt Ian - - 2009
In studying the origins of agriculture it is critical that we envision food production as a long-term human process that centers on the control and management of cycles of plant reproduction, including the harvesting, storage, and planting of seed stock. Drawing upon a growing body of literature illustrating multiple trajectories ...
Bellwood Peter - - 2009
This paper offers a perspective on the spread of early food-producing populations, with their crops, animals, other cultural attributes, languages, and genes. A multidisciplinary approach is taken in which perspectives from different disciplines (especially archaeology and comparative linguistics in this instance) are used for what L. Fogelin recently called "inference ...
Pearsall Deborah M - - 2009
Because understanding the transition to food production is fundamentally an exercise in dietary reconstruction, research designs that incorporate multiple lines of evidence provide the most rigorous tests. An approach is advocated that evaluates multiple lines of evidence critically, verifying one indicator by one or more different ones. Theoretical and methodological ...
Seiber James N - - 2009
The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD) and the American Chemical Society had the foresight to launch the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 1953. JAFC, still closely connected with the Division, has grown to be the premier international journal in the field, providing an outlet for publishing ...
da Silva Rui - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyse the worldwide trends of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), in 1961-1965 and 2000-2003. DESIGN: Data were obtained from the FAO food balance sheets in two periods: 1961-1965 and 2000-2003. In order to have a sample from across the world, forty-one countries were ...
Lim Jason LitJeh - - 2009
The AMPATH program is a leading initiative in rural Kenya providing healthcare services to combat HIV. Malnutrition and food insecurity are common among AMPATH patients and the Nutritional Information System (NIS) was designed, with cross-functional collaboration between engineering and medical communities, as a comprehensive electronic system to record and assist ...
G?mez-Galera Sonia - - 2010
Staple food crops, in particular cereal grains, are poor sources of key mineral nutrients. As a result, the world's poorest people, generally those subsisting on a monotonous cereal diet, are also those most vulnerable to mineral deficiency diseases. Various strategies have been proposed to deal with micronutrient deficiencies including the ...
Hockings Kimberley J - - 2009
Increased human population growth and more conversions of natural habitat to agricultural land have resulted in greater proximity between humans and nonhuman primate species. Consequent increases in resource competition including crop-raiding are a by-product of both natural resources becoming less available and the nutritional benefits of cultivated foods becoming more ...
Fox Glen - - 2009
Maize is a highly important crop to many countries around the world, through the sale of the maize crop to domestic processors and subsequent production of maize products and also provides a staple food to subsistance farms in undeveloped countries. In many countries, there have been long-term research efforts to ...
Morad Mohammed - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are the fifth leading cause of death in the general population, but even more of a concern in the population of persons with intellectual disability. The present study was conducted to investigate trends in choking resulting in death of persons with intellectual disability in residential care centers ...
Kuijt Ian - - 2009
Food storage is a vital component in the economic and social package that comprises the Neolithic, contributing to plant domestication, increasingly sedentary lifestyles, and new social organizations. Recent excavations at Dhra' near the Dead Sea in Jordan provide strong evidence for sophisticated, purpose-built granaries in a predomestication context approximately 11,300-11,175 ...
Lee Charlotte T - - 2009
The population dynamics of preindustrial societies depend intimately on their surroundings, and food is a primary means through which environment influences population size and individual well-being. Food production requires labor; thus, dependence of survival and fertility on food involves dependence of a population's future on its current state. We use ...
Peller Cassandra R - - 2009
Mutation of the gene drop-dead (drd) causes adult Drosophila to die within 2 weeks of eclosion and is associated with reduced rates of defecation and increased volumes of crop contents. In the current study, we demonstrate that flies carrying the strong allele drd(lwf) display a reduction in the transfer of ...
Shrimpton Roger - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Although much is known about risk factors for low birthweight, an important cause of neonatal death, little is known about how to reduce or prevent low birthweight. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify a low rate in the incidence of low birthweight reported in the Bhutanese refugee camps in ...
Mikkola Minna - - 2009
Catering for sustainability is often presented as a legitimate perspective for caterers to promote more equitable economic development locally and across distances through food procurement, integrated with environmental protection and concern for the welfare of customers and staff. Caterers are thus seen as agents responsible for sustainable food systems within ...
Aizen Marcelo A - - 2009
The prospect that a global pollination crisis currently threatens agricultural productivity has drawn intense recent interest among scientists, politicians, and the general public. To date, evidence for a global crisis has been drawn from regional or local declines in pollinators themselves or insufficient pollination for particular crops. In contrast, our ...
Campbell J E - - 2009
The quantity of land available to grow biofuel crops without affecting food prices or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion is limited. Therefore, bioenergy should maximize land-use efficiency when addressing transportation and climate change goals. Biomass could power either internal combustion or electric vehicles, but the relative land-use efficiency ...
Beck Jeffrey L - - 2010
Wildlife conservationists design monitoring programs to assess population dynamics, project future population states, and evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations. Because agency mandates and conservation laws call for monitoring data to elicit management responses, it is imperative to design programs that match the administrative scale for which management ...
Pain, Deborah J.
Gyps vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent collapsed in the 1990s and continue to decline. Repeated population surveys showed that the rate of decline was so rapid that elevated mortality of adult birds must be a key demographic mechanism. Post mortem examination showed that the majority of dead vultures had ...
Crepin Sabrina - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A link between malnutrition and epilepsy has been suspected for many years. METHODS: Different aspects of the question were studied with a review of previous published data. RESULTS: Several studies performed on animal models or humans highlight the possible adverse effects of malnutrition in the onset of ...
Starkhouse, Benjamin A.
Coral reef-based fisheries, which have long provided food, income and livelihoods to millions of coastal inhabitants in tropical developing countries around the world, are regularly overlooked and underappreciated in regard to their economic and social values. Despite their importance, there is limited formal information that can be used to help ...
Pandve Harshal T - - 2009
Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture - further endangering food security - to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity ...
Lytle Leslie A - - 2009
The past decades have seen an increased interest in understanding how the environment affects population health. In particular, public health practitioners and researchers alike are eager to know how the food environments of neighborhoods, schools, and worksites affect food choices and, ultimately, population risk for obesity and other diet-related chronic ...
Stoeglehner Gernot - - 2009
By using biofuels bioproductive land is devoted to supply energy. As the bioproductive land area on our planet is confined and actually decreasing, biofuels compete against other demands like the production of food, industrial resources, nature conservation etc. This not only results in higher prices for agricultural and forestry products, ...
Knight Andrew J - - 2009
Compared to their European counterparts, the American public has been characterized as relatively unknowledgeable and indifferent about genetically modified foods. To evaluate these claims, six focus groups were held in three Arkansas cities to: (1) determine the extent of knowledge the public possesses about genetically modified foods; (2) detail perceived ...
Hulman B - - 2009
As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of ...
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