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Arble Deanna M - - 2009
Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a ...
Garc?a-C?ceres Cristina - - 2010
Food intake and weight gain are known to be affected by stress. However, the type and duration of the stress may have variable effects, with males and females responding differently. We report the short-term and long-term effects of prenatal and adult immobilization stress, as well as the combination of these ...
Bauchinger Ulf - - 2009
Almost all of the internal organs of migrating birds undergo pronounced mass changes, but the digestive tract changes most and fastest. The masses of the small intestine and the liver may be reduced by as much as 50% during migratory flight, indicating extreme phenotypic flexibility. Birds must rebuild these organs ...
Lakdawalla Darius D Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economicsa, and School of Policy, Planning, and Development, University of Southern California, 650 Childs Way, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0626, United States. - - 2009
This paper presents a dynamic theory of body weight and develops its implications. We argue that technological change has induced weight growth by making home- and market-production more sedentary and by lowering food prices through agricultural innovation. In addition, we illustrate that, while exercise and food intake are complements, reductions ...
Butera Peter C - - 2010
Gonadal steroids are among the many factors that influence food intake and body weight in mammals. Hormonal effects on these processes are particularly striking in female rats, which show large increases in food intake and body weight after ovariectomy. A key role of estradiol in the control of food intake ...
Hill Claire - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The relative reinforcing value (RRV) of food, defined as how hard an individual is prepared to work to gain access to food rather than a nonfood alternative, has been shown to be higher in obese adults and children than in their normal-weight counterparts. However, these cross-sectional studies are unable ...
Jaruratanasirikul Somchit - - 2009
Objectives. To assess the nutritional intake and gestational weight gain of pregnant women and the relationship between nutritional intake, gestational weight gain, and neonatal birth weight. Methods. A prospective cohort study was carried out in three districts of Songkhla Province in southern Thailand. Nutritional intakes were calculated based on a ...
Choi S S H - - 2009
1,4-alpha-Glucan branching enzyme (BE; EC 2.4.1.18) is a key biocatalyst in the synthesis of polysaccharides, and is therefore useful in the production of food ingredients. The BEs evaluated in this study (BE-01 and BE-02) are obtained by fermentation of Bacillus subtilis expressing the BE gene from either Bacillus stearothermophilus strain ...
Zagorsky Jay L - - 2009
Obesity poses substantial costs both to the individual and society, mainly through its impact on health and labor productivity. Because obesity is more prevalent among the poor some have raised concerns that food assistance programs may encourage excess weight. This paper investigates whether the U.S. Food Stamp Program contributes to ...
Smith Evelyn - - 2009
The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of attentional training towards shape, weight and food related information on body dissatisfaction and dietary restriction. A total of 98 female participants were trained to attend to negative shape/weight words, positive shape/weight words, negative (high calorie) food words, positive ...
Osunde, ZD; ; zinashdo@yahoo.com
Yam is one of the preferred staple foods in West Africa. The annual vegetative cycle of yam necessitates a long period of storage to make it available all year round. The major problems in yam tuber storage are sprouting, respiration and transpiration, which cause weight and quality losses. In this ...
Pollock K - - 2010
The Julia Creek dunnart (Sminthopsis douglasi) is an endangered carnivorous marsupial belonging to the family Dasyuridae. This study investigated the oestrous cycle of this species in terms of its reproductive physiology and behaviour to explore more efficient methods of oestrus detection. Ten sexually mature captive female dunnarts were monitored daily ...
Rubin Beverly S BS Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, United States. - - 2009
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from products in contact with food and drink, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In a recent cross sectional study, BPA was detected in ...
Behre, ET; ;
Two experiments were conducted to determine the response in performance, including uniformity and mortality, of two broiler strains to dietary protein content. In Experiment 1, 480 Cobb 500 and 480 Ross 788 day-old sexed broiler chickens were housed in cages to 21 d with 10 chickens per cage, and in ...
Li Fuzhong - - 2009
This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up ...
Bahwere Paluku - - 2009
A prospective descriptive study to assess acceptability and effectiveness of a locally made ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) in HIV-infected chronically sick adults (CSA) with mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) <210 mm or pitting edema. Sixty-three wasted AIDS adults were prescribed 500 g representing ~2600 kcal/day of locally made RUTF for three months ...
Furukawa Akihiro - - 2009
In our exploratory campaign for an antihyperglycemic agent with a novel mechanism of action, (-)-Cercosporamide 1, which is known as an antifungal agent, showed a potent plasma glucose lowering effect in hyperglycemic KK/Ta mice. The trouble was that it was accompanied by a decrease in food intake and a loss ...
Verty Aaron N A - - 2009
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR 141716) produces a sustained decrease in body weight on a background of a transient reduction in food intake. An increase in energy expenditure has been implicated, possibly mediated via peripheral endocannabinoid system; however, the role of the central endocannabinoid system is unclear. The ...
Barboza Perry S - - 2008
Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) use body stores (capital) and food intake (income) for survival and reproduction. Intakes of low-nitrogen (N) food declined in winter and increased in spring (51-83 g dry matter kg(-0.75) d(-1)). Reindeer calved before regaining food intake, whereas caribou calved 28 d ...
Gutierrez Emilio - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Activity-based anorexia (ABA) provides an animal model of anorexia nervosa (AN). In this model, rats given restricted access to food but unrestricted access to activity wheels, run excessively while reducing food intake, lose a sizeable percentage of body weight, become hypothermic, and can fail to recover unless removed from ...
Treuer T - - 2008
Weight gain, diabetes, and changes in serum lipid profiles have been reported during treatment with typical and atypical antipsychotics. An association between diabetes and psychotic disorders was described long before the introduction of pharmacological agents for the treatment of schizophrenia. Several theories have been proposed to explain the baseline weight ...
Lucca Giancarlo - - 2008
Major depression is a common, serious and recurrent disorder that affects 17-20% of the population of the world. The chronic mild stress (CMS) model has been used as an animal model of depression but reflect anhedonia in animals. Present study investigated behavioral, physiological and neurochemical aspects of rats exposed to ...
Mendieta-Zerón Hugo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Existing therapeutic strategies to achieve and maintain clinically significant weight loss in morbid obesity remain limited and the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is still the most effective among the bariatric surgical procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the weight and food intake after this procedure in a rat model. METHODS: ...
Mendieta-Zerón Hugo - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Existing medical therapeutic strategies to achieve and maintain clinically significant weight loss in morbid obesity remain limited and the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is still the most effective among the bariatric surgical procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the weight and food intake after this procedure in a rat model. ...
Hoogenboom Richard R Laboratory of Macromolecular Chemistry and Nanoscience, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600, MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. r.hoogenboom@tue.nl - - 2008
The cloud point of copolymers of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and 2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline could be tuned from 25 degrees C to 100 degrees C by varying molecular weight and composition; the reversibility and concentration dependence of the cloud points were evaluated to assess the potential of these copoly(2-oxazoline)s as alternatives to poly(N-isopropylacrylamide).
Gluck Marci E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Nighttime food intake has rarely been studied in inpatient settings and only one study observed a relation between self-reported nighttime eating and weight gain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence of nighttime eating and its effect on weight change. DESIGN: Healthy nondiabetic Pima Indians (n = 117; 67 M, 50 ...
Larsen Peter K - - 2008
Photogrammetry is used in forensic science to help identify perpetrators from crime scenes by way of surveillance video, but the reproducibility of manually locating hidden body-points such as the joints remains to be established. In this study, we quantified the inter- and intra-observer variability of bodily measures of clothed individuals ...
Alam Md Mahbub - - 2008
An alternative drag coefficient Cda [=F[over]/(1/2rhoUinfinity2UinfinityTs)] , is proposed for an isolated bluff-body wake, where F[over] is the drag force on the body per unit length, U_{infinity} is the free-stream velocity, rho is the density of fluid, and Ts is the vortex shedding period. Theoretical analysis presently conducted indicates that, ...
Groffen Heidi - - 2008
The Spix's macaw, or little blue macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), is one of the most critically endangered bird species in the world. In 1990, the Brazilian Nature Conservation Authority established a permanent committee to oversee the captive breeding of about 20 individual Spix's macaws held in various locations throughout the world. ...
Mitchell G - - 2008
Since the Eocene, the diversity of artiodactyls has increased while that of perissodactyls has decreased. Reasons given for this contrasting pattern are that the evolution of a ruminant digestive tract and improved locomotion in artiodactyls were adaptively advantageous in the highly seasonal post-Eocene climate. We suggest that evolution of a ...
Nogueiras Ruben - - 2008
Blockade of the CB1 receptor is one of the promising strategies for the treatment of obesity. Although antagonists suppress food intake and reduce body weight, the role of central versus peripheral CB1 activation on weight loss and related metabolic parameters remains to be elucidated. We therefore specifically assessed and compared ...
Sonne Christian - - 2009
We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical properties during bending (displacement [mm], load [N], energy absorption [J] ...
Jia Lin - - 2008
AIM: To investigate the effects of mirtazapine and fluoxetine, representatives of the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant respectively, on body weight, ingestive behavior, locomotor activity and tumor growth of human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. METHODS: A subcutaneous xenograft model of ...
Christiansen Edmund - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Most people maintain almost constant body weight over long time with varying physical activity and food intake. This indicates the existence of a regulation that works well for most individuals. Yet some people develop obesity, indicating that this regulation sometimes fails. The difference between the two situations is typically ...
Frost Paul C - - 2008
1. An animal's elemental composition can be an important indicator of its physiological state and role in ecosystem nutrient cycling. We examined the interactive effects of bacterial (Pasteuria ramosa) infection and phosphorus (P)-poor food on the body stoichiometry of Daphnia magna. Daphnia were exposed to or held free of a ...
Snigdha S - - 2008
Weight gain induced by some second-generation anti-psychotics such as olanzapine has emerged as a most debilitating side-effect. This study investigates whether co-administration with either ziprasidone or aripiprazole, which have little propensity to induce weight gain, can attenuate the hyperphagic effect of olanzapine. Female hooded-Lister rats (n=8 per group) were treated ...
Fujii Hajime - - 2008
Oligonol is a phenolic product derived from lychee fruit extract and green tea extract, containing catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins, produced by a manufacturing process which converts polyphenol polymers into oligomers. The safety of Oligonol was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In a single dose ...
Ouwehand Carolijn - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which food temptation influences liking, the hedonics of food, and wanting, the motivation to eat, and whether this effect differed between normal-weight and overweight women. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Ninety-seven normal-weight and overweight women participated in a randomized ...
Reidelberger Roger D - - 2008
Chronic administration of anorexigenic substances to experimental animals by injections or continuous infusion typically produces either no effect or a transient reduction in food intake and body weight. Our aim here was to identify an intermittent dosing strategy for intraperitoneal infusion of peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] that produces a sustained reduction ...
Jensen B H - - 2008
Probabilistic and deterministic estimates of the acute and chronic exposure of the Danish populations to dithiocarbamate residues were performed. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment programme (MCRA 4.0) was used for the probabilistic risk assessment. Food consumption data were obtained from the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000--02. Residue data for ...
Zhu F - - 2008
Although many methods have been utilized to measure degrees of body hydration, and in particular to estimate normal hydration states (dry weight, DW) in hemodialysis (HD) patients, no accurate methods are currently available for clinical use. Biochemcial measurements are not sufficiently precise and vena cava diameter estimation is impractical. Several ...
Geschwind Nicole - - 2008
The influence of dietary restraint and food exposure on body satisfaction was tested. Body and weight satisfaction were measured before and after exposure to either high- or low-caloric food, without actual eating. Independent of caloric condition, higher dietary restraint was associated with a decrease in body satisfaction after food exposure. ...
Wang Yan - - 2008
AIM OF THE STUDY: Our previous results have shown one species of parasitic loranthus (Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Dancer) exhibits potent inhibition on fatty acid synthase (FAS) that is proposed to be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity. However, the medicinal parasitic loranthus come from tens of plants of ...
Renwick A G - - 2008
There are more published dietary exposure data for intense sweeteners than for any other group of food additives. Data are available for countries with different patterns of sweetener approvals and also for population groups with high potential intakes, such as children and diabetic subjects. These data provide a secure basis ...
Kahn Henry D - - 2009
Water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for a number of age range groups. The age ranges, based on guidance from the ...
Cope M B - - 2008
Evidence concerning the relationship between soyfoods and weight loss was reviewed. Detailed searches of PubMed and Web of Science were performed to identify and evaluate evidence for or against four propositions related to soyfoods and weight loss (Data from in vitro, animal, epidemiologic, and clinical studies were evaluated and summarized). ...
Barberet Virginie - - 2008
We assessed factors that affected ultrasonographic visualization of the pylorus, duodenal papilla, pancreas, adrenal glands, and jejunal and medial iliac lymph nodes in the dog. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed on 100 canine patients, equally divided between two facilities. The pylorus was visible in 64% of the dogs, the ...
Anschutz Doeschka J - - 2008
The effects of exposure to televised thin and average size models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake were examined. Normal weight female students (N=104) were exposed to a 30-min movie clip featuring beautiful girls. Half of them viewed the movie clip in normal screen size (4:3) and the other ...
Miller C E - - 2008
This study quantifies the shape change in elephant manus and pes anatomy with increasing body mass, using computed tomographic scanning. Most manus and pes bones, and manus tendons, maintain their shape, or become more gracile, through ontogeny. Contrary to this, tendons of the pes become significantly more robust, suggesting functional ...
Giacosa Attilio - - 2008
Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by high prevalence and multifactorial etiology. The pathophysiology of cancer-induced weight loss is mainly due to failure of food intake and to various metabolic abnormalities, including hypermetabolism. Multiple biologic pathways are involved in this process, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuroendocrine hormones and tumour specific factors ...
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