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Kang Si Hyun - - 2011
This study evaluated the feasibility of mixed consistency foods test in patients with dysphagia which developed after stroke or other brain injuries. The findings of a videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) were compared using single versus mixed consistency foods. Forty-nine patients with stroke or other brain injuries who had no significant ...
Vayalambrone Deepak - - 2011
A 43-year-old male who worked in the food processing industry presented with a painful, red eye following an accidental exposure to turkey bile. A large epithelial defect was noted which healed slowly over a week. The possible mechanism of injury is discussed.
Watson John T - - 2011
In July 2009, WHO and partners were notified of a large outbreak of unknown illness, including deaths, among African Union (AU) soldiers in Mogadishu. Illnesses were characterized by peripheral edema, dyspnea, palpitations, and fever. Our objectives were to determine the cause of the outbreak, and to design and recommend control ...
Ďuriš Zdeněk - - 2011
Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, ...
Romano Andrea - - 2011
Parent-offspring conflicts lead the offspring to evolve reliable signals of individual quality, including parasite burden, which may allow parents to adaptively modulate investment in the progeny. Sex-related variation in offspring reproductive value, however, may entail differential investment in sons and daughters. Here, we experimentally manipulated offspring condition in the barn ...
Dudo Anthony - - 2011
For novel issues like food nanotechnology, media can play an important role in shaping the awareness and mental associations that underlie public opinion. Seeking to complement recent research exploring public opinion formation about food nanotechnology, this study tracks the evolution of U.S. newspaper coverage of food nanotechnology, identifying the descriptive ...
DeFries R - - 2010
Increasing food production and mitigating climate change are two primary but seemingly contradictory objectives for tropical landscapes. This special feature examines synergies and trade-offs among these objectives. Four themes emerge from the papers: the important roles of both forest and agriculture sectors for climate mitigation in tropical countries; the minor ...
Lock Karen - - 2010
Transition to diets that are high in saturated fat and sugar has caused a global public health concern, as the pattern of food consumption is a major modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. Although agri-food systems are intimately associated with this transition, agriculture and health sectors are largely disconnected ...
Koroušić Seljak B - - 2010
Food composition data (FCD) can provide important information in relation to diet and health; therefore, data on food composition have broad applications in health care. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of added-value eHealth systems that use modern information and communication technologies to support health and ...
Gurinović M - - 2010
Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence ...
Costa H S - - 2010
There are many different cultures within Europe, each with its own distinct dietary habits. Traditional foods are the key elements that differentiate the dietary patterns of each country. Unfortunately, in most countries, there is little information on the nutritional composition of such foods. Therefore, there is a need to study ...
Ireland J D - - 2010
The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence (http://www.eurofir.eu) aims to provide validated food composition data (FCD) from European food composition databanks. However, the network covers 27 countries with different languages and food cultures, making comparisons difficult. Moreover, in 2005, only 25% of the databases included international food classification ...
Becker W - - 2010
A major goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence is to provide tools to overcome existing differences among member states and parties with respect to documentation and interchange of food composition data. Establishment of a common CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation/European Committee for Standardization) Standard on ...
Oliveira L M - - 2010
The harmonisation of food composition databases (FCDB) has been a recognised need among users, producers and stakeholders of food composition data (FCD). To reach harmonisation of FCDBs among the national compiler partners, the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence set up a series of guidelines and quality requirements, ...
Foulkes M John - - 2011
A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential ...
Dale Bruce E - - 2010
There is an intense ongoing debate regarding the potential scale of biofuel production without creating adverse effects on food supply. We explore the possibility of three land-efficient technologies for producing food (actually animal feed), including leaf protein concentrates, pretreated forages, and double crops to increase the total amount of plant ...
Thomson Allison M - - 2010
Land-use change to meet 21st-century demands for food, fuel, and fiber will depend on many interactive factors, including global policies limiting anthropogenic climate change and realized improvements in agricultural productivity. Climate-change mitigation policies will alter the decision-making environment for land management, and changes in agricultural productivity will influence cultivated land ...
Yigezu Yigezu A - - 2010
Insects can cause substantial damage to stored grain. In addition, consumers and therefore food processors are increasingly interested in chemical-free products. Integrated pest management (IPM) may increase farmers' profits while reducing their use of pesticides. This study uses a stochastic dynamic programming framework to model the economics of optimal insect ...
Poveda Katja - - 2010
There is increasing global concern over the risk of food shortage and instability, and a concomitant demand for an increase in food production. However, the continuing expansion of agricultural areas threatens natural habitats as well as human and ecosystem health. One option for increasing food production is to maximize yields ...
Mascia Michael B - - 2010
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a popular conservation strategy, but their impacts on human welfare are poorly understood. To inform future research and policy decisions, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess MPA impacts on five indicators of human welfare: food security, resource rights, employment, community organization, and income. Following ...
Kolbe Athena R - - 2010
On 12 January 2010 an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter Scale struck Haiti, causing unprecedented death, injury and destruction for an event of this magnitude. Our aim was to generate a rapid assessment of the primary consequences for the population of the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the national capital. ...
Gilbert C L - - 2010
The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, ...
Godfray H Charles J - - 2010
Although food prices in major world markets are at or near a historical low, there is increasing concern about food security-the ability of the world to provide healthy and environmentally sustainable diets for all its peoples. This article is an introduction to a collection of reviews whose authors were asked ...
Kearney John - - 2010
A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the ...
Garcia Serge M - - 2010
World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic ...
Bharucha Zareen - - 2010
Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter-gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods ...
Anderson Kym - - 2010
Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and-in the case of farm products-by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted ...
Satterthwaite David - - 2010
This paper discusses the influences on food and farming of an increasingly urbanized world and a declining ratio of food producers to food consumers. Urbanization has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of workers in industrial and ...
Reilly Michael - - 2010
Complex socio-ecological systems like the food system are unpredictable, especially to long-term horizons such as 2050. In order to manage this uncertainty, scenario analysis has been used in conjunction with food system models to explore plausible future outcomes. Food system scenarios use a diversity of scenario types and modelling approaches ...
Hawkesworth Sophie - - 2010
Agricultural production, food systems and population health are intimately linked. While there is a strong evidence base to inform our knowledge of what constitutes a healthy human diet, we know little about actual food production or consumption in many populations and how developments in the food and agricultural system will ...
Han Yuguo - - 2011
A rapid increase in anthropogenic nitrogen inputs has a strong impact on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We have estimated net anthropogenic nitrogen accumulation (NANA) as an index of nitrogen (N) pollution potential in the Beijing metropolitan region, China. Our research provides a basis for understanding the potential impact of anthropogenic ...
Parry Martin A J - - 2010
Food production and security will be a major issue for supplying an increasing world population. The problem will almost certainly be exacerbated by climate change. There is a projected need to double food production by 2050. In recent times, the trend has been for incremental modest yield increases for most ...
Gerbens-Leenes P W - - 2010
This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional ...
Naqvi Shaista - - 2011
Maize (also known as corn) is a domesticated cereal grain that has been grown as food and animal feed for tens of thousands of years. It is currently the most widely grown crop in the world, and is used not only for food/feed but also to produce ethanol, industrial starches ...
Harrigan George G - - 2010
The number of evaluations of the nutrient composition of food and feed crops has increased over the past 15years due to the introduction of new crops using the tools of modern biotechnology. The composition of these crops has been extensively compared with conventional (non-transgenic) controls as an integral part of ...
Hodgson Jenny A - - 2010
Organic farming aims to be wildlife-friendly, but it may not benefit wildlife overall if much greater areas are needed to produce a given quantity of food. We measured the density and species richness of butterflies on organic farms, conventional farms and grassland nature reserves in 16 landscapes. Organic farms supported ...
Mason John B - - 2010
The relation between anthropometric measures and mortality risk in different populations can provide a basis for deciding how malnutrition prevalences should be interpreted. To assess criteria for deciding on needs for emergency interventions in the Horn of Africa based on associations between child wasting and mortality from 2000 to 2005. ...
Gibbs H K - - 2010
Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is ...
Donaldson S G - - 2010
The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: ...
von Braun Joachim - - 2010
Ending food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition is a pressing global ethical priority. Despite differences in food production systems, cultural values and economic conditions, hunger is not acceptable under any ethical principles. Yet, progress in combating hunger and malnutrition in developing countries has been discouraging, even as overall global prosperity has ...
Sparovek Gerd - - 2010
Brazilian agriculture covers about one-third of the land area and is expected to expand further. We assessed the compliance of present Brazilian agriculture with environmental legislation and identified challenges for agricultural development connected to this legislation. We found (i) minor illegal land use in protected areas under public administration, (ii) ...
Somerville Chris - - 2010
In 2008, the world produced approximately 87 gigaliters of liquid biofuels, which is roughly equal to the volume of liquid fuel consumed by Germany that year. Essentially, all of this biofuel was produced from crops developed for food production, raising concerns about the net energy and greenhouse gas effects and ...
Swaminathan M S - - 2010
In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain ...
Cornutiu Gavril - - 2011
The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has grown progressively over the past 100 years. The present study monitored the evolution of AD incidence in relation to several factors known as favoring it, in a county in Romania, between 1980 and 2006. The annual incidence of AD in our clinic over ...
Wesche Sonia D - - 2010
This study examined critical impacts of climate change on Inuit diet and nutritional health in four Inuit communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Western Arctic, Canada. The first objective was to combine data from community observation studies and dietary interview studies to determine potential climate change impacts on nutritional quality. ...
Paarlberg Robert - - 2010
There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, ...
Mussatto Solange I - - 2010
Ethanol use as a fuel additive or directly as a fuel source has grown in popularity due to governmental regulations and in some cases economic incentives based on environmental concerns as well as a desire to reduce oil dependency. As a consequence, several countries are interested in developing their internal ...
Singh Anoop - - 2011
This article reviews the utilization of first and second-generation biofuels as the suitable alternatives to depleting fossil fuels. Then the concern has been presented over a debate on most serious problem arising from the production of these biofuels; which is the increase of food market prices because of the increased ...
Harrison Gail G - - 2010
The Millennium Development Goals stated an ambition to cut severe poverty and hunger in half by the year 2015. The recent rise in staple food prices and global economic crisis make it clear that these goals will not be met and that recent gains in mitigating malnutrition are being erased. ...
Mussatto Solange I - - 2010
The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.07.001. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.
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