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Results 101 - 150 of 992
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Pufall Erica L - - 2012
Abstract Human anisakidosis is a recognized Arctic zoonosis that is directly related to the consumption of traditional Inuit foods, particularly raw fish. The epidemiology of infections with the zoonotic anisakid nematodes Anisakis simplex and Pseudoterranova decipiens was investigated from August 2007 to July 2009 in Inuit-harvested fish and marine mammals ...
Sultana Rebeca - - 2012
Backyard poultry raising is common in rural communities and a valued resource that provides food and income for subsistence farmers. Close contact with infected backyard poultry has been associated with H5N1 human cases in different countries. The emergence of this virus within Bangladesh means that backyard poultry raisers are at ...
Swaddiwudhipong Witaya - - 2012
Hainanese chicken rice (cooked rice mixed with chicken fat and served with sliced chicken and cucumber) is a well-known Chinese dish in Southeast Asian countries. We report two consecutive outbreaks of cholera associated with consumption of chicken rice among attendants of two meetings in northwestern Thailand in April 2010. Active ...
Evêncio-Luz L - - 2012
Microbiological analyses of chicken eggs in Recife and Salvador have shown a high occurrence of Salmonella in the egg shells and yolks. Likewise, the occurrence of Salmonella plus coagulase-positive staphylococci in Coalho cheese reached alarming levels. The data revealed a significant risk of infections and intoxications from consuming these foods ...
Gunaratnam Praveena - - 2012
In May 2011, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred among guests attending two functions (Function A and B) at a local function centre in Sydney, Australia. The Sydney South West Public Health Unit and the New South Wales (NSW) Food Authority sought to determine the cause of the outbreak and ...
Amponsah Seth K - - 2012
Abstract Several flavonoids isolated from certain plants have demonstrated antiplasmodial activity, after their initial indigenous use in malaria treatment. Cocoa has been found to be a rich food source of flavonoids in comparison with many common foods and beverages. The aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro ...
Bhutta Zulfiqar A - - 2012
In the year 2011, 6.9 million children under the age of 5 years died worldwide, one third of them related to increased susceptibility to illnesses due to undernutrition. An estimated 178 million children under 5 years are stunted, 55 million are wasted, and 19 million of these are severely affected ...
Tirivayi Nyasha - - 2012
BACKGROUND: There has been limited research to date on the effects of food assistance provided to HIV-infected adults in resource-constrained settings with a high prevalence of malnutrition and chronic food insecurity. We compare antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, weight gain, and CD4+ lymphocyte count change among HIV-infected adults enrolled in a ...
Bernardino V R - - 2012
The authors report the case of a 50-year-old alcoholic man with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, who presented to the emergency department with fever and exuberant ecchymoses and petechiae on both legs. After a careful examination and laboratory assessment, the not-so-obvious hypothesis of scurvy was disclosed. Simply with vitamin C ...
Sianto Luciana - - 2012
Analyses of coprolites have contributed to the knowledge of diet as well as infectious diseases in ancient populations. Results of paleoparasitological studies showed that prehistoric groups were exposed to spurious and zoonotic parasites, especially food-related. Here we report the findings of a paleoparasitological study carried out in remote regions of ...
Rorato Rodrigo - - 2011
It is well known that endocannabinoids play an important role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors are found in the hypothalamus and brainstem, which are central areas involved in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. Activation of these areas is related ...
Elmore Stacey A - - 2011
Abstract Despite extensive worldwide surveillance in populations of both people and wildlife, relatively little is known about Toxoplasma gondii ecology in the circumpolar north. Many northern animals and people demonstrate exposure to T. gondii, but the apparent low densities of domestic or wild felids suggest that additional transmission mechanisms are ...
Zaglool D A - - 2011
The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among the food handlers. Two hundred food-handlers were subjected to a cross-sectional study working in the kitchen of a tertiary care hospital, i.e., Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 2 to 27, 2009. ...
Stjernman M - - 2011
The expression of infectious disease is increasingly recognized to be impacted by maternal effects, where the environmental conditions experienced by mothers alter resistance to infection in offspring, independent of heritability. Here, we studied how maternal effects (high or low food availability to mothers) mediated the resistance of the crustacean Daphnia ...
Yoshida Nobuko - - 2011
Food-borne parasitic diseases, many known to be more prevalent in poor countries with deficient sanitary conditions, are becoming common worldwide. Among the emerging protozoan parasites, the most prominent is Trypanosoma cruzi, rarely reported in the past to be transmitted by the oral route but currently responsible for frequent outbreaks of ...
Hassan Azza - - 2011
Transmission of parasites may occur indirectly via inanimate objects in the surrounding environment. One of the objects most handled and exchanged by people are currency coins and banknotes, which could be one of the most potential vehicles to transmit parasites, even between countries. However, study of the potential contamination of ...
Ciardi Christian - - 2011
Obesity leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a state of low-grade inflammation. Recently, several studies have shown that the exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could initiate and maintain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in obese people. As the daily intake of food additives has increased substantially, the ...
Conlan James V - - 2011
Parasitic zoonoses are common and widely distributed in the Southeast Asian region. However, the interactions between parasites, hosts and vectors are influenced by environmental, socio-cultural and livestock production changes that impact on the distribution, prevalence and severity of disease. In this review we provide an update on new knowledge in ...
Sadd Ben M - - 2011
Specific host-parasite interactions, where the outcome of exposure to a parasite depends upon the genotypic identity of both parties, have implications for understanding host-parasite coevolution and patterns of genetic diversity. Thus, grasping the extent to which these interactions are mediated by environmental changes in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous world ...
Yuan Linhong - - 2011
It is reported that consumption of antioxidant-rich foods significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in humans. Also, it is proved that the antioxidants from plant foods improve the body's antioxidant defence by acting additively and synergistically. As a result, rational combination of antioxidant-rich foods is recommended to population in ...
Pires L Miguel Dionisio - - 2011
Metastudies have found no consistent effects of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin on Daphnia, and there are discrepancies between field observations and experiments. Confounding factors include absence or presence of alternative high quality food or the presence of bioactive compounds, other than microcystins in cyanobacteria. Of specific interest are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) ...
Kang Si Hyun - - 2011
This study evaluated the feasibility of mixed consistency foods test in patients with dysphagia which developed after stroke or other brain injuries. The findings of a videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) were compared using single versus mixed consistency foods. Forty-nine patients with stroke or other brain injuries who had no significant ...
Vayalambrone Deepak - - 2011
A 43-year-old male who worked in the food processing industry presented with a painful, red eye following an accidental exposure to turkey bile. A large epithelial defect was noted which healed slowly over a week. The possible mechanism of injury is discussed.
Watson John T - - 2011
In July 2009, WHO and partners were notified of a large outbreak of unknown illness, including deaths, among African Union (AU) soldiers in Mogadishu. Illnesses were characterized by peripheral edema, dyspnea, palpitations, and fever. Our objectives were to determine the cause of the outbreak, and to design and recommend control ...
Ďuriš Zdeněk - - 2011
Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, ...
Romano Andrea - - 2011
Parent-offspring conflicts lead the offspring to evolve reliable signals of individual quality, including parasite burden, which may allow parents to adaptively modulate investment in the progeny. Sex-related variation in offspring reproductive value, however, may entail differential investment in sons and daughters. Here, we experimentally manipulated offspring condition in the barn ...
de Pee Saskia S World Food Programme, Rome, Italy. - - 2010
HIV infection and malnutrition negatively reinforce each other. For program guidance, to review evidence on the relationship of HIV infection and malnutrition in adults in resource-limited settings. Adequate nutritional status supports immunity and physical performance. Weight loss, caused by low dietary intake (loss of appetite, mouth ulcers, food insecurity), malabsorption, ...
Dudo Anthony - - 2011
For novel issues like food nanotechnology, media can play an important role in shaping the awareness and mental associations that underlie public opinion. Seeking to complement recent research exploring public opinion formation about food nanotechnology, this study tracks the evolution of U.S. newspaper coverage of food nanotechnology, identifying the descriptive ...
DeFries R - - 2010
Increasing food production and mitigating climate change are two primary but seemingly contradictory objectives for tropical landscapes. This special feature examines synergies and trade-offs among these objectives. Four themes emerge from the papers: the important roles of both forest and agriculture sectors for climate mitigation in tropical countries; the minor ...
Lock Karen - - 2010
Transition to diets that are high in saturated fat and sugar has caused a global public health concern, as the pattern of food consumption is a major modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. Although agri-food systems are intimately associated with this transition, agriculture and health sectors are largely disconnected ...
Koroušić Seljak B - - 2010
Food composition data (FCD) can provide important information in relation to diet and health; therefore, data on food composition have broad applications in health care. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of added-value eHealth systems that use modern information and communication technologies to support health and ...
Gurinović M - - 2010
Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence ...
Costa H S - - 2010
There are many different cultures within Europe, each with its own distinct dietary habits. Traditional foods are the key elements that differentiate the dietary patterns of each country. Unfortunately, in most countries, there is little information on the nutritional composition of such foods. Therefore, there is a need to study ...
Ireland J D - - 2010
The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence (http://www.eurofir.eu) aims to provide validated food composition data (FCD) from European food composition databanks. However, the network covers 27 countries with different languages and food cultures, making comparisons difficult. Moreover, in 2005, only 25% of the databases included international food classification ...
Becker W - - 2010
A major goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence is to provide tools to overcome existing differences among member states and parties with respect to documentation and interchange of food composition data. Establishment of a common CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation/European Committee for Standardization) Standard on ...
Oliveira L M - - 2010
The harmonisation of food composition databases (FCDB) has been a recognised need among users, producers and stakeholders of food composition data (FCD). To reach harmonisation of FCDBs among the national compiler partners, the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence set up a series of guidelines and quality requirements, ...
Foulkes M John - - 2011
A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential ...
Dale Bruce E - - 2010
There is an intense ongoing debate regarding the potential scale of biofuel production without creating adverse effects on food supply. We explore the possibility of three land-efficient technologies for producing food (actually animal feed), including leaf protein concentrates, pretreated forages, and double crops to increase the total amount of plant ...
Thomson Allison M - - 2010
Land-use change to meet 21st-century demands for food, fuel, and fiber will depend on many interactive factors, including global policies limiting anthropogenic climate change and realized improvements in agricultural productivity. Climate-change mitigation policies will alter the decision-making environment for land management, and changes in agricultural productivity will influence cultivated land ...
Yigezu Yigezu A - - 2010
Insects can cause substantial damage to stored grain. In addition, consumers and therefore food processors are increasingly interested in chemical-free products. Integrated pest management (IPM) may increase farmers' profits while reducing their use of pesticides. This study uses a stochastic dynamic programming framework to model the economics of optimal insect ...
Poveda Katja - - 2010
There is increasing global concern over the risk of food shortage and instability, and a concomitant demand for an increase in food production. However, the continuing expansion of agricultural areas threatens natural habitats as well as human and ecosystem health. One option for increasing food production is to maximize yields ...
Mascia Michael B - - 2010
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a popular conservation strategy, but their impacts on human welfare are poorly understood. To inform future research and policy decisions, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess MPA impacts on five indicators of human welfare: food security, resource rights, employment, community organization, and income. Following ...
Kolbe Athena R - - 2010
On 12 January 2010 an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter Scale struck Haiti, causing unprecedented death, injury and destruction for an event of this magnitude. Our aim was to generate a rapid assessment of the primary consequences for the population of the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the national capital. ...
Gilbert C L - - 2010
The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, ...
Godfray H Charles J - - 2010
Although food prices in major world markets are at or near a historical low, there is increasing concern about food security-the ability of the world to provide healthy and environmentally sustainable diets for all its peoples. This article is an introduction to a collection of reviews whose authors were asked ...
Kearney John - - 2010
A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the ...
Garcia Serge M - - 2010
World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic ...
Bharucha Zareen - - 2010
Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter-gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods ...
Anderson Kym - - 2010
Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and-in the case of farm products-by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted ...
Satterthwaite David - - 2010
This paper discusses the influences on food and farming of an increasingly urbanized world and a declining ratio of food producers to food consumers. Urbanization has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of workers in industrial and ...
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