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Results 301 - 350 of 832
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Schuhler Sandrine - - 2006
Siberian hamsters express photoperiod-regulated seasonal cycles of body weight and food intake, providing an opportunity to study the role of melanocortin systems in regulating long-term adaptive changes in energy metabolism. These hamsters accumulate intraperitoneal fat reserves when kept in long summer photoperiods, but show a profound long-term decrease in food ...
Babu M - - 2005
PYY (3-36) is postulated to act as a satiety factor in the gut-hypothalamic pathway to inhibit food intake and body weight gain in humans and rodent models. We determined the effect of 14-day continuous intravenous infusion of PYY (3-36) (175 microg/kg/day) on food intake and body weight gain in colectomized ...
Liebman Michael - - 2005
In contrast to the traditional weight-centered approach, the Health At Every Size (HAES) or nondieting approach is health centered, with no focus on losing a predetermined amount of weight or fat. A key HAES principle of advocating healthy changes in food selection rather than adherence to prescriptive diets that involve ...
Hillebrand Jacquelien J G - - 2005
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of anorexia nervosa (AN). In ABA, scheduled feeding in combination with voluntary access to running wheels, results in hyperactivity, hypophagia, body weight loss and activation of the HPA axis. Since stimulation of the melanocortin (MC) system has similar effects, this system is ...
Aubret Fabien - - 2005
In limbless tetrapods such as snakes, propulsive forces are generated by lateral undulations of the body and of the tail. In a large population of tiger snakes from Western Australia, tail loss was extremely common (58% of the individuals) and often very severe (more than two-thirds of the tail was ...
Roesch Darren M - - 2006
Ovariectomized (OVX) rats eat more and gain weight more rapidly than sham-operated (SO) rats and estradiol (E(2)) treatment attenuates food intake and body weight gain in OVX rats. Studies were designed to test the hypothesis that the alpha subtype of the estrogen receptor (ERalpha) mediates the attenuating effects of E(2) ...
Linforth Rob S T - - 2005
The maximum intensity of flavor release increased as the weight of food introduced into the mouth (the bolus) was increased for a range of different foods. The relationship was not directly proportional (1:1) but followed a power law function. Low-fat (< or = 1 g/100 g) foods showed a different ...
Melzer Katarina - - 2005
The understanding of the effect of physical activity (PA) on food intake is imperative for considering PA as an additional tool for prevention and treatment of many diseases. Prolonged strenuous PA performed on a regular basis causes an increase in overall energy turnover, and leads either to loss of body ...
Seeley Randy J - - 2005
A wide range of experimental evidence implicates a critical role for melanocortin signaling in the control of food intake and body adiposity. Melanocortin receptor agonists such as MT-II potently reduce food intake and body weight, making such agonists potential therapeutics for obesity. The critical concept addressed by the present experiments ...
Hill Richard C - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mild restriction of food intake affects clinicopathologic variables, body composition, and performance of dogs undertaking intense sprint exercise. ANIMALS: 9 trained healthy adult Greyhounds. PROCEDURE: Dogs were offered food free choice once daily for 9 weeks until body weight and food intake stabilized. Dogs were then ...
Kay Marsha - - 2005
Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common pediatric problem, with more than 100,000 cases occurring each year. The vast majority of pediatric ingestions are accidental; increasing incidence of intentional ingestions starts in the adolescent age group. In the United States, the most common pediatric foreign bodies ingested are coins, followed ...
Sarkar Nihar Ranjan - - 2005
To determine the duration of lactation which is associated with weight loss in rural Bangladeshi mothers and also to determine the relationship with consumption patterns of principal food items, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 791 lactating rural Bangladeshi mothers aged 18-40 years. Results were compared with 333 non-pregnant ...
KarakaƟ Alper - - 2005
Reproductive activity of Mongolian gerbils is regulated by photoperiod nevertheless body weight regulation is controlled without ambient photoperiod. Food intake is a major factor affecting rodent reproductive efficiency. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and modulates food intake, energy expenditure and body fat stores. In this study we ...
Killgore William D S - - 2005
Little is known about the relationship between weight status and reward-related brain activity in normal weight humans. We correlated orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging with body mass index in 13 healthy, normal-weight adult women as they viewed images of high-calorie and low-calorie ...
Schulz Mandy - - 2005
The aim of the study was to identify a dietary pattern predictive of subsequent annual weight change by using dietary composition information. Study subjects were 24,958 middle-aged men and women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. To derive dietary patterns, we used the reduced rank regression ...
Konsman Jan Pieter - - 2005
Forebrain structures are necessary for the initiation of food intake and its coupling to energy expenditure. The cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome is typified by a prolonged increase in metabolic rate resulting in body weight loss which, paradoxically, is accompanied by reduced food intake. The aim of the present work was to ...
Raynor Hollie A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Decreases in variety of foods consumed within high-fat-dense food groups and increases in variety of foods consumed within low-fat-dense food groups are associated with lower energy intake and greater weight loss during obesity treatment and may assist with weight loss maintenance. This study examined food group variety in 2237 ...
Lehman Shawn M - - 2005
Ecogeographic size variations have been documented in some but not all sifakas. Few morphometric or body weight data have been available for two critically endangered subspecies of diademed sifakas: Perrier's sifakas (Propithecus diadema perrieri) and silky sifakas (Propithecus diadema candidus). The objectives of our study were to determine size variations ...
Królczyk G - - 2005
It is hypothesised that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen increases or has no effect on food intake, and electrical stimulation of vagal nerves decreases food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of baclofen in vagally stimulated rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty two Wistar rats were ...
Kawaguchi Maiko - - 2005
Running wheel access and resulting voluntary exercise alter food intake and reduce body weight. The neural mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. In this study, we first assessed the effects of 7 days of running wheel access on food intake, body weight, and hypothalamic gene expression. We demonstrate that running ...
TAMASHIRO, KELLIE L. K.
Exposure to stress elicits behavioral and physiological responses in animals and humans, including changes in food intake and body weight. This dissertation uses a unique animal model of social stress, the Visible Burrow System (VBS), to study the effects of stress on energy homeostasis. The experiments presented in this dissertation ...
Berzlanovich Andrea M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence of food/foreign body asphyxia in the elderly Viennese population in order to reduce the incidence of these fatal events. METHODS: This is an autopsy-based, retrospective study in Vienna, Austria. Participants included all nonhospitalized (n =200) cases of choking in 1984 to 2001, from a total ...
St-Onge Marie-Pierre - - 2005
Functional foods are similar to conventional foods in appearance, but they have benefits that extend beyond their basic nutritional properties. For example, functional foods have been studied for the prevention of osteoporosis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. They have yet to be related to the prevention of obesity, although obesity is ...
Mei Jie - - 2005
1,5-anhydro-d-fructose (1,5-AF) is a novel monosaccharide produced by the action of alpha-1,4-glucan lyase (EC 4.2.2.13) on glycogen, starch, or related substrates such as maltose and maltosaccharides. 1,5-AF is of interest as a compound to be used as a food supplement because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic properties. This enforces ...
Mwale Fackson - - 2005
Degenerative disc disease has been implicated as a major component of spine pathology. However, although biological repair of the degenerate disk would be the ideal treatment, there is no universally accepted scaffold for tissue engineering of the intervertebral disk. To help remedy this, we investigated the gelation kinetics of various ...
Ziomber Agata - - 2005
Electrostimulation of vagal nerve (VNS) by microchip (MC) with magnetic field energy supply may "mimic" the physiological output associated with gastric mechanoreceptors activation by food and lead to decrease in food intake and subsequently decrease in weight gain. Vago-vagal reflexes in growing animals seems to be mainly responsible for meal ...
Dib B - - 2005
Adult rats were treated subcutaneously for 10 days with capsaicin, and their food intake and body weight were recorded for almost 6 weeks after stopping the treatment. The animals were exposed to different ambient temperatures: Ta (22, 32, 35, 10 and 22 degrees C). In the capsaicin-treated group a persistent ...
Patel Meeta R - - 2005
This study examined packing (pocketing or holding accepted food in the mouth) in 3 children who were failing to thrive or had inadequate weight gain due to insufficient caloric intake. The results of an analysis of texture indicated that total grams consumed were higher when lower textured foods were presented ...
Atchley Deann P D - - 2005
Serotonin plays an important role in controlling food intake and regulating body weight. Thus, altered serotonergic function may be involved in the etiology of anorexia nervosa. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined whether activation of the serotonin system increases the severity of activity-based anorexia, an animal model of anorexia nervosa ...
Elfhag Kristina - - 2004
Weight loss outcome for 49 obese patients after 6 months treatment in a behavior modification program was related to Rorschach personality characteristics according to the Comprehensive System (Exner, 2003), also including the Rorschach Oral Dependency Scale (Bornstein, 1996; Masling & Rabie, 1967). Less weight loss was predicted by signs of ...
Anderson Annie S - - 2004
A longitudinal design was used to survey individual members of 22 couples about food choices, dietary intake and body weight around three months prior to cohabitation and again about three months after the moving-in date. Changes after cohabitation included an increase in shared meal occasions, increased likelihood of including alcohol ...
Hirsch Edward S - - 2005
Twenty years of testing in the field has consistently revealed that food intake is inadequate when packaged military rations are fed as the sole source of food. Food intake is much lower and there is a loss of body weight. Conversely when these rations are fed to students or military ...
Kasaoka Seiichi - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Histamine, a derivative of histidine, decreases food intake and body fat by activation of histamine neurons. Our objective was to clarify the effect of dietary histidine, in particular, on food intake and/or body fat accumulation in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups after ...
Zhang Yu - - 2004
Triterpenoids, which may have significant application to the development of natural medicines and functional foods as biological active components, are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. This paper evaluated the safety of a triterpenoid-rich extract of bamboo shavings (EBS) systematically. (i) Acute toxicity test: The oral maximum tolerated dose of ...
Yuwaki Keiichi - - 2004
A new method was introduced to assess the effects of hyper-gravity on secretion of corticosterone, one of the major stress hormone, in mouse. The hormone was extracted from feces of the animal and measured by means of ELISA. The amount of corticosterone was high at the beginning of breeding under ...
Charron I - - 2004
The body weight threshold for hoarding behavior of rats is routinely used as a means to discern an animal's body weight regulation. We explored whether the size of food pellets would modify hoarding and the hoarding threshold. In Experiment 1, we offered the rats either large (ca. 5 g) or ...
Blundell John E - - 2004
In any particular group of people-living in the same culture-some gain weight whilst others do not. Overconsumption of food is one factor contributing to this susceptibility to weight gain. Because all individuals are exposed to a similar range of environmental appetite-stimulating factors, the variability in overconsumption must be due to ...
McGuigan Michael R - - 2004
There are no published data on the reliability of competitive strength performance, even though it has a pronounced effect on athletes' medal prospects and the ability of coaches and athletes to identify factors that affect competitive performance. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the reliability of elite olympic ...
Belke Terry W - - 2004
A biobehavioural analysis of activity anorexia suggests that the motivation for physical activity is regulated by food supply and body weight. In the present experiment, food allocation was varied within subjects by prefeeding food-deprived rats 0, 5, 10 and 15 g of food before sessions of lever pressing for wheel-running ...
Chen Richard Z - - 2004
Nalmefene is an orally available opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to suppress appetite in humans, but its effects on chronic food intake and body weight remain unclear. Here, we report that chronic (21-day) oral administration of nalmefene at 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice led ...
Quirino C R - - 2004
Genetic, environmental and phenotypic correlations between libido, testicular measurements, body weight and semen traits were estimated by multiple-trait-restricted maximum likelihood (MTDFREML) under animal models. Reproductive records, collected from 1992 to 1997, of 288 Nellore bulls were used. Estimates of heritability for libido unadjusted, adjusted for scrotal circumference and adjusted for ...
Drapeau Vicky - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns play an important role in the control of body weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify whether changes in some dietary patterns over a 6-y follow-up period would be associated with weight changes. DESIGN: A sample of 248 volunteers of the Québec Family Study ...
Davidson T L TL Department of Psychological Sciences, Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA. - - 2004
During the past 15-20 y, the incidence of overweight and obesity in the United States has grown rapidly. The processes that underlie this alarming trend remain largely unspecified. We hypothesize that degradation of the ability to use certain orosensory cues to predict the caloric consequences of intake may contribute to ...
Krummel Debra A DA Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, USA. - - 2004
This study examined factors related to stages of change for weight-management behaviors in postpartum women. Cross-sectional data, collected at baseline, are reported from the Mothers' Overweight Management Study (MOMS), a randomized, controlled trial conducted in postpartum women who participated in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children ...
Jaberzadeh S - - 2004
The effect of gravity should be considered when using isokinetic devices to measure human movement performance. In most isokinetic dynamometers gravity compensation is controlled by software through a gravity correction option. However in some complex research protocols the dynamometer signal acquisition and processing capability is not adequate to effectively synchronize ...
Gilles Bruno - - 2004
Weight measurements at the bottom of a quasi-2D vertical sheet of static cohesionless grains are carried out. The grains are held between two coaxial cylinders. This peculiar setup allows us to set either periodic or fixed lateral boundary conditions. Huge relative fluctuations in weight measurements appear in case of fixed ...
Pierce Barbara J - - 2004
Migrating songbirds interrupt their feeding to fly between stopover sites that may vary appreciably in diet quality. We studied the effects of fasting and food restriction on body composition and digestive organs in a migratory songbird and how these effects interacted with diet quality to influence the rate of recovery ...
Porter James P - - 2004
We recently reported that intracerebroventricular infusions of ANG II decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure in young rats. The aim of the present study was to determine if intracerebroventricular ANG II has similar effects in adult rats. The time course of the effect was also investigated with the idea ...
Klaassen Marcel - - 2004
We address the question of whether physiological flexibility in relation to climate is a general feature of the metabolic properties of birds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-raised Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin), long-distance migrants, which normally do not experience great temperature differences between summer and winter. We maintained two groups ...
Venkitraman P R - - 2004
Penaeid prawns M. dobsoni of two different size ranges were ablated both unilaterally (UEA) and bilaterally (BEA) and subjected to individual study. The UEA prawns consumed almost the same amount of food as the control prawns in the size group, 35-40mm, but consumed about 57.8% more food than the control ...
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