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Glennemeier Karen Ann - - 2002
Competition is known to decrease growth and development rate in tadpoles, but the physiological basis for this phenomenon is poorly understood. We hypothesized that competition results in increased production of stress hormones and that these hormones are responsible for the suppression of growth and development. To test this hypothesis, we ...
Nugent Rachel A - - 2002
Improved nutrition has potential to stem the growth in chronicdiseases seen in developed and developing countries alike. The abilityof the agricultural sector to feed a country's populationis an important factor in achieving better nutrition, particularlyamong populations that cannot buy imported food. How to address chronicdisease must be considered in the ...
Milburn A - - 2002
After seven papers discussing specific examples of ecological sanitation projects, the workshop considered the background, motivation and feasibility of this technology. It was agreed that ecological sanitation could help tackle water scarcity, health protection and, by recycling water and nutrients into agriculture, food scarcity. Dense cities are probably unsuitable for ...
Harlander Susan K - - 2002
In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe ...
Cowling E - - 2001
Human efforts to produce food and energy are changing the nitrogen (N) cycle of the Earth. Many of these changes are highly beneficial for humans, while others are detrimental to people and the environment. These changes transcend scientific disciplines, geographical boundaries, and political structures. They challenge the creative minds of ...
Monteny G J - - 2001
From 1991 onward, the European Union (EU) member states have had to comply with the Nitrates Directive. The aim of this directive is to sustainably protect ground and surface waters from pollution with nitrogen (nitrate) originating from agriculture. Agriculture is, on an EU level, the largest single source of nitrate ...
Bengoa J M - - 2001
Food transitions in history have been fast, violent processes in some cases, while on other occasions they have taken place slowly, overlapping the traditional food culture as food items are replaced by new ones. Despite the contribution of potato and maize to avoiding famine in Europe, the exclusive crop system ...
Weil A - - 2001
Whatever their own policies may be, developing countries will inevitably be affected by the development of genetically-modified organisms in industrialized countries. While maintaining a cautious attitude, most of these countries wish to keep their options open, thus protecting themselves from the risk of being deprived of future technologies that might ...
Watson R - - 2001
Over 75% of the world marine fisheries catch (over 80 million tonnes per year) is sold on international markets, in contrast to other food commodities (such as rice). At present, only one institution, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) maintains global fisheries statistics. As an intergovernmental ...
Daberkow S - - 2001
Given the societal concern about groundwater pollution from agricultural sources, public programs have been proposed or implemented to change farmer behavior with respect to nutrient use and management. However, few of these programs designed to change farmer behavior have been evaluated due to the lack of detailed data over an ...
Nyende, P.
Finger millet (Eleusinecoracana   L. Gaertn.), a staple and food security crop in Uganda, is appreciated for its nutritional value, tolerance to water deficits, and good storage qualities; however, production requires a lot of labour, particularly for weed control. Thus, there is need to develop weed management strategies that are ...
Slak M F - - 2001
Today, finding data on agricultural nitrogen balances is quite easy. Calculations of such balances are carried out by most of the European countries as an indicator of environmental pollution attributable to the agricultural sector. In France, average values of agricultural nitrogen balances show an excess of 1.5 to 2 million ...
Boyd R - - 2001
This article measures the effect of an increase in productivity attributable to an increase in soil organic carbon associated with the increase in the use of conservation practices in agriculture in the United States. Both the direct and indirect effects are calibrated. The analytical approach used consists of a dynamic ...
Khush G S - - 2001
The origin of agriculture led to the domestication of many plant species and to the exploitation of natural resources. It took almost 10,000 years for food grain production to reach 1 billion tons, in 1960, and only 40 years to reach 2 billion tons, in 2000. This unprecedented increase, which ...
Lagiou P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The DAta Food NEtworking (DAFNE) initiative was conceived in the 1980s and aims at using data already collected in the context of household budget surveys (HBSs) for the assessment of dietary patterns across Europe. DESIGN: HBSs are country-representative surveys conducted, with similar methodology, at regular time intervals by the ...
Dobson F S - - 2001
Environmental factors influence the dynamics and regulation of biological populations through their influences on demographic variables, but demographic mechanisms of population regulation have received little attention. We investigated the demographic basis of regulation of Columbian ground squirrel (Spermophilus columbianus) populations under natural and experimentally food-supplemented conditions. Food supplementation caused substantial ...
Hunt J M - - 2001
The limitations of conventional approaches to eliminating micronutrient deficiencies drives the search for a sustainable paradigm. This manuscript argues that the public and private sectors must embark on modernization of the Asian food industry and reorientation of the international agricultural research complex so that nutritionally enriched essential foods will be ...
Ihnat M - - 2001
In the mid 1970s, the available RMs, notably Bowen's Kale and Orchard Leaves and Bovine liver from National Bureau of Standards (NBS), although of great benefit, were overwhelmingly insufficiently representative, in respect of matrix and elemental composition, of the wide range of natural products submitted for analysis and in worldwide ...
Aguirre-Muñoz A - - 2001
San Quintin, Mexico, provides a useful site for integrated analyses of material fluxes and socioeconomic constraints in a geographically isolated system. Natural resource utilization on the land is dominated by groundwater exploitation for cultivation of horticulture crops (primarily tomatoes). Irrigation exceeds water recharge minus export by a factor of 6. ...
McMichael A J - - 2001
World population will reach an estimated nine billion by 2050. Given this factor and continued economic development in today's low-income countries, the total global demand for food will increase approximately threefold over the coming half-century. Meanwhile, against this background, newly-occurring global environmental changes such as climate change are anticipated to ...
Lipton M - - 2001
Before about 1750 there was no substantial secular fall in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) over large areas, nor reason to expect it. We have since learned that sufficient economic advance (poverty reduction) plus scientific advance (in medicine and food production) are achievable to eliminate mass PEM. The two advances are linked ...
Tilman D - - 2001
During the next 50 years, which is likely to be the final period of rapid agricultural expansion, demand for food by a wealthier and 50% larger global population will be a major driver of global environmental change. Should past dependences of the global environmental impacts of agriculture on human population ...
Sarma S S - - 2001
Herbicides are important in crop protection and management. A number of them including 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), however, may reach water bodies and eventually affect the non-target organisms such as rotifers. In the present work, we studied the influence of 6 concentrations viz. 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ...
Khush G S - - 2001
Major advances have occurred in food production during the last 30 years as a result of the adoption of green revolution technology. The price of rice and wheat is 40 % lower than it was in the 1950s. This lower price has helped the poorer sections of society, who spend ...
Morales F J - - 2001
The proliferation and rapid dissemination of whitefly-transmitted viruses of important food and industrial crops in Latin America, have been the consequence of drastic changes in traditional cropping systems. Some of the expanding non-traditional cash and export crops, such as soybean and several vegetables, have served as suitable reproductive hosts for ...
Noah A - - 2001
Interest in Mediterranean diet began 30 years ago, when Ancel Keys published the results of the famous Seven Countries Study, Since 1945, almost 1.3 million people have come to Australia from Mediterranean countries as new settlers. There are 18 countries with coasts on the Mediterranean sea: Spain, southern France, Italy, ...
Goss J - - 2001
Agriculture has been central to accounts of Thailand's modernisation and the rise of the national development project between the 1940s and the 1970s. However, the role of agriculture in the waning of national development is rarely explored critically in the Thai context. This paper focuses on agriculture and the role ...
Bras R - - 2001
The workshop discussed the possibilities of innovative technologies to increase food production. Most of the concepts discussed are based on rainfall management, conservation and recycling. Simple technologies, adopted to local circumstances, can increase farm yields in small-scale agriculture. Small-scale rainfed agriculture is viable with intelligent utilisation of harvested rainfall. These ...
Li Y - - 2001
With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving ...
Beeby A - - 2001
A range of invertebrates have become adapted to certain toxic metals, such that, in the presence of the contaminant, some measure of their performance, typically growth or reproduction, is superior to that of an unexposed population. Under such a toxic stress, a population with a history of exposure might outperform ...
Chocat B - - 2001
Even though urban drainage has been practised for more than 5000 years, many challenges arising from growing demands on drainage still remain with respect to runoff quantity and quality; landscape aesthetics, ecology and beneficial uses; and operation of existing urban wastewater systems. Further advances can be achieved by adopting an ...
Esrey S A - - 2001
A recycling society must switch from linear solutions to circular approaches, protecting ecosystems and harmonising with natural systems. Ecological sanitation, an alternative to conventional approaches, considers excreta a resource. Excreta are rendered safe at the source prior to reuse. The ecosystem approach helps restore soil fertility, and ultimately enhances food ...
Sho H - - 2001
Okinawan food culture in the Ryukyu island is one of the world's most interesting culture because its consumers have the longest life expectancies and low disability rates. It is a product of cultural synthesis, with a core of Chinese food culture, inputs through food trade with South-East Asia and the ...
Allsopp R - - 2001
Tsetse control has long been an important option for reducing the impact of African trypanosomiasis but, although many effective methods have been used, the results have seldom proved sustainable. Developments to reduce cost and environmental impact increasingly limit the choices available for control and the scale of operations has declined. ...
Kijne J W - - 2001
The alternative to increasing the world's irrigated area by an estimated 30% to secure food security for all, seems to be limited irrigation expansion and consequently higher food prices and probably food shortages. This paper explores other options for ensuring food security. It discusses meaningful similarities between innovative approaches for ...
Gopalan C - - 2001
The achievement of nutrition security at the household level involves adequacy of food supply at the national level and equitable distribution of food among the population in accordance with their physiological needs. The emergence of globalization and market liberalization and the increasing power of some transnational corporations that are advocating ...
Porfiri O - - 2001
One hundred and six landraces belonging to 7 species of the Triticeae tribe were collected in central Italy by DBVBA (Perugia University), DIBIAGA (Ancona University) and ARSSA (Abruzzo Region Agricultural Development Agency) in different individual and joint missions. A few accessions were supplied by private and other public organisations. Triticum ...
Tolmay V L - - 2001
Poverty, hunger and malnutrition occur in many parts of the world despite the enormous progress that has taken place in agriculture and food production in the last century. It is estimated for wheat, that by 2020 the world will require a 60% increase in production to meet the projected requirement. ...
Ababouch L - - 2000
Africa contributes 5.54 million MT (4.5%) to the world harvest of aquatic organisms. Fisheries represent a vital sector for many countries in Africa, both for domestic food supply, employment opportunities and foreign exchange earnings. Despite the low level of African fish production and export in comparison with the other continents, ...
Giri C C - - 2000
Rice is the most important food crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Yield enhancement to increase rice production is one of the essential strategies to meet the demand for food of the growing population. Both abiotic and biotic features limit adversely the productivity of rice growing areas. ...
Ju J S - - 2000
Until the 1970s, the Korean economy was dominantly agriculture, but nowadays, less than 10 % of the population lives in a rural area, and it is expected that within a generation the proportion of the population engaged in agriculture will be less than 5 %. The living standard is rising ...
Mepham T B - - 2000
Certain developments in the agricultural and food sciences have far-reaching implications for society and the environment, which suggest the need to examine their ethical acceptability as a standard component of technology assessment. Such considerations have led to the emergence of a new academic discipline, food ethics. The present paper describes ...
Russell C - - 2000
To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of ...
Chen P H - - 2000
This article presents the results of natural carrying capacity of ponding irrigation system in Taoyuan agricultural zone, Taiwan. Both the systematic water quality and the ponding effects were examined. The ponding irrigation system included a flow channel and storage ponds. The data showed that most water characteristics deteriorated gradually from ...
Borash DJ - - 2000
We examined whether populations of Drosophila melanogaster could evolve a genetically based tolerance to high levels of toxic compounds (urea or ammonia) added to their larval food medium. We also examined whether tolerance to one compound may impart cross-tolerance to other compounds. Five populations selected for ammonia tolerance (AX), five ...
Uzogara S G - - 2000
Genetic engineering of food is the science which involves deliberate modification of the genetic material of plants or animals. It is an old agricultural practice carried on by farmers since early historical times, but recently it has been improved by technology. Many foods consumed today are either genetically modified (GM) ...
Iyengar G V - - 2000
As we enter the new millennium, nearly 800 million of the World's population will remain chronically malnourished. Nearly 200 million children are moderately to severely underweight, while 70 million are severely malnourished. And those who are yet to be born will be faced with the same set of circumstances that ...
Swaminathan M S - - 2000
The term 'Green Revolution' was coined in 1968 to indicate revolutionary improvements in crop yield in several Asian countries. Many of these improvements came at the cost of adverse environmental effects in areas subjected to intensive farming. However, where population pressure is high, there is no option except to produce ...
Taschan H - - 2000
• The results are intermediate data. Investigations have not yet been completed.• Grain and grain products contain different quantities of DON.• The main cause for DON infection is contamination of the grain during the growing season.• DON may also be produced during storage and/or handling and processing of food.• There ...
Edwards K N - - 2000
This paper reviews the importance of childhood malnutrition in Papua New Guinea and other developing countries. Emphasis is given to two important causes: chronic disease and limited food supply. Definitions and diagnostic criteria for malnutrition are discussed with particular focus on the mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). The design of a MUAC ...
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