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Mattes Richard D - - 2002
Maintenance of reduced body weight following intentional weight loss is often unsuccessful. Identification of behaviors associated with sustained reductions should aid in dietary weight management. This survey assessed associations between an array of appetitive indices and weight loss outcomes in a sample of 80 adults participating in an open-labeled, unsupervised ...
Schulz Carla - - 2002
Growth hormone (GH) possesses multiple metabolic effects, in particular with regard to glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies on the effects of GH on body weight and food and water intake are scarce and have yielded controversial results. We investigated the effects of different modes of GH administration on the parameters ...
Liedman B - - 2001
That severe malnutrition affects body function and psychological well-being is well documented. We addressed the question of whether quality of life relates to changes in variables such as food intake, body composition, and gastrointestinal symptomatology after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Thirty-two patients undergoing gastric resection had their dietary intake, body ...
Parlat S S - - 2001
The amelioration of aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails was examined by the dietary addition of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SCE). Yeast incorporated into the diet at 1 g kg(-1) was evaluated for its ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2.5 mg total aflatoxin (AF; 82.30 per cent AFB1, 2.06 per ...
Mock O B - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The least shrew is an established animal model for reproductive and pharmacologic research. Biologic reference data are needed to assess animal health status and provide a rationale for use of novel statistical programs to evaluate the effects of orally administered substances in toxicologic and pharmacologic studies. METHODS: ...
Burness G P - - 2001
Among local faunas, the maximum body size and taxonomic affiliation of the top terrestrial vertebrate vary greatly. Does this variation reflect how food requirements differ between trophic levels (herbivores vs. carnivores) and with taxonomic affiliation (mammals and birds vs. reptiles)? We gathered data on the body size and food requirements ...
Selman C - - 2001
We examined the thermoregulatory responses of male and female mice Mus musculus that had been divergently selected on voluntary food intake, corrected for body mass, to produce a high-intake and a low-intake strain. Resting metabolic rate was determined by indirect calorimetry (at 30 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 15 degrees ...
Wing R R - - 2001
Intervention strategies used in weight-control programs typically rely on participants to make behavior changes on their own. Better results might be achieved if more direct approaches were taken to make environmental changes by providing food to participants and paying them for weight loss. Two studies on food provision for improving ...
Dickinson K - - 2001
Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a noninvasive method for estimating fat free mass (FFM) in live animals. In this study, we have evaluated the use of the Em-Scan SA-3000, which is claimed by the manufacturers to perform better than earlier analysers. Previous studies in rats using these earlier versions ...
Sobocki J - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Morbid obesity is an increasing problem worldwide. In many patients pharmacotherapy is ineffective and these cases are treated by surgery. Different types of gastroplasty and gastric bypasses have been described. However, all of these ablative surgical methods are irreversible and often replace obesity by other disorders. Neuromodulation of vagal ...
Ukkola O - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1, UCP2 and UCP3 gene variants on body composition and metabolic changes in response to chronic overfeeding and the recovery after the period of overfeeding. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Twenty-four normal weight men (21+/-2 y), who constituted 12 pairs of identical twins, ...
Zubareva O E - - 2001
The ability of the brain serotonergic system to mediate the effects of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was investigated. Intracerebroventricular administration of IL-1beta induced a significant pyrogenic reaction, depression in social behaviour, loss of body weight and reduced food intake in rats. Pre-treatment with p-chlorphenylalanine, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, blocked the IL-1beta-induced ...
Liukkonen-Anttila T - - 2001
A 4-week feeding trial on 22 grey partridges Perdix perdix was conducted in this study. Seven birds were fed commercial poultry food, seven natural food and eight commercial poultry food containing 6% of quebracho-tannin. Our results suggest that 6% dietary tannin, when added to a commercial food with high protein ...
Wieczorek I I Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, - - 2001
Brain serotonin plays a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and body weight homeostasis. Previous data suggest an interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). To further examine the interaction between these neurotransmitters, the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine was given intraperitoneally in fa/fa Zucker rats with and without the ...
Uno Y - - 2001
Degraded carrageenan (known as poligeenan molecular weight: 20 kDa to 30 kDa) causes ulcerative colitis in experimental animals. In this paper, the molecular weight distributions of 29 samples of food-grade refined carrageenans were studied by high performance liquid gel permeation chromatography (GPC) directly connected to vacuum-ultraviolet inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission ...
Concannon P - - 2001
Male woodchucks (Marmota monax) were maintained in northern vs. southern hemisphere photoperiods, provided feed and water ad libitum, and evaluated every 2 wk for 23 mo for body weight, absolute and relative food intake, body temperature, serum testosterone, and serum concentrations of leptin measured using an anti-mouse leptin enzyme-linked immunoassay. ...
Wallen W J - - 2001
This study documented the effect of changes in male and female sex hormones and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen on weight gain and food consumption of rats from puberty to adulthood, and assessed whether age at onset of treatment affected outcome. In Study 1, male and female WKY ...
Maziero G C - - 2001
The theoretical maximum daily intakes (TMDI) of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertbutyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in Brazil were estimated using food consumption data derived from a household economic survey and a packaged goods market survey. The estimates were based on maximum levels of use of ...
Nosil P - - 2001
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been used as a measure of developmental stability and may indicate individual phenotypic or genotypic quality. Using water boatmen (Callicorixa vulnerata) from a natural population, we examined the relationship between tarsal FA (tarsal spine number, tarsal length) and indices of body condition in two habitats. We ...
Beninson D - - 2001
A frequent practical problem is to assess the probability of a potential single event (X). The event probability P(X) is usually conditional to some assumption (A) and is then written P(X / A). Whether the assumption is valid or not is an unknown fact, but its validity may be assigned ...
Maisonnier S - - 2001
1. Forty commercial broiler chickens from two different breeding origins were used for individual measurements of growth performance from d 7 to d 21. From d 21 to d 24 a balance experiment was carried out for the measurement of metabolisable energy (ME), digestibilities of lipids, starch and amino acids, ...
McArthur L H - - 2001
One hundred twenty-eight female dietetics majors aspiring to be registered dietitians were surveyed to identify and assess their reasons for wanting to lose weight and the weight-loss techniques and information sources they used and would recommend to clients. Fisher's exact tests were used to analyze behavioral data, and binomial tests ...
Chansirinukor W - - 2001
The aims of this pilot study were to determine whether the weight of a backpack, its position on the spine or time carried affected adolescents cervical and shoulder posture. Standing posture measured from the sagittal and frontal planes of 13 students was recorded photographically under several load carrying conditions. Cervical ...
Ahlstrøm O - - 2000
Milk intake of fox cubs (2-16 days of age; body weight, 96-649 g) in ten blue fox litters and ten silver fox litters were measured by the water isotope dilution (WID) technique following a single intraperitoneal injection of tritiated water (3HHO). Litter size varied from four to 14 in blue ...
Bjenning C A CA Health Care Discovery and Preclinical Development, Novo Nordisk, Måløv, Denmark. - - 2000
It has previously been demonstrated that oCRF and the CRF binding protein inhibitor CRF (6-33) reduce body-weight gain in obese Zucker rats. We investigated whether the reduction in body-weight is attributable to altered feeding and drinking behaviour. Obese Zucker rats were fitted with osmotic mini-pumps connected to i.c.v. cannulas. Vehicle, ...
Bult A - - 2000
Previous divergent selection for nest-building behavior at 22 +/- 1 degrees C resulted in a 40-fold difference between the high and the low lines in amount of cotton used to build a nest. Correlated responses to selection indicated positive genetic correlations with body weight, nest-building at 4 +/- 1 degrees ...
Yahav S - - 2000
1. The effect of light intensities from 10 to 700 lux on the performance of 5 to 18 week-old turkey males was studied in 2 trials. 2. Body weight of 18 week-old turkeys, in both experiments, was highest under the lowest light intensity This coincided with higher weight gain and ...
Christopher K. Williams
The eastern woodrat (Neotoma floridana) is considered a generalist herbivore. Only anecdotal evidence suggests that eastern woodrats eat meat given the opportunity. We conducted trials to test whether the eastern woodrat would consume northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) under experimental conditions. We live trapped 27 eastern woodrats in the Flint Hills ...
Wahle B S - - 1999
The carcinogenic potential of 1-(1-methyl-propoxycarbonyl)-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperidine (KBR 3023), a prospective new insect repellent intended for human use, was studied in mice using the dermal route of application. Relying upon the toxicology profile that emerged in the subchronic rat bioassay that was conducted using dermally applied dosages of 0, 80, 200, 500, ...
Campuzano A - - 1999
The adaptation of the endogenous rhythm of an organism to external cycles may be critical for the development of physiological processes in which energy is expended. We sought to determine whether growth rate depends on the degree of tuning between the external cycle and the manifestation of the circadian rhythms. ...
Remesar X - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Estrone is a relatively abundant hormone widely distributed in tissues of animal and plant origin. It is a mild estrogen that induces increases in body weight in experimental animals. The relative abundance of estrone esters in animal tissues suggests that it may also be found in foods, from which ...
Di Iorio B R - - 1999
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) allows simple noninvasive estimation of body water, and it could potentially be a very useful technique for clinical monitoring and study of abnormalities of body water. It has been shown that the total body impedance is dominated by the arm (46%) and leg (44%). The trunk, ...
Banu M J - - 1999
The aim of this study is to examine the effects of growth hormone, exercise, and weight loss due to food restriction on tibial diaphyseal bone and on tibial muscle mass. Thirteen-month-old female F344 rats were divided into six groups: group 1, baseline controls (B); group 2, age-matched controls (C); group ...
Ward A S - - 1999
The effects of fluoxetine on food intake, body weight, and mood of obese individuals was examined in a 16-week inpatient/outpatient study. Six male and eight female obese volunteers began the study (four male and five females completed all phases of the study). They lived in a residential laboratory during three ...
Engelson E S - - 1999
The interrelationships among sex hormones, caloric intake, and intermediary metabolism in health and disease are uncertain. Studies in malnourished patients with AIDS and cancer show that megestrol acetate (MA) therapy increases appetite, body weight, and body fat, while it decreases serum testosterone (T) concentration. In this study, the separate and ...
Youssef S K - - 1999
Body burden activities of Cs-137 and K-40 of about 120 humans, of composite sex, were measured using Inshas whole body counter facilities. The contained body burden activity in such distribution is found to be 3.5-10 Bq l-1 for Cs-137 and 3.39 x 10(-3) kg l-1 as well as 3.69 x ...
Luftensteiner C P - - 1999
Mitoxantrone (MXN) has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in the intraperitoneal treatment of malignancies. However, severe local toxicity is dose limiting. Therefore, a particulate formulation of MXN, the drug incorporated in albumin microspheres, was evaluated concerning tolerability. Survival rates as well as alterations in body weight, food intake, water intake, urine volume, ...
Buntin J D - - 1999
Prolactin (PRL) strongly stimulates feeding activity and body weight gain in ring doves, and of the brain loci tested to date, the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is the most effective site of PRL action in promoting these changes. To determine if the VMH is essential for this response, we examined the ...
Abid M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with hyperthyroidism lose weight despite increased appetite and food intake, and weight is regained after treatment of hyperthyroidism. We asked whether this weight regain is purely a function of lowered metabolic rate coincident with lowered thyroid hormone concentrations or if the weight gain is related to food-energy overconsumption. ...
Yasar S - - 1999
1. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the addition of 1 3 kg water per kg air-dry mash diets containing high proportions (600 to 700 g/kg) of ground cereal grains (wheat, barley or oats) on broiler performance and the structure and function of the gastro-intestinal tract. 2. Chicks at ...
Surendra Nath B - - 1999
The effect of widely used commercial-grade organophosphorus insecticides, namely, fenitrothion and ethion, on acetylcholinesterase activity and acetylcholine levels in brain, fat body, and silk gland of Bombyx mori on Days 1, 3, and 5 and food intake of the fifth instar were studied. Acetylcholinesterase activity was found to be inhibited, ...
Biégo G H - - 1999
The tin contents in fresh food or in food stored in lacquered or unlacquered cans were determined in order to estimate the daily tin intake in a French citizen. Tin levels were 76.6 +/- 36.5 mg/kg in foods preserved in unlacquered cans, 3.2 +/- 2.3 mg/kg in foods stored in ...
Jacobson L - - 1999
There is considerable evidence that CRH can suppress food intake. As hypothalamic CRH, a main site of CRH expression, is also negatively regulated by glucocorticoids, it is unclear whether anorexia and weight loss in adrenal insufficiency are attributable to elevated CRH or to decreased glucocorticoid levels. To distinguish these possibilities, ...
Poothullil J M - - 1999
The mechanism responsible for matching the intake and expenditure of nutrients in order to maintain body weight is not fully understood. Seven females learned to terminate the act of eating when the pleasantness of flavor of food subsided during a meal. By the end of 1 month, significant weight loss ...
Wojtyczka A - - 1999
Gastrectomy (GX) was carried out in the male rat according to the Longmire and the Roux-en-Y procedure. The focus of the postoperative investigations was to evaluate the influence of post-GX morphological changes occurring at the site of two types of end-to-end esophagojejunal anastomosis (with and without invagination), in particular food ...
Koebnick C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the strictness of long-term raw food diets and body weight loss, underweight and amenorrhea. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study 216 men and 297 women consuming long-term raw food diets (3.7 years; SE 0.25) of different intensities completed a specially developed questionnaire. Participants were divided ...
Nowak M - - 1998
PURPOSE: To explore how adolescents who try to lose weight differ from those who do not in relation to body image, food intake, knowledge about food, and sources of information about food, nutrition, and weight loss. METHODS: Data were collected from 12-15-year-old school students in North Queensland, Australia by questionnaire. ...
Grill H J - - 1998
Recent evidence suggests that the central melanocortin (MC) system is a prominent contributor to food intake and body weight control. MC receptor (MC-R) populations in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei are considered probable sites of action mediating the orexigenic effects of systemically or intracerebroventricularly administered ligands. Yet, the highest MC4-R ...
Yahav S - - 1998
1. The effects of relative humidity on growth rate and thermoregulation at high ambient temperature were evaluated in turkeys. Male turkeys were exposed to ambient temperature (Ta) of 35 degrees C and relative humidity (RH) of 40% to 75% and 50% to 85%, at ages of 13 to 19 weeks ...
Tomas F M - - 1998
The efficacy of exogenous IGFs to stimulate growth and modulate protein and fat deposition was examined in a number of broiler chicken lines. From around 600 g body weight the chickens received a continuous infusion of vehicle (0.1 M acetic acid), human recombinant IGF-I or [Gly1]IGF-II at 300 microg/kg body ...
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