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Poveda Katja - - 2010
There is increasing global concern over the risk of food shortage and instability, and a concomitant demand for an increase in food production. However, the continuing expansion of agricultural areas threatens natural habitats as well as human and ecosystem health. One option for increasing food production is to maximize yields ...
Mascia Michael B - - 2010
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a popular conservation strategy, but their impacts on human welfare are poorly understood. To inform future research and policy decisions, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess MPA impacts on five indicators of human welfare: food security, resource rights, employment, community organization, and income. Following ...
Kolbe Athena R - - 2010
On 12 January 2010 an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter Scale struck Haiti, causing unprecedented death, injury and destruction for an event of this magnitude. Our aim was to generate a rapid assessment of the primary consequences for the population of the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the national capital. ...
Gilbert C L - - 2010
The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, ...
Godfray H Charles J - - 2010
Although food prices in major world markets are at or near a historical low, there is increasing concern about food security-the ability of the world to provide healthy and environmentally sustainable diets for all its peoples. This article is an introduction to a collection of reviews whose authors were asked ...
Kearney John - - 2010
A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the ...
Garcia Serge M - - 2010
World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic ...
Bharucha Zareen - - 2010
Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter-gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods ...
Anderson Kym - - 2010
Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and-in the case of farm products-by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted ...
Satterthwaite David - - 2010
This paper discusses the influences on food and farming of an increasingly urbanized world and a declining ratio of food producers to food consumers. Urbanization has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of workers in industrial and ...
Reilly Michael - - 2010
Complex socio-ecological systems like the food system are unpredictable, especially to long-term horizons such as 2050. In order to manage this uncertainty, scenario analysis has been used in conjunction with food system models to explore plausible future outcomes. Food system scenarios use a diversity of scenario types and modelling approaches ...
Hawkesworth Sophie - - 2010
Agricultural production, food systems and population health are intimately linked. While there is a strong evidence base to inform our knowledge of what constitutes a healthy human diet, we know little about actual food production or consumption in many populations and how developments in the food and agricultural system will ...
Han Yuguo - - 2011
A rapid increase in anthropogenic nitrogen inputs has a strong impact on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We have estimated net anthropogenic nitrogen accumulation (NANA) as an index of nitrogen (N) pollution potential in the Beijing metropolitan region, China. Our research provides a basis for understanding the potential impact of anthropogenic ...
Parry Martin A J - - 2010
Food production and security will be a major issue for supplying an increasing world population. The problem will almost certainly be exacerbated by climate change. There is a projected need to double food production by 2050. In recent times, the trend has been for incremental modest yield increases for most ...
Gerbens-Leenes P W - - 2010
This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional ...
Naqvi Shaista S Departament de Producció Vegetal i Ciència Forestal, Universitat de Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure, 191, Lleida, 25198, - - 2011
Maize (also known as corn) is a domesticated cereal grain that has been grown as food and animal feed for tens of thousands of years. It is currently the most widely grown crop in the world, and is used not only for food/feed but also to produce ethanol, industrial starches ...
Harrigan George G - - 2010
The number of evaluations of the nutrient composition of food and feed crops has increased over the past 15years due to the introduction of new crops using the tools of modern biotechnology. The composition of these crops has been extensively compared with conventional (non-transgenic) controls as an integral part of ...
Hodgson Jenny A - - 2010
Organic farming aims to be wildlife-friendly, but it may not benefit wildlife overall if much greater areas are needed to produce a given quantity of food. We measured the density and species richness of butterflies on organic farms, conventional farms and grassland nature reserves in 16 landscapes. Organic farms supported ...
Mason John B - - 2010
The relation between anthropometric measures and mortality risk in different populations can provide a basis for deciding how malnutrition prevalences should be interpreted. To assess criteria for deciding on needs for emergency interventions in the Horn of Africa based on associations between child wasting and mortality from 2000 to 2005. ...
Gibbs H K - - 2010
Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is ...
Donaldson S G - - 2010
The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: ...
von Braun Joachim - - 2010
Ending food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition is a pressing global ethical priority. Despite differences in food production systems, cultural values and economic conditions, hunger is not acceptable under any ethical principles. Yet, progress in combating hunger and malnutrition in developing countries has been discouraging, even as overall global prosperity has ...
Sparovek Gerd - - 2010
Brazilian agriculture covers about one-third of the land area and is expected to expand further. We assessed the compliance of present Brazilian agriculture with environmental legislation and identified challenges for agricultural development connected to this legislation. We found (i) minor illegal land use in protected areas under public administration, (ii) ...
Somerville Chris - - 2010
In 2008, the world produced approximately 87 gigaliters of liquid biofuels, which is roughly equal to the volume of liquid fuel consumed by Germany that year. Essentially, all of this biofuel was produced from crops developed for food production, raising concerns about the net energy and greenhouse gas effects and ...
Swaminathan M S - - 2010
In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain ...
Cornutiu Gavril - - 2011
The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has grown progressively over the past 100 years. The present study monitored the evolution of AD incidence in relation to several factors known as favoring it, in a county in Romania, between 1980 and 2006. The annual incidence of AD in our clinic over ...
Wesche Sonia D - - 2010
This study examined critical impacts of climate change on Inuit diet and nutritional health in four Inuit communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Western Arctic, Canada. The first objective was to combine data from community observation studies and dietary interview studies to determine potential climate change impacts on nutritional quality. ...
Paarlberg Robert - - 2010
There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, ...
Mussatto Solange I - - 2010
Ethanol use as a fuel additive or directly as a fuel source has grown in popularity due to governmental regulations and in some cases economic incentives based on environmental concerns as well as a desire to reduce oil dependency. As a consequence, several countries are interested in developing their internal ...
Singh Anoop - - 2011
This article reviews the utilization of first and second-generation biofuels as the suitable alternatives to depleting fossil fuels. Then the concern has been presented over a debate on most serious problem arising from the production of these biofuels; which is the increase of food market prices because of the increased ...
Harrison Gail G - - 2010
The Millennium Development Goals stated an ambition to cut severe poverty and hunger in half by the year 2015. The recent rise in staple food prices and global economic crisis make it clear that these goals will not be met and that recent gains in mitigating malnutrition are being erased. ...
Mussatto Solange I - - 2010
The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.07.001. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.
Galal Osman - - 2010
The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease ...
Gittelsohn Joel - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. METHODS: Stake-holders contributed to intervention development through formative research (in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)), community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. RESULTS: Key cultural themes included the perceived healthiness of country ...
Kutintara Benjamas - - 2010
Most Thai people like to purchase food at local markets; however, the accessibility to local markets by people with disabilities may be limited. The objective of this work was to develop a prototype of an accessible market for people with disabilities in Thailand, by performing a case study on a ...
Costa Jorge Alberto Vieira - - 2011
Environmental changes that have occurred due to the use of fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative sources that have a lower environmental impact. First-generation biofuels were derived from crops such as sugar cane, corn and soybean, which contribute to water scarcity and deforestation. Second-generation biofuels originated from lignocellulose ...
Wendt Toni - - 2011
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) is the preferred technique for gene transfer into crops. A major disadvantage of the technology remains the complexity of the patent landscape that surrounds ATMT which restricts its use for commercial applications. An alternative system has been described (Broothaerts et al. in Nature 433:629-633, 2005) detailing ...
Martin Marshall A - - 2010
Rising petroleum prices during 2005-2008, and passage of the 2007 U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act with a renewable fuel standard of 36 billion gallons of biofuels by 2022, encouraged massive investments in U.S. ethanol plants. Consequently, corn demand increased dramatically and prices tripled. This created a strong positive correlation ...
Kershen Drew L - - 2010
Agricultural trade between nations is a significant proportion of total international trade. Agricultural trade in transgenic crops faces extra complications due to the existence of domestic and international regimes that focus specifically on agricultural biotechnology. These specialized regimes create legal and commercial challenges for trade in transgenic crops that have ...
Burney Jennifer A - - 2010
As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion ...
Flavell Richard - - 2010
Knowledge and technologies will always continue to be developed, as they have always, to bring new efficiencies to plant breeding and crop production, which suffer from many constraints and inefficiencies. These constraints need to be overcome throughout the world to help increase the rate of improvements in food production and ...
Bruyeron Olivier - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. OBJECTIVE: To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and ...
Stadler Teodoro - - 2010
The worldwide need to produce an inexpensive and abundant food supply for a growing population is a great challenge that is further complicated by concerns about risks to environmental stability and human health triggered by the use of pesticides. The result is the ongoing development of alternative pest control strategies, ...
Miura Kotaro - - 2010
Identification of alleles that improve crop production and lead to higher-yielding varieties are needed for food security. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus WFP (WEALTHY FARMER'S PANICLE) encodes OsSPL14 (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 14, also known as IPA1). Higher expression of OsSPL14 in the reproductive stage promotes panicle ...
Apel Andrew - - 2010
Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the ...
Burachik Moisés - - 2010
Argentina is the second largest grower of genetically modified (GM) crops. This high level of adoption of this new agricultural technology is the result of a complex combination of circumstances. We can identify four main causes that led to this: political support (from agriculture officials), ability to solve prevalent farmers' ...
Anderson Kym - - 2010
Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to boost food security in developing countries by offering higher incomes for farmers and lower priced and better quality food for consumers. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because the European Union and some other countries have implemented strict regulatory ...
Palm Cheryl A - - 2010
Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops--green manures--and agroforestry--legume improved tree fallows) are compared ...
Kullander Sven - - 2010
Humankind is currently faced with the huge challenge of securing a sustainable energy supply and biofuels constitute one of the major options. However, the commercially traded edible crops are barely sufficient to meet food demand of the present world population. Certain regions, for example EU-27, do not even have a ...
Rockström Johan - - 2010
Humanity has entered a new phase of sustainability challenges, the Anthropocene, in which human development has reached a scale where it affects vital planetary processes. Under the pressure from a quadruple squeeze-from population and development pressures, the anthropogenic climate crisis, the anthropogenic ecosystem crisis, and the risk of deleterious tipping ...
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