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Results 251 - 300 of 814
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Solomon Matia B - - 2007
Obesity is a world-wide epidemic, and many factors, including stress, have been linked to this growing trend. After social stress (i.e., defeat), subordinate laboratory rats and most laboratory mice become hypophagic and, subsequently, lose body mass; the opposite is true of subordinate Syrian hamsters. After social defeat, Syrian hamsters become ...
Jiang Jinlong - - 2006
A series of 2-aminoquinoline compounds was prepared and evaluated in MCH1R binding and functional antagonist assays. Small dialkyl, methylalkyl, methylcycloalkyl, and cyclic amines were tolerated at the quinoline 2-position. The in vivo efficacy of compound 12 was explored and compared to that of a related inactive analog to determine their ...
Sivak M - - 2006
Caloric consumption in a society with readily available food is likely to be approximately proportional to the number of hours of being awake. Thus, replacing 1 h of inactive wakefulness (e.g. watching TV), with sleeping is likely to result in a substantial reduction in caloric intake. Calculations are presented to ...
Yom-Tov Yoram - - 2006
Using museum data of adult specimens whose sex, age, and locality are known, we studied temporal and geographical body size trends among the otter, Lutra lutra, in Norway. We found that body size of the otters increased during the last quarter of the twentieth century, and suggest that this trend ...
Gutiérrez Emilio - - 2006
This study examined the effect of ambient temperature (AT) on the relationship between activity and weight loss. Compared with a neutral AT of 21 degrees C, high ATs of 27-29 degrees C produced a slower rate of weight loss in rats given 1.5-hr food access and 22.5-hr running-wheel access in ...
Galbraith Richard A - - 2006
Cobaltic protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) is a synthetic heme analog which can elicit profound and prolonged decreases in appetite and body weight in several different animal species. Intracerebroventricular administration of CoPP in rats was found, by differential display and confirmed by Real-Time PCR, to result in an increase in expression of ...
Obeid Omar A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We sought to test the hypothesis that increasing postprandial hepatic glycogen synthesis rate would decrease food intake and growth rate in obese Zucker rats. DESIGN: Supplements of glutamine, with and without dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which have previously been shown to stimulate hepatic glycogen synthesis, were administered in the diet of ...
Schneditz D - - 2006
The value of bioimpedance in hemodialysis remains under debate. However, when appropriately used, bioimpedance can provide measures of body hydration characterized by a small error, a high sensitivity to changes in water volume, and, above all, a linear relationship over a wide range of volume changes. These features make it ...
Woods Lori L - - 2006
Maternal glucocorticoids have been postulated to play an important role in prenatal programming for adult hypertension in the offspring. However, we have shown previously that offspring hypertension caused by maternal dexamethasone subcutaneous administration at 100 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1) can be accounted for by the corresponding reduction in food ...
Hao Joy J Department of Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2006
It was previously reported that chronic food restriction and maintenance of rats at 75-80% of initial body weight enhanced the reward-potentiating effect of D-amphetamine in the lateral hypothalamic self-stimulation (LHSS) paradigm. Moreover, the enhancement reversed in parallel with body weight recovery when ad libitum access to food was reinstated. The ...
Frey Isabelle M - - 2006
The peptide transporter PEPT2 mediates cellular uptake of di- and tripeptides driven by an inwardly directed electrochemical proton gradient. In mammals PEPT2 is found in a variety of organs such as kidney, lung, brain, enteric nervous system, and mammary gland. Highest expression levels are observed in renal proximal tubules where ...
Cells are spindle shaped and asymmetric. The cingulum is narrow and excavated and displaced by more than one third of the body length. The apex is pointed. The antapical part of the cell is slightly bilobed. Chloroplasts are absent but food vacuoles are somteimes visible.
Backett-Milburn Kathryn C - - 2006
This paper reports findings from a qualitative study which examined the perceptions and understandings underpinning the dietary practices in families with 'normal' weight and 'overweight' young teenagers living in poorer socio-economic circumstances. Thirty four parents/main food providers of boys and girls aged 13-14 years from socio-economically disadvantaged areas in Eastern ...
Minet-Ringuet Julie - - 2006
Body weight gain is a worrying side effect of many new antipsychotic drugs. The mechanisms by which antipsychotic drugs increase weight in humans are not known. Attempts to model the metabolic effects of antipsychotic drugs in the animal have not been successful. Female rats appear to be sensitive to the ...
Oakes Michael E - - 2006
To what extent are stereotypes concerning the weight-gain potential and perceived hunger satisfaction of food names not congruent with views of the nutrient profiles of those same foods? Respondents rated the same 22 food names and descriptions in terms of weight-gain potential and hunger satisfaction. Half of the 22 snacks ...
Dallmann Robert - - 2006
Biological clocks have evolved in all kinds of organisms in order to anticipate and adjust to the daily light-dark cycle. Within the last decade, the molecular machinery underlying the circadian system was unraveled. In the present study, the impact of the loss of the Per1 or Per2 genes, key components ...
Carels Robert A - - 2006
People are inundated with messages about foods' healthiness/unhealthiness and capacity for weight gain/loss. This study examined how people evaluate foods for 'healthiness/unhealthiness' or 'capacity for weight gain/loss' and whether these evaluations influence 'caloric' estimation accuracy. Fifty-five participants in a behavioral weight loss program rated eight 'healthy' and eight 'unhealthy' foods ...
Wright L - - 2006
AIM: To investigate the effect of eating in a supervised dining room, on nutritional intake and weight, for elderly patients on an acute medicine for the elderly ward. METHOD: Patients on the intervention ward were encouraged to attend a dining room every lunch time by a trained nursing assistant as ...
Bes-Rastrollo Maira - - 2006
BACKGROUND: High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with weight gain and obesity in the United States. This trend may also be affecting populations with different eating patterns who increasingly are adopting typical US dietary patterns. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether the consumption of sweetened drinks and other food items ...
Resgalla C C - - 2006
Physiological studies of the mussel Perna perna in Brazil are almost 30 years behind those of other, more exhaustively investigated species, such as Mytilus edulis. Little is known about the variations in physiological rates due to size and the consequences of maintaining P. perna in laboratory conditions. This work investigated ...
Nicholson Janet R - - 2006
Cachexia affects many different chronically ill patient populations, including those with cancer. It results in loss of body weight, particularly of lean body mass (LBM), and is estimated to be responsible for over 20% of all cancer-related deaths. Currently, available drugs are ineffective, and new therapies are urgently needed. Melanocortin ...
Coşkun Sule - - 2006
Tryptophan as a circulating precursor of serotonin (5-HT) may suppress food intake and body weight. Tryptophan administration can enhance the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inducing oxidative pathway in vivo and in vitro. We have examined the effect of repeated tryptophan administration on food consumption, body weight, brain ...
Laffon Eric - - 2006
Non-invasive methods for quantifying [(18)F]FDG uptake in tumours often require normalization to either body weight or body surface area (BSA), as a surrogate for [(18)F]FDG distribution volume (DV). Whereas three dimensions are involved in DV and weight (assuming that weight is proportional to volume), only two dimensions are obviously involved ...
Coutinho Agnes E - - 2006
To explore the metabolic effects of high volume wheel running in the Syrian golden hamster, 6-week old (YOUNG) and 6-month old (OLD) male animals were randomly divided into sedentary (i.e., YOUNG-S or OLD-S) or running wheel (i.e., YOUNG-RW or OLD-RW) groups (n = 8/group). RW groups had 24-h access to ...
Hida Takayuki - - 2006
Bolus-administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) relaxin-3 has been reported to increase feeding. In this study, to examine the role of relaxin-3 signaling in energy homeostasis, we studied the effects of chronically administered ICV relaxin-3 on body weight gain and locomotor activity in rats. Two groups of animals received vehicle or relaxin-3 at ...
Lorefät B - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Weight loss is reported frequently in patients with Parkinson s disease also early during the disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate food habits and nutrient intake in elderly Parkinson s disease patients compared with matched controls, as well as to compare PD patients with and without weight loss. METHODS: Twenty-six elderly ...
Linde Jennifer A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight. METHODS: Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were ...
Bhatnagar S - - 2006
These present studies aimed to compare changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and body temperature in response to acute social defeat, to repeated social stress and to novel restraint after repeated stress, as well as to assess effects on metabolic parameters by measuring body weight gain and food and water intake. ...
Jewell Dennis E - - 2006
Feeding obese dogs a high-fiber food with or without added conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) resulted in reduced caloric consumption, reduced body weight, and a 3.3% reduction in body fat, whereas feeding a low-fiber food resulted in a comparable increase in caloric consumption and a 2.4% gain in body fat. The ...
Foster Michelle T - - 2006
Overeating and increases in body and fat mass are the most common responses to day-to-day stress in humans, whereas stressed laboratory rats and mice respond oppositely. Group housing of Syrian hamsters increases body mass, adiposity, and food intake, perhaps due to social confrontation-induced stress. In experiment 1 we asked, Does ...
Anthony Joshua C - - 2006
A 90-day oral (gavage) study was conducted in male and female Sprague Dawley rats to investigate the safety of Vivinal galactooligosaccharides (GOS) syrup at 2500 or 5000 mg/kg bw/day. A reference control containing fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was used to match the oligosaccharide and digestible sugars in the test material (approximately 45% ...
Sobocki J - - 2005
The paper reviews recent advances in vagal nerve stimulation for the control of food intake and body weight. The vagal nerves are the predominant pathway in the "brain-gut axis" responsible for short term regulation of food intake. Stimulation of afferent vagal traffic attenuates food intake by vagal projections to nucleus ...
Schuhler Sandrine - - 2006
Siberian hamsters express photoperiod-regulated seasonal cycles of body weight and food intake, providing an opportunity to study the role of melanocortin systems in regulating long-term adaptive changes in energy metabolism. These hamsters accumulate intraperitoneal fat reserves when kept in long summer photoperiods, but show a profound long-term decrease in food ...
Babu M - - 2005
PYY (3-36) is postulated to act as a satiety factor in the gut-hypothalamic pathway to inhibit food intake and body weight gain in humans and rodent models. We determined the effect of 14-day continuous intravenous infusion of PYY (3-36) (175 microg/kg/day) on food intake and body weight gain in colectomized ...
Liebman Michael - - 2005
In contrast to the traditional weight-centered approach, the Health At Every Size (HAES) or nondieting approach is health centered, with no focus on losing a predetermined amount of weight or fat. A key HAES principle of advocating healthy changes in food selection rather than adherence to prescriptive diets that involve ...
Hillebrand Jacquelien J G - - 2005
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of anorexia nervosa (AN). In ABA, scheduled feeding in combination with voluntary access to running wheels, results in hyperactivity, hypophagia, body weight loss and activation of the HPA axis. Since stimulation of the melanocortin (MC) system has similar effects, this system is ...
Aubret Fabien - - 2005
In limbless tetrapods such as snakes, propulsive forces are generated by lateral undulations of the body and of the tail. In a large population of tiger snakes from Western Australia, tail loss was extremely common (58% of the individuals) and often very severe (more than two-thirds of the tail was ...
Roesch Darren M - - 2006
Ovariectomized (OVX) rats eat more and gain weight more rapidly than sham-operated (SO) rats and estradiol (E(2)) treatment attenuates food intake and body weight gain in OVX rats. Studies were designed to test the hypothesis that the alpha subtype of the estrogen receptor (ERalpha) mediates the attenuating effects of E(2) ...
Linforth Rob S T - - 2005
The maximum intensity of flavor release increased as the weight of food introduced into the mouth (the bolus) was increased for a range of different foods. The relationship was not directly proportional (1:1) but followed a power law function. Low-fat (< or = 1 g/100 g) foods showed a different ...
Melzer Katarina - - 2005
The understanding of the effect of physical activity (PA) on food intake is imperative for considering PA as an additional tool for prevention and treatment of many diseases. Prolonged strenuous PA performed on a regular basis causes an increase in overall energy turnover, and leads either to loss of body ...
Seeley Randy J - - 2005
A wide range of experimental evidence implicates a critical role for melanocortin signaling in the control of food intake and body adiposity. Melanocortin receptor agonists such as MT-II potently reduce food intake and body weight, making such agonists potential therapeutics for obesity. The critical concept addressed by the present experiments ...
Hill Richard C - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mild restriction of food intake affects clinicopathologic variables, body composition, and performance of dogs undertaking intense sprint exercise. ANIMALS: 9 trained healthy adult Greyhounds. PROCEDURE: Dogs were offered food free choice once daily for 9 weeks until body weight and food intake stabilized. Dogs were then ...
Kay Marsha - - 2005
Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common pediatric problem, with more than 100,000 cases occurring each year. The vast majority of pediatric ingestions are accidental; increasing incidence of intentional ingestions starts in the adolescent age group. In the United States, the most common pediatric foreign bodies ingested are coins, followed ...
Sarkar Nihar Ranjan - - 2005
To determine the duration of lactation which is associated with weight loss in rural Bangladeshi mothers and also to determine the relationship with consumption patterns of principal food items, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 791 lactating rural Bangladeshi mothers aged 18-40 years. Results were compared with 333 non-pregnant ...
Karakaş Alper - - 2005
Reproductive activity of Mongolian gerbils is regulated by photoperiod nevertheless body weight regulation is controlled without ambient photoperiod. Food intake is a major factor affecting rodent reproductive efficiency. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and modulates food intake, energy expenditure and body fat stores. In this study we ...
Killgore William D S - - 2005
Little is known about the relationship between weight status and reward-related brain activity in normal weight humans. We correlated orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging with body mass index in 13 healthy, normal-weight adult women as they viewed images of high-calorie and low-calorie ...
Schulz Mandy - - 2005
The aim of the study was to identify a dietary pattern predictive of subsequent annual weight change by using dietary composition information. Study subjects were 24,958 middle-aged men and women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. To derive dietary patterns, we used the reduced rank regression ...
Konsman Jan Pieter - - 2005
Forebrain structures are necessary for the initiation of food intake and its coupling to energy expenditure. The cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome is typified by a prolonged increase in metabolic rate resulting in body weight loss which, paradoxically, is accompanied by reduced food intake. The aim of the present work was to ...
Raynor Hollie A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Decreases in variety of foods consumed within high-fat-dense food groups and increases in variety of foods consumed within low-fat-dense food groups are associated with lower energy intake and greater weight loss during obesity treatment and may assist with weight loss maintenance. This study examined food group variety in 2237 ...
Lehman Shawn M - - 2005
Ecogeographic size variations have been documented in some but not all sifakas. Few morphometric or body weight data have been available for two critically endangered subspecies of diademed sifakas: Perrier's sifakas (Propithecus diadema perrieri) and silky sifakas (Propithecus diadema candidus). The objectives of our study were to determine size variations ...
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