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Results 201 - 250 of 835
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Giacosa Attilio - - 2008
Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by high prevalence and multifactorial etiology. The pathophysiology of cancer-induced weight loss is mainly due to failure of food intake and to various metabolic abnormalities, including hypermetabolism. Multiple biologic pathways are involved in this process, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuroendocrine hormones and tumour specific factors ...
Yamochi Tadanori - - 2008
We identified human decapping enzyme 2 (hDCP2) as a binding protein with Ro52, being colocalized in processing bodies (p-bodies). We also showed that the N-terminus and C-terminus of Ro52 bound to hDCP2. Moreover, Ro52 enhanced decapping activity of hDCP2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our data support the novel notion of ...
Hawlena Hadas - - 2008
Temporal variation in body condition and immunological variables of animals that harbor parasites may explain patterns of variation in infestation, as well as parasite impact on the host. We emulated such variability in Sundevall's jirds by manipulating food availability and flea infestation in juveniles and adults and examining how these ...
Bodanezi Augusto - - 2008
This study investigated the solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement since its mixture until 672 hours, by means of two complimentary methods. Metal ring molds filled with the cements were covered with distilled water and, at each experimental time (3, 24, 72, 168, 336 and 672 hours), ...
Weston-Green Katrina - - 2008
Some atypical antipsychotics clinically used to treat schizophrenia induce weight gain by unknown mechanisms. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the brainstem and the endogenous cannabinoid system are implicated in the regulation of appetite signalling and food intake. We investigated whether antipsychotic drugs alter cannabinoid receptor-binding density in the DVC. ...
Choi, Mi-Ja
This study was performed to determine the effect of isoflavone on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in growing male rats. Twenty male, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups, that underwent 9 weeks of experi-ental treatment. Animals were assigned to one of two diet groups (casein group or casein ...
Reinholz Julia - - 2008
There is increasing evidence for a role of dopamine in the development of obesity. More specifically, dopaminergic hypofunction might lead to (over)compensatory food intake. Overeating and resulting weight gain may be induced by genetic predisposition for lower dopaminergic activity, but might also be a behavioral mechanism of compensating for decreased ...
Munn Adam J - - 2008
Young mammalian herbivores are more vulnerable to harsh winter conditions than adults, especially among large circumpolar species like the muskox (Ovibos moschatus). We compared feeding responses of muskox calves (body mass 95 kg) with those of mature, non-reproductive females (body mass 227 kg) in mid-winter when air temperatures fell to ...
Rodríguez-Jimenez Andrea - - 2008
Jame's rule proposes a direct relationship between body size and altitude. There are several studies about this rule; however, few studies analyze proportional changes in body parts along gradients. The morphological variation of Agelaia pallipes (Olivier) in five sites along an altitudinal gradient (2600-3380 m) in the Santuario de Iguaque, ...
Vaughn Nerissa - - 2008
Some studies suggest that increased consumption of soy protein hydrolysates may cause body weight loss but the mechanism of action is unknown. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of soy protein hydrolysates decrease food intake and body weight. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n ...
Vincent R P - - 2008
Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatments for achieving long-term weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Bariatric surgery causes weight loss through substantial decline of hunger and increased satiety. Recently our understanding of neuroendocrine regulation of food intake and weight gain, especially regarding the role of gut hormones, ...
Wittenberg, Dankwart F.
Failure to gain weight in a normal way relates to problems of food intake, uptake and utilisation. Practically speaking, the problem is one of two main categories: insufficient food intake or an organic condition leading to failure to thrive. The health professional must distinguish between these in order to respond ...
Klein K M - - 2008
To evaluate prospectively the relationship between appetite, food composition, nutritional habits and weight loss following administration of topiramate (TPM) and to identify predictors for TPM induced weight loss. 22 patients with epilepsy who were started on TPM were prospectively followed for 6 months and contacted again after a mean follow-up ...
Johannsen Darcy L - - 2007
Current physical activity recommendations call for 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week, or the equivalent of expending approximately 1000 kcal in activity per week. These recommendations were formulated based on reducing the risk for chronic disease, but they do not appear adequate for weight loss ...
Sargisson Rebecca J - - 2007
The weights of 5 pigeons with free access to food, monitored over 3 calendar years in the laboratory, were found to fluctuate with season. All pigeons were at their heaviest in the winter and were lightest in the summer. Five different pigeons performed a standard delayed matching-to-sample task for 44 ...
Pissios Pavlos P Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2007
Serotonergic agents have been used in the past for reduction of appetite and body weight. As reported by Zhou et al. (2007) in this issue of Cell Metabolism, they also have unexpected effects on peripheral glucose homeostasis independent of food intake and body weight.
Cave N J - - 2007
The prevalence of obesity in domestic cats is increasing worldwide, and is strongly associated with gonadectomy. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of oestradiol in reducing food intake in both male and female neutered cats. This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that oestradiol or genistein would prevent the ...
Ma Yunsheng Y Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. - - 2007
Popular weight-loss plans often have conflicting recommendations, which makes it difficult to determine the most healthful approach to weight loss. Our study compares the dietary quality of popular weight-loss plans. Dietary quality, measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), was calculated via sample menus provided in published media for ...
Ruud Johan - - 2007
In cancer-related anorexia, body weight loss is paradoxically associated with reduced appetite, which is contrary to the situation during starvation, implying that the normal coupling of food intake to energy expenditure is disarranged. Here we examined brainstem mechanisms that may underlie suppression of food intake in a rat model of ...
Shamsaie M - - 2007
In a 3 months experiment, the effects of three different kinds of food rations including culture rotifers, commercial food and the equal amount mixture of these two foods were studied on some growth specifications and survival of the whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) fry. The initial average weight and length of the ...
Mack Christine - - 2007
The ability of amylin to reduce acute food intake in rodents is well established. Longer-term administration in rats (up to 24 days) shows a concomitant reduction in body weight, suggesting energy intake plays a significant role in mediating amylin-induced weight loss. The current set of experiments further explores the long-term ...
Priftis Kostas N - - 2007
To evaluate whether dietary habits and anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics are associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms, a sample of 700 Greek schoolchildren were evaluated through a standardized questionnaire. Body height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Multiple logistic regression and multivariate techniques (principal components ...
Etilé Fabrice - - 2007
This paper uses French data on ideal body weight and food attitudes to analyse the role of social norms in the individual's weight control problem. A proxy measure of social norms is calculated by averaging individual perceptions of the ideal Body Mass Index (BMI) over all observations within a reference ...
Bodenlos Jamie S - - 2007
Approved for treatment of treatment-resistant depression and for epilepsy, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy involves stimulation of the vagus nerve, affecting both mood and appetite regulating systems. VNS is associated with changes in food intake and weight loss in animals. Studies of its impact on food intake and weight with ...
Chelikani Prasanth K - - 2007
Chronic administration of anorexigenic substances to experimental animals by injections or continuous infusion typically produces no effect or a transient reduction in daily food intake and body weight. Our aim was to identify an intermittent dosing strategy for intraperitoneal infusion of salmon calcitonin (sCT), a homolog of amylin that produces ...
Wang Yue - - 2007
AIM OF STUDY: Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands leading to xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Evidence has accumulated suggesting that a Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance has a role in the pathogenesis of SS. Currently, only palliative treatment is available. Ophiopogon japonicus, ...
Bayol Stéphanie A - - 2007
Obesity is generally associated with high intake of junk foods rich in energy, fat, sugar and salt combined with a dysfunctional control of appetite and lack of exercise. There is some evidence to suggest that appetite and body mass can be influenced by maternal food intake during the fetal and ...
Billes Sonja K - - 2008
Bupropion (BUP) is a dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitor that causes mild weight loss in obese adults. Subchronic (7 day) coadministration of selective DA and NE reuptake inhibitors also causes weight loss in mice. Because weight loss was not associated with decreased caloric intake, subchronic BUP might cause ...
Michael Bindhu - - 2007
The Society of Toxicologic Pathology convened a working group to evaluate current practices regarding organ weights in toxicology studies. A survey was distributed to pharmaceutical, veterinary, chemical, food/nutritional and consumer product companies in Europe, North America, and Japan. Responses were compiled to identify organs routinely weighed for various study types ...
Burdock George A - - 2007
Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC; CAS No. 9004-65-3) is an odorless and tasteless, white to slightly off-white, fibrous or granular, free-flowing powder that is a synthetic modification of the natural polymer, cellulose. It is used in the food industry as a multipurpose food ingredient. HPMC is approved by FDA as both ...
van Heerden Fanie R - - 2007
Studies conducted at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, South Africa) identified extracts from Hoodia species, in particular Hoodia pilifera and Hoodia gordonii, as possessing appetite suppressing properties. Two pregnane glycosides were isolated by fractionation of the dried stems of H. gordonii. Their structures were determined as 3beta-[beta-D-thevetopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D- ...
Martin Corby K - - 2007
Intragastric balloons have been used for weight loss with varying success. Widespread use of intragastric balloons has been limited because balloons must be placed in, and removed from, the stomach endoscopically. Development of a balloon that does not require endoscopy suggests that obesity treatment with intragastric balloons is feasible. The ...
Kramer Phillip R - - 2007
Previously we showed that intermittent administration of nicotine (NIC) in the dark phase decreased food intake and body weight and this could be blocked when the NIC receptor antagonist mecamylamine was infused into the fourth ventricle. Catecholaminergic neurons adjacent to the fourth ventricle contain NIC receptors and directly innervate the ...
Carels Robert A - - 2007
This investigation was designed to improve behavioral weight loss program (BWLP) treatment outcomes by providing stepped care (SC) to individuals experiencing difficulties with weight loss during treatment. SC entails transition to more intensive treatments when less intensive treatments fail to meet treatment goals. In a BWLP, motivational interviewing (MI) may ...
Ledikwe Jenny H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Dietary energy density (ED) reductions are associated with energy intake (EI) reductions. Little is known about influences on body weight (BW). OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of behavioral interventions on ED values and explored how 6-mo ED changes relate to BW. DESIGN: Prehypertensive and hypertensive persons were randomly assigned ...
Jethwa Preeti H PH School of Biomedical Sciences and Institute of Neuroscience, University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, United Kingdom. - - 2007
The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with significantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role ...
Schroeter Christiane - - 2008
We develop a theoretical model to identify conditions under which price and income changes are most likely to change weight. Although it is intuitive that raising the price of high-calorie food will decrease consumption of such goods; it is not clear that such an outcome will actually reduce weight. Our ...
Portugal Steven J - - 2007
Many different physiological changes have been observed in wild waterfowl during the flightless stage of wing moult, including a loss of body mass. We aimed to determine whether captive barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) would show the characteristic decrease in body mass during their wing moult, even though they had unlimited ...
Williamson Donald A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The Wise Mind pilot study compared the efficacy of an environmental approach for prevention of inappropriate weight gain in children with an active control condition that used an environmental approach for modifying expectancies related to the use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A total of ...
Smith Milton T - - 2007
The spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies includes food bolus impaction in the esophagus, nonfood objects that are swallowed, and various objects that may be inserted into the rectum. The risk depends upon the type of object and its location. Fortunately, 80% to 90% of ingested foreign bodies will pass ...
Lagaud Guy J - - 2007
Obestatin was recently described as a bioactive peptide encoded for by the same gene as ghrelin but with opposite actions on food intake. Although some groups have confirmed these findings others find no effect. We investigated the effect of obestatin on feeding in rodents over a wide range of doses. ...
Carels Robert A - - 2007
People frequently place foods into "health" or "diet" categories. This study examined whether (1) evaluations of "healthiness/unhealthiness" influence "caloric" estimation accuracy, (2) people evaluate foods for "healthiness/unhealthiness" or "weight gain/loss" differently, and (3) food evaluations differ by gender, diet status, and weight. Also, undergraduate dieters attempting to lose weight on ...
Bugajski A J - - 2007
Regulation of food intake and body weight is accomplished by several mechanisms. CNS receives information from periphery and modifies food intake mainly by vagal nerves that provide the major neuroanatomical link between gastrointestinal sites stimulated during food intake and CNS sites that control feeding behavior and metabolism. Gastric mechanoreceptors and ...
Peterson Jana - - 2007
The study is focused on creating an anthropometric model that would enable to associate the body build peculiarities with nutritional variables. Thirty-six body measurements and 12 skinfolds were measured on 131 17-23-year-old female students of the University of Tartu, and 12 body composition characteristics were calculated. The subjects had to ...
Roberts Andrew T - - 2007
The objective of this study was to test the safety and efficacy of NT, a dietary herbal supplement made from rhubarb, ginger, astragulus, red sage, and turmeric, combined with gallic acid (GA) to reduce food intake and cause weight loss. A total of 105 healthy subjects, 18-60 years old with ...
Bonomo Isabela Teixeira - - 2007
Maternal malnutrition during lactation reduces prolactin (PRL) and milk production, alters milk composition, and programs the body weight of the offspring. Our study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of maternal hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation on food ingestion, body weight, amount of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RPWAT), leptinemia, ...
Mahdavi B - - 2007
In four grasspea varieties include ardabil, sharekord, mashhad and zanjan, the effects of different salinity concentrations on seed germination percent, proline concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA), germination index, radicle and hypocotyl length and weight were studied. Result showed that salinity had significant effects on seed germination percentage and germination index. The most ...
Harrington W Wallace - - 2007
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, delta, and gamma subtypes increases expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation and alters adiposity in animal models of obesity and type-2 diabetes. PPARpan agonists which activate all three receptor subtypes have antidiabetic activity in animal models without the weight ...
Suslova K G - - 2007
Results of the long-term autopsy studies on plutonium body burden in the population of Ozyorsk situated in the vicinity of the radiochemical plant of the Mayak Production Association (Russia) have been presented. The data were obtained from radiochemical analysis of the soft tissue and bone samples collected at the autopsy ...
Webber Bruce L - - 2007
Plant food bodies are rarely observed in the field, because of continual harvesting, and are often first documented on isolated glasshouse plants. Little is known about the genus Ryparosa (Achariaceae), and the appearance of outgrowths on leaves and stems of glasshouse-raised R. kurrangii seedlings suggested that the species may produce ...
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