Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 997
< 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 >
Falk Michael C - - 2002
Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have ...
Mackey Maureen - - 2002
Crop biotechnology is being used in two major ways to enhance human nutrition: to improve global food security by making more food available, especially locally grown and familiar foods in the developing world, and by enhancing the nutritional composition of foods that would interest both the developed and developing worlds. ...
Kaluski Dorit Nitzan - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the 1999-2000 food security situation and the food relief programmes in Ethiopia, and evaluate the need for a national food and nutrition policy. DESIGN: A systematic search of data sources from the Ethiopian Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC), the Ethiopian Central Statistical Authority, the World Food ...
Tontisirin Kraisid - - 2002
The purpose of the present paper is to review the evidence in favour of food-based strategies to meet the challenges of micronutrient malnutrition in the developing world. Increasing dietary diversification is the most important factor in providing a wide range of micronutrients, and to achieve this objective in a development ...
Lupien John R. - - 2002
Problems of over- and under-nutrition are changing with continued world population growth, rapid urbanization, and improved economic access to food. Still about 800 million lack reliable access to good quality and safe food. This article suggests action necessary to develop systems of sustainable food production in developing countries to help ...
Ramankutty Navin - - 2002
This study reviews the major changes in global distribution of croplands during the 20th century. During the 20th century, the cropland base diminished greatly (from approximately 0.75 ha person-1 in 1900 to approximately 0.35 ha person-1 in 1990). This loss of croplands was not globally uniform: more than half the ...
Whicker F Ward - - 2002
This paper reviews examples of how measurements of global fallout in the environment and related tracer radionuclides have been used to enhance our basic knowledge of biogeochemical processes and food-chain pathways. Because it is these fundamental, natural processes that control the transport and accumulation of such trace substances in the ...
Brookes Graham - - 2002
The use of the technology of genetic modification (GM) in European agriculture and the food supply chain is currently controversial. Because of strong anti-GM technology sentiments, the use of ingredients derived from plants containing GM have largely been eliminated from foods manufactured for direct human consumption by the food supply ...
Bonet M Angels - - 2002
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the massif of Montseny (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula), a mountainous UNESCO's biosphere reserve that summarizes the main European (from Mediterranean to subalpine) climates and landscapes. This article presents the results concerning the use of non-crop vascular food plants, numbering 132. Edible plants (75), as ...
Horrigan Leo - - 2002
The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead ...
McInerney John - - 2002
The present paper presents a non-technical overview of contemporary developments in food supply, as seen from the standpoint of economic adjustment. The historical concerns over availability and price of food have now passed in the UK, and agriculture is no longer dominantly driven by the supply-side forces of new farming ...
Yan Lin - - 2002
Great success has been achieved in increasing agriculture productivity to fulfill human needs during the second half of the 20th century. However, there will be much greater challenges in the future. Based on the current population growth rate of 1.4% per year, the world's population is forecast to increase from ...
De Henauw S - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The EFCOSUM (European Food Consumption Survey Methods) Project aims at harmonizing food consumption surveys in European countries within the perspective of an overall Public Health Monitoring Programme. Harmonization implies the need for a common framework of procedures and tools, that are applicable and feasible in all potentially interested countries. ...
Galloway James N - - 2002
This paper examines the impact of food and energy production on the global N cycle by contrasting N flows in the late-19th century with those of the late-20th century. We have a good understanding of the amounts of reactive N created by humans, and the primary points of loss to ...
Fixen Paul E - - 2002
At 81.7 million tonnes (Mt), commercial fertilizer nitrogen (N) accounts for approximately half of all N reaching global croplands today and supplies basic food needs for at least 40% of the population. The challenge is to continue to help meet that need while minimizing the risk of negative environmental impacts ...
Bouis Howarth E - - 2002
The final permanent solution to micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries is a substantial improvement in dietary quality--higher consumption of pulses, fruits, vegetables, fish and animal products that the poor already desire but cannot presently afford. Meanwhile breeding staple foods that are dense in minerals and vitamins provides a low-cost, sustainable ...
Allen Bryant J - - 2002
The weights at birth of 4767 children born in the Tari area between 1979 and 1986 were analyzed after the children had been allocated to seven environmental zones. The environments differ in the quality of land from which the staple food, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), is produced. Mean birthweight varies ...
Smil Vaclav - - 2002
Nitrogen was the most commonly yield-limiting nutrient in all pre-industrial agricultures. Only the Haber-Bosch synthesis of ammonia broke this barrier. The rising dependence on nitrogenous fertilizers, which represents the largest human interference in the biospheric N cycle, has two different roles. In affluent nations it helps to produce excess of ...
Engel K-H - - 2002
For the current generation of genetically modified (GM) crops the improvement of agronomic traits (e.g. herbicide tolerance, insect resistance) has been a major objective. The lack of obvious and direct benefits for the consumer has been a main point of criticism. Future trends will increasingly encompass the modification of quality ...
Decker Ethan H - - 2002
The world's 25 largest cities comprise only 4% of the global population, but they have substantial impacts on the environment at multiple scales. Here we review what is known of the biogeochemistry of these megacities. Climatic, demographic, and economic data show no patterns across cities, save that wealthier cities have ...
Shen Q - - 2002
Twenty-three genotypes of maitake (Grifola frondosa) from Asia, North America and Europe were compared for biological efficiency (BE), quality and crop cycle time. Significant differences among lines were found for BE and crop cycle time when mushrooms were produced on nutrient-supplemented (15% millet, 10% wheat bran and 0.2% gypsum) oak ...
Finucane Melissa L - - 2002
The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of reliable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies. Awareness of socio-cultural differences is important because collaborative efforts to deal with food hazards presuppose some understanding of where, how ...
Samaras Thomas T - - 2002
The "more is better" credo is evaluated in terms of its harmful ramifications on human health, the environment, and the survival of the human race. The trend towards greater height and body weight in developed countries is evaluated in terms of its negative aspects on health and longevity. The benefits ...
Kosulwat Vongsvat - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To explore and describe the nutrition and health transition in Thailand in relation to social and economic changes, shifts in food consumption patterns and nutritional problems, as well as morbidity and mortality trends. DESIGN: This report reviews the nutrition and health situation and other related issues by compiling information ...
Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Ferstad
Understanding the events controlling endosperm development and it’s genetic regulation may give new possibilities for molecular farming, functional foods and fish feed. The cereal endosperm represents the worlds major source for food, feed and industrial raw material. When fully developed, the endosperm is a simple plant system consisting of four ...
Cannon Geoffrey - - 2002
Scale up 'we are what we eat' and nutrition is revealed as an aspect of world governance. The quality and nature of food systems has always tended to determine not only the health and welfare but also the fate of nations. The independence of nations depends on their development of ...
Glennemeier Karen Ann - - 2002
Competition is known to decrease growth and development rate in tadpoles, but the physiological basis for this phenomenon is poorly understood. We hypothesized that competition results in increased production of stress hormones and that these hormones are responsible for the suppression of growth and development. To test this hypothesis, we ...
Nugent Rachel A - - 2002
Improved nutrition has potential to stem the growth in chronicdiseases seen in developed and developing countries alike. The abilityof the agricultural sector to feed a country's populationis an important factor in achieving better nutrition, particularlyamong populations that cannot buy imported food. How to address chronicdisease must be considered in the ...
Milburn A - - 2002
After seven papers discussing specific examples of ecological sanitation projects, the workshop considered the background, motivation and feasibility of this technology. It was agreed that ecological sanitation could help tackle water scarcity, health protection and, by recycling water and nutrients into agriculture, food scarcity. Dense cities are probably unsuitable for ...
Harlander Susan K - - 2002
In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe ...
Cowling E - - 2001
Human efforts to produce food and energy are changing the nitrogen (N) cycle of the Earth. Many of these changes are highly beneficial for humans, while others are detrimental to people and the environment. These changes transcend scientific disciplines, geographical boundaries, and political structures. They challenge the creative minds of ...
Monteny G J - - 2001
From 1991 onward, the European Union (EU) member states have had to comply with the Nitrates Directive. The aim of this directive is to sustainably protect ground and surface waters from pollution with nitrogen (nitrate) originating from agriculture. Agriculture is, on an EU level, the largest single source of nitrate ...
Bengoa J M - - 2001
Food transitions in history have been fast, violent processes in some cases, while on other occasions they have taken place slowly, overlapping the traditional food culture as food items are replaced by new ones. Despite the contribution of potato and maize to avoiding famine in Europe, the exclusive crop system ...
Weil A - - 2001
Whatever their own policies may be, developing countries will inevitably be affected by the development of genetically-modified organisms in industrialized countries. While maintaining a cautious attitude, most of these countries wish to keep their options open, thus protecting themselves from the risk of being deprived of future technologies that might ...
Watson R - - 2001
Over 75% of the world marine fisheries catch (over 80 million tonnes per year) is sold on international markets, in contrast to other food commodities (such as rice). At present, only one institution, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) maintains global fisheries statistics. As an intergovernmental ...
Daberkow S - - 2001
Given the societal concern about groundwater pollution from agricultural sources, public programs have been proposed or implemented to change farmer behavior with respect to nutrient use and management. However, few of these programs designed to change farmer behavior have been evaluated due to the lack of detailed data over an ...
Nyende, P.
Finger millet (Eleusinecoracana   L. Gaertn.), a staple and food security crop in Uganda, is appreciated for its nutritional value, tolerance to water deficits, and good storage qualities; however, production requires a lot of labour, particularly for weed control. Thus, there is need to develop weed management strategies that are ...
Slak M F - - 2001
Today, finding data on agricultural nitrogen balances is quite easy. Calculations of such balances are carried out by most of the European countries as an indicator of environmental pollution attributable to the agricultural sector. In France, average values of agricultural nitrogen balances show an excess of 1.5 to 2 million ...
Boyd R - - 2001
This article measures the effect of an increase in productivity attributable to an increase in soil organic carbon associated with the increase in the use of conservation practices in agriculture in the United States. Both the direct and indirect effects are calibrated. The analytical approach used consists of a dynamic ...
Khush G S - - 2001
The origin of agriculture led to the domestication of many plant species and to the exploitation of natural resources. It took almost 10,000 years for food grain production to reach 1 billion tons, in 1960, and only 40 years to reach 2 billion tons, in 2000. This unprecedented increase, which ...
Lagiou P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The DAta Food NEtworking (DAFNE) initiative was conceived in the 1980s and aims at using data already collected in the context of household budget surveys (HBSs) for the assessment of dietary patterns across Europe. DESIGN: HBSs are country-representative surveys conducted, with similar methodology, at regular time intervals by the ...
Dobson F S - - 2001
Environmental factors influence the dynamics and regulation of biological populations through their influences on demographic variables, but demographic mechanisms of population regulation have received little attention. We investigated the demographic basis of regulation of Columbian ground squirrel (Spermophilus columbianus) populations under natural and experimentally food-supplemented conditions. Food supplementation caused substantial ...
Hunt J M - - 2001
The limitations of conventional approaches to eliminating micronutrient deficiencies drives the search for a sustainable paradigm. This manuscript argues that the public and private sectors must embark on modernization of the Asian food industry and reorientation of the international agricultural research complex so that nutritionally enriched essential foods will be ...
Ihnat M - - 2001
In the mid 1970s, the available RMs, notably Bowen's Kale and Orchard Leaves and Bovine liver from National Bureau of Standards (NBS), although of great benefit, were overwhelmingly insufficiently representative, in respect of matrix and elemental composition, of the wide range of natural products submitted for analysis and in worldwide ...
Aguirre-Muñoz A - - 2001
San Quintin, Mexico, provides a useful site for integrated analyses of material fluxes and socioeconomic constraints in a geographically isolated system. Natural resource utilization on the land is dominated by groundwater exploitation for cultivation of horticulture crops (primarily tomatoes). Irrigation exceeds water recharge minus export by a factor of 6. ...
McMichael A J - - 2001
World population will reach an estimated nine billion by 2050. Given this factor and continued economic development in today's low-income countries, the total global demand for food will increase approximately threefold over the coming half-century. Meanwhile, against this background, newly-occurring global environmental changes such as climate change are anticipated to ...
Lipton M - - 2001
Before about 1750 there was no substantial secular fall in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) over large areas, nor reason to expect it. We have since learned that sufficient economic advance (poverty reduction) plus scientific advance (in medicine and food production) are achievable to eliminate mass PEM. The two advances are linked ...
Tilman D - - 2001
During the next 50 years, which is likely to be the final period of rapid agricultural expansion, demand for food by a wealthier and 50% larger global population will be a major driver of global environmental change. Should past dependences of the global environmental impacts of agriculture on human population ...
Sarma S S - - 2001
Herbicides are important in crop protection and management. A number of them including 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), however, may reach water bodies and eventually affect the non-target organisms such as rotifers. In the present work, we studied the influence of 6 concentrations viz. 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ...
Khush G S - - 2001
Major advances have occurred in food production during the last 30 years as a result of the adoption of green revolution technology. The price of rice and wheat is 40 % lower than it was in the 1950s. This lower price has helped the poorer sections of society, who spend ...
< 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 >