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Results 351 - 400 of 814
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Génin F - - 2003
Short-day-induced fattening was investigated in the small nocturnal primate Microcebus murinus. Animals were either transferred from long photoperiod (LP) to short photoperiod (SP) or maintained in LP and submitted to various treatments. Animals fed daily on 40 microg of melatonin (MEL) at two different times showed a significant increase in ...
Kazaks Alexandra - - 2003
This article discusses some of the changes in our food environment that have encouraged overeating and some research that underlies successful weight loss and maintenance of weight loss. The discussion of these topics will help in the guidance of patients to develop personalized eating plans and reduce energy intake, in ...
St-Onge Marie-Pierre - - 2003
Artificial sweeteners provide lower calorie food products but have been thought to increase appetite and perhaps lead to increased body weight compared with high-sucrose foods. A recent trial demonstrated that subjects supplementing their diets with artificially sweetened foods lost weight, whereas those consuming high-sucrose foods gained weight. This review sheds ...
Antic Vladan - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In humans, particularly among individuals trying to lose weight, cycles of hypophagia followed by cycles of hyperphagia are quite common and may lead to an increased cardiovascular morbidity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the alterations in daily mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) ...
Hampstead Benjamin M. - - 2003
Animals were given five cycles of an activity anorexia (AA) procedure in order to determine the effect of additional experience on eating, running, and weight loss. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a 1h meal and allowed access to a running wheel for the remainder of each day. Upon reaching 75% ...
Morgan Theodore J - - 2003
The evolutionary importance of postnatal ontogenies has long been recognized, but most studies of ontogenetic trajectories have focused exclusively on morphological traits. For animals, this represents a major omission because behavioral traits and their ontogenies often have relatively direct relationships to fitness. Here four replicate lines of house mice artificially ...
Warin Megan - - 2003
This paper draws on ethnographic material to challenge the taken-for-granted relationship between anorexia and fear of fat. While popular understandings assume anorexia to be an extension of everyday dietary guidelines and a fear of weight gain from foods high in fats and calories, I argue that it is fear of ...
Moore Barbara J - - 2003
With 64-ounce sodas and "supersized" fast food on nearly every street corner, America has become the land of the obese. Despite disheartening statistics regarding the success of weight-loss plans, patients are more likely to take steps to lose weight if encouraged to do so by their primary care physician.
Das Sai Krupa - - 2003
Body composition methods were examined in 20 women [body mass index (BMI) 48.7 +/- 8.8 kg/m(2)] before and after weight loss [-44.8 +/- 14.6 (SD) kg] after gastric bypass (GBP) surgery. The reference method, a three-compartment (3C) model using body density by air displacement plethysmography and total body water (TBW) ...
Osinga Ronald - - 2003
Explants of the tropical sponge Pseudosuberites andrewsi were fed with the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornotum. The food was supplied either as intact algae or as a filtered crude extract. Growth (measured as an increase in underwater weight) was found in both experiments. The explants fed with intact algae increased to ...
Porter James P - - 2003
Systemic infusion of ANG II decreases body weight and food intake and increases energy expenditure. We recently reported that young rats receiving a 1-week intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) exhibited decreased body weight compared to control. The aim of the present investigation was to determine if chronic ...
Rusca Roberto - - 2003
Anorexia nervosa is an attempt of the self to refuse itself and devise an other self, with dissolution of the link between the self and the body. Although anorectics are often described as academically capable and attractive, in the author's experience they were preoccupied with superficial issues, their drive came ...
Jones Juli E - - 2003
Opioids are a family of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake and regulation of body weight. In general, nonselective opioid antagonists have inhibited food intake in a variety of paradigms in rodent species. Syrian hamsters may be an exception to the general findings. In a previous report, we ...
Nagaraja H S - - 2003
The effects of forced swimming stress (15 minutes per day) on body weight, food intake, blood sugar, water intake, and urine output were studied in adult male Wistar rats on the first, seventh, fourteenth and 21st days in different subgroups. There was a significant initial decrease in the body weight ...
Wittsiepe Jürgen - - 2003
The dietary intake of platinum and gold by 84 small children, 42 boys and 42 girls at the age of 14 to 83 months, with different food consumption behaviour living in urban and rural areas of Germany was measured by the duplicate method with a seven day sampling period from ...
Pafumi C - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In the last 10 years an impressive increase in the frequency of food disorders (bulimia and anorexia) in teenagers has been recorded. Food disorders, present especially in girls, (part of more complex relational-familiar disorders) cause progressive repercussions on the general endocrine structure and in particular on the reproductive system ...
Zerath Erik - - 2002
During spaceflights in the shuttle, rats are provided specific food bars. To determine whether this diet allows normal body and skeletal growth, we used four groups of rats fed either standard pellet food or space food bars during a 2-wk unloading experiment. We recorded food intake, body weight, tibial bone ...
Konings Constantijn J A M - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of abnormalities in fluid status and body composition on agreement between multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (MF-BIA), segmental BIA (sigmaBIA), the Watson formula, and tracer dilution techniques. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Multicenter. PATIENTS: 40 patients (29 males, 11 females) on peritoneal dialysis (PD). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Agreement between ...
Bachmanov Alexander A - - 2002
Male mice from 28 inbred strains (129P3/J, A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cByJ, BUB/BnJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, CAST/Ei, CBA/J, CE/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, I/LnJ, KK/H1J, LP/J, NOD/LtJ, NZB/B1NJ, P/J, PL/J, RBF/DnJ, RF/J, RIIIS/J, SEA/GnJ, SJL/J, SM/J, SPRET/Ei, and SWR/J) were fed chow and had access to two water bottles. Body weight, food intake, water ...
Black Bill J BJ - - 2003
Loss of weight, often of unknown cause and culminating in death, commonly occurs in humans at advanced ages. Rats that live to old ages, such as the Fischer 344 (F344) strain, also exhibit a terminal loss in body weight. A presently held hypothesis is that the terminal weight loss in ...
Jonker D - - 2002
The potential subchronic oral toxicity of isomaltulose (Palatinose) was examined by administering this substance in the diet to groups of 20 male and 20 female Wistar rats at levels of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10% for 13 consecutive weeks. Daily clinical observations, body weight, food conversion efficiency, food and water ...
Kloppenburg Wybe D - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Dietary energy intake (DEI) is reported to be below recommended values in a large proportion of stable chronic haemodialysis patients, while energy requirement appears not to be very different from that in healthy subjects. Nevertheless, body mass has often been reported to be stable over time. We hypothesized that ...
Zittel Tilman T - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Total gastrectomy often results in early satiety and loss of body weight. Serotonin inhibits food intake, and postprandial serotonin release is increased after total gastrectomy. Serotonin might contribute to early satiety and loss of body weight after total gastrectomy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Food intake and body weight were investigated ...
de Oliveira Cravo C - - 2002
For this study, we have determined the effects of neonatal leptin treatment on the evolution of body weight. Experiment 1: pups were divided into two groups: LepF - injected with leptin (8 micro g/100 g of body weight) for the first 10 days of lactation and control (C) - receiving ...
Schulz Mandy - - 2002
This study examined the effect of food group intake on subsequent 2-y weight change. Food-frequency questionnaire-based food intake data of 17,369 nonsmoking subjects of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were examined in their relation to a subsequent weight change. Dietary data, collected from 1994 to ...
Jonsson L - - 2002
The central melanocortin system is involved in the regulation of food intake and body weight. In this study, we investigated the effect of a 4-week intracerebroventricular infusion of the melanocortin receptor agonist MT-II and the selective melanocortin-4 receptor antagonist HS024 on food intake and body weight homeostasis. The MT-II-treated rats ...
Takizawa Tamotsu - - 2002
Ethanol extracts of seeds of Psoralea corylifolia are proposed as food additives for processed food preservation. An extract was administered by admixing into diet at concentrations of 0, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5 or 3.0% to 10 male and 10 female F344 rats each for 90 days to evaluate its toxicity. Body ...
Herbert J D - - 2002
Growth rates in two closely related species, Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator) and Alligator sinensis (Chinese alligator), were compared under identical conditions for at least 1 year after hatching. When hatched, Chinese alligators were approximately 2/3 the length and approximately 1/2 the weight of American alligator hatchlings. At the end of ...
Hoffman Wherly P - - 2002
To evaluate compound-related effects on the growth of rodents, body weight and food consumption data are commonly collected either weekly or biweekly in toxicology studies. Body weight gain, food consumption relative to body weight, and efficiency of food utilization can be derived from body weight and food consumption for each ...
Williamson Donald A - - 2002
This research project evaluated changes in food selections, food intake, and body weight during 8 weeks of basic combat training (BCT). During the first week of BCT, 139 soldiers from two companies volunteered for participation in the study. In the eighth week of BCT, 92 soldiers were available for retesting. ...
Kastelein R A - - 2002
The food consumption (recorded in kg of individual fish species), body length and mass of 11 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins kept first at Windsor Safari Park, UK (1979-1993/1994), and later at Harderwijk Marine Mammal Park, The Netherlands (1993/1994-1995) are reported. This broad-scale, longitudinal study is based on historical data that were ...
Thornton-Jones Zoe - - 2002
The weight gain associated with several antipsychotic drugs, most notably the newer 'atypical' compounds olanzapine and clozapine, introduces problems of compliance and morbidity in the treatment of schizophrenia. The mechanisms underlying this process have been little studied due to the lack of models of the effects of antipsychotic drugs on ...
Preuschoft Holger - - 2002
The characteristics of "climbing" in the sense of locomotion or posture on three-dimensional substrates are discussed from a biomechanical viewpoint. For this purpose, the mechanical conditions of the most widely spread modes of locomotion or gaits used in arboreal surroundings are reviewed. This allows precise identification of morphological characteristics of ...
Hackländer K - - 2002
We investigated postnatal development of captive juvenile European hares (Lepus europaeus) with respect to growth, food intake and thermoregulation. Leverets increased their body weight on average 8.5-fold within 35 days, with a peak in relative growth rate on day 8. Although leverets started to take up solid food in the ...
Cassis Lisa - - 2002
Previous studies demonstrated that angiotensin II (ANG II) decreases body weight. This study examined whether ANG II regulates body weight through energy expenditure. Acute ANG II administration decreased oxygen consumption. To determine whether this effect was maintained, rats were infused with ANG II or saline for 14 days. Oxygen consumption ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2002
Maintenance of reduced body weight following intentional weight loss is often unsuccessful. Identification of behaviors associated with sustained reductions should aid in dietary weight management. This survey assessed associations between an array of appetitive indices and weight loss outcomes in a sample of 80 adults participating in an open-labeled, unsupervised ...
Schulz Carla - - 2002
Growth hormone (GH) possesses multiple metabolic effects, in particular with regard to glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies on the effects of GH on body weight and food and water intake are scarce and have yielded controversial results. We investigated the effects of different modes of GH administration on the parameters ...
Liedman B - - 2001
That severe malnutrition affects body function and psychological well-being is well documented. We addressed the question of whether quality of life relates to changes in variables such as food intake, body composition, and gastrointestinal symptomatology after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Thirty-two patients undergoing gastric resection had their dietary intake, body ...
Parlat S S - - 2001
The amelioration of aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails was examined by the dietary addition of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SCE). Yeast incorporated into the diet at 1 g kg(-1) was evaluated for its ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2.5 mg total aflatoxin (AF; 82.30 per cent AFB1, 2.06 per ...
Mock O B - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The least shrew is an established animal model for reproductive and pharmacologic research. Biologic reference data are needed to assess animal health status and provide a rationale for use of novel statistical programs to evaluate the effects of orally administered substances in toxicologic and pharmacologic studies. METHODS: ...
Burness G P - - 2001
Among local faunas, the maximum body size and taxonomic affiliation of the top terrestrial vertebrate vary greatly. Does this variation reflect how food requirements differ between trophic levels (herbivores vs. carnivores) and with taxonomic affiliation (mammals and birds vs. reptiles)? We gathered data on the body size and food requirements ...
Selman C - - 2001
We examined the thermoregulatory responses of male and female mice Mus musculus that had been divergently selected on voluntary food intake, corrected for body mass, to produce a high-intake and a low-intake strain. Resting metabolic rate was determined by indirect calorimetry (at 30 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 15 degrees ...
Wing R R - - 2001
Intervention strategies used in weight-control programs typically rely on participants to make behavior changes on their own. Better results might be achieved if more direct approaches were taken to make environmental changes by providing food to participants and paying them for weight loss. Two studies on food provision for improving ...
Dickinson K - - 2001
Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a noninvasive method for estimating fat free mass (FFM) in live animals. In this study, we have evaluated the use of the Em-Scan SA-3000, which is claimed by the manufacturers to perform better than earlier analysers. Previous studies in rats using these earlier versions ...
Sobocki J - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Morbid obesity is an increasing problem worldwide. In many patients pharmacotherapy is ineffective and these cases are treated by surgery. Different types of gastroplasty and gastric bypasses have been described. However, all of these ablative surgical methods are irreversible and often replace obesity by other disorders. Neuromodulation of vagal ...
Ukkola O - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1, UCP2 and UCP3 gene variants on body composition and metabolic changes in response to chronic overfeeding and the recovery after the period of overfeeding. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Twenty-four normal weight men (21+/-2 y), who constituted 12 pairs of identical twins, ...
Zubareva O E - - 2001
The ability of the brain serotonergic system to mediate the effects of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was investigated. Intracerebroventricular administration of IL-1beta induced a significant pyrogenic reaction, depression in social behaviour, loss of body weight and reduced food intake in rats. Pre-treatment with p-chlorphenylalanine, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, blocked the IL-1beta-induced ...
Wieczorek I - - 2001
Brain serotonin plays a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and body weight homeostasis. Previous data suggest an interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). To further examine the interaction between these neurotransmitters, the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine was given intraperitoneally in fa/fa Zucker rats with and without the ...
Liukkonen-Anttila T - - 2001
A 4-week feeding trial on 22 grey partridges Perdix perdix was conducted in this study. Seven birds were fed commercial poultry food, seven natural food and eight commercial poultry food containing 6% of quebracho-tannin. Our results suggest that 6% dietary tannin, when added to a commercial food with high protein ...
Uno Y - - 2001
Degraded carrageenan (known as poligeenan molecular weight: 20 kDa to 30 kDa) causes ulcerative colitis in experimental animals. In this paper, the molecular weight distributions of 29 samples of food-grade refined carrageenans were studied by high performance liquid gel permeation chromatography (GPC) directly connected to vacuum-ultraviolet inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission ...
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