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Treuer T - - 2008
Weight gain, diabetes, and changes in serum lipid profiles have been reported during treatment with typical and atypical antipsychotics. An association between diabetes and psychotic disorders was described long before the introduction of pharmacological agents for the treatment of schizophrenia. Several theories have been proposed to explain the baseline weight ...
Lucca Giancarlo - - 2008
Major depression is a common, serious and recurrent disorder that affects 17-20% of the population of the world. The chronic mild stress (CMS) model has been used as an animal model of depression but reflect anhedonia in animals. Present study investigated behavioral, physiological and neurochemical aspects of rats exposed to ...
Mendieta-Zerón Hugo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Existing therapeutic strategies to achieve and maintain clinically significant weight loss in morbid obesity remain limited and the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is still the most effective among the bariatric surgical procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the weight and food intake after this procedure in a rat model. METHODS: ...
Mendieta-Zerón Hugo - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Existing medical therapeutic strategies to achieve and maintain clinically significant weight loss in morbid obesity remain limited and the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is still the most effective among the bariatric surgical procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the weight and food intake after this procedure in a rat model. ...
Hoogenboom Richard R Laboratory of Macromolecular Chemistry and Nanoscience, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600, MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. r.hoogenboom@tue.nl - - 2008
The cloud point of copolymers of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and 2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline could be tuned from 25 degrees C to 100 degrees C by varying molecular weight and composition; the reversibility and concentration dependence of the cloud points were evaluated to assess the potential of these copoly(2-oxazoline)s as alternatives to poly(N-isopropylacrylamide).
Gluck Marci E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Nighttime food intake has rarely been studied in inpatient settings and only one study observed a relation between self-reported nighttime eating and weight gain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence of nighttime eating and its effect on weight change. DESIGN: Healthy nondiabetic Pima Indians (n = 117; 67 M, 50 ...
Larsen Peter K - - 2008
Photogrammetry is used in forensic science to help identify perpetrators from crime scenes by way of surveillance video, but the reproducibility of manually locating hidden body-points such as the joints remains to be established. In this study, we quantified the inter- and intra-observer variability of bodily measures of clothed individuals ...
Alam Md Mahbub - - 2008
An alternative drag coefficient Cda [=F[over]/(1/2rhoUinfinity2UinfinityTs)] , is proposed for an isolated bluff-body wake, where F[over] is the drag force on the body per unit length, U_{infinity} is the free-stream velocity, rho is the density of fluid, and Ts is the vortex shedding period. Theoretical analysis presently conducted indicates that, ...
Groffen Heidi - - 2008
The Spix's macaw, or little blue macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), is one of the most critically endangered bird species in the world. In 1990, the Brazilian Nature Conservation Authority established a permanent committee to oversee the captive breeding of about 20 individual Spix's macaws held in various locations throughout the world. ...
Mitchell G - - 2008
Since the Eocene, the diversity of artiodactyls has increased while that of perissodactyls has decreased. Reasons given for this contrasting pattern are that the evolution of a ruminant digestive tract and improved locomotion in artiodactyls were adaptively advantageous in the highly seasonal post-Eocene climate. We suggest that evolution of a ...
Nogueiras Ruben - - 2008
Blockade of the CB1 receptor is one of the promising strategies for the treatment of obesity. Although antagonists suppress food intake and reduce body weight, the role of central versus peripheral CB1 activation on weight loss and related metabolic parameters remains to be elucidated. We therefore specifically assessed and compared ...
Sonne Christian - - 2009
We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical properties during bending (displacement [mm], load [N], energy absorption [J] ...
Jia Lin - - 2008
AIM: To investigate the effects of mirtazapine and fluoxetine, representatives of the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant respectively, on body weight, ingestive behavior, locomotor activity and tumor growth of human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. METHODS: A subcutaneous xenograft model of ...
Christiansen Edmund - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Most people maintain almost constant body weight over long time with varying physical activity and food intake. This indicates the existence of a regulation that works well for most individuals. Yet some people develop obesity, indicating that this regulation sometimes fails. The difference between the two situations is typically ...
Frost Paul C - - 2008
1. An animal's elemental composition can be an important indicator of its physiological state and role in ecosystem nutrient cycling. We examined the interactive effects of bacterial (Pasteuria ramosa) infection and phosphorus (P)-poor food on the body stoichiometry of Daphnia magna. Daphnia were exposed to or held free of a ...
Snigdha S - - 2008
Weight gain induced by some second-generation anti-psychotics such as olanzapine has emerged as a most debilitating side-effect. This study investigates whether co-administration with either ziprasidone or aripiprazole, which have little propensity to induce weight gain, can attenuate the hyperphagic effect of olanzapine. Female hooded-Lister rats (n=8 per group) were treated ...
Fujii Hajime - - 2008
Oligonol is a phenolic product derived from lychee fruit extract and green tea extract, containing catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins, produced by a manufacturing process which converts polyphenol polymers into oligomers. The safety of Oligonol was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In a single dose ...
Ouwehand Carolijn - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which food temptation influences liking, the hedonics of food, and wanting, the motivation to eat, and whether this effect differed between normal-weight and overweight women. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Ninety-seven normal-weight and overweight women participated in a randomized ...
Reidelberger Roger D - - 2008
Chronic administration of anorexigenic substances to experimental animals by injections or continuous infusion typically produces either no effect or a transient reduction in food intake and body weight. Our aim here was to identify an intermittent dosing strategy for intraperitoneal infusion of peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] that produces a sustained reduction ...
Jensen B H - - 2008
Probabilistic and deterministic estimates of the acute and chronic exposure of the Danish populations to dithiocarbamate residues were performed. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment programme (MCRA 4.0) was used for the probabilistic risk assessment. Food consumption data were obtained from the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000--02. Residue data for ...
Zhu F - - 2008
Although many methods have been utilized to measure degrees of body hydration, and in particular to estimate normal hydration states (dry weight, DW) in hemodialysis (HD) patients, no accurate methods are currently available for clinical use. Biochemcial measurements are not sufficiently precise and vena cava diameter estimation is impractical. Several ...
Geschwind Nicole - - 2008
The influence of dietary restraint and food exposure on body satisfaction was tested. Body and weight satisfaction were measured before and after exposure to either high- or low-caloric food, without actual eating. Independent of caloric condition, higher dietary restraint was associated with a decrease in body satisfaction after food exposure. ...
Wang Yan - - 2008
AIM OF THE STUDY: Our previous results have shown one species of parasitic loranthus (Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Dancer) exhibits potent inhibition on fatty acid synthase (FAS) that is proposed to be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity. However, the medicinal parasitic loranthus come from tens of plants of ...
Renwick A G - - 2008
There are more published dietary exposure data for intense sweeteners than for any other group of food additives. Data are available for countries with different patterns of sweetener approvals and also for population groups with high potential intakes, such as children and diabetic subjects. These data provide a secure basis ...
Kahn Henry D - - 2009
Water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for a number of age range groups. The age ranges, based on guidance from the ...
Cope M B - - 2008
Evidence concerning the relationship between soyfoods and weight loss was reviewed. Detailed searches of PubMed and Web of Science were performed to identify and evaluate evidence for or against four propositions related to soyfoods and weight loss (Data from in vitro, animal, epidemiologic, and clinical studies were evaluated and summarized). ...
Barberet Virginie - - 2008
We assessed factors that affected ultrasonographic visualization of the pylorus, duodenal papilla, pancreas, adrenal glands, and jejunal and medial iliac lymph nodes in the dog. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed on 100 canine patients, equally divided between two facilities. The pylorus was visible in 64% of the dogs, the ...
Anschutz Doeschka J - - 2008
The effects of exposure to televised thin and average size models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake were examined. Normal weight female students (N=104) were exposed to a 30-min movie clip featuring beautiful girls. Half of them viewed the movie clip in normal screen size (4:3) and the other ...
Miller C E - - 2008
This study quantifies the shape change in elephant manus and pes anatomy with increasing body mass, using computed tomographic scanning. Most manus and pes bones, and manus tendons, maintain their shape, or become more gracile, through ontogeny. Contrary to this, tendons of the pes become significantly more robust, suggesting functional ...
Giacosa Attilio - - 2008
Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by high prevalence and multifactorial etiology. The pathophysiology of cancer-induced weight loss is mainly due to failure of food intake and to various metabolic abnormalities, including hypermetabolism. Multiple biologic pathways are involved in this process, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuroendocrine hormones and tumour specific factors ...
Yamochi Tadanori - - 2008
We identified human decapping enzyme 2 (hDCP2) as a binding protein with Ro52, being colocalized in processing bodies (p-bodies). We also showed that the N-terminus and C-terminus of Ro52 bound to hDCP2. Moreover, Ro52 enhanced decapping activity of hDCP2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our data support the novel notion of ...
Hawlena Hadas - - 2008
Temporal variation in body condition and immunological variables of animals that harbor parasites may explain patterns of variation in infestation, as well as parasite impact on the host. We emulated such variability in Sundevall's jirds by manipulating food availability and flea infestation in juveniles and adults and examining how these ...
Bodanezi Augusto - - 2008
This study investigated the solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement since its mixture until 672 hours, by means of two complimentary methods. Metal ring molds filled with the cements were covered with distilled water and, at each experimental time (3, 24, 72, 168, 336 and 672 hours), ...
Weston-Green Katrina - - 2008
Some atypical antipsychotics clinically used to treat schizophrenia induce weight gain by unknown mechanisms. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the brainstem and the endogenous cannabinoid system are implicated in the regulation of appetite signalling and food intake. We investigated whether antipsychotic drugs alter cannabinoid receptor-binding density in the DVC. ...
Choi, Mi-Ja
This study was performed to determine the effect of isoflavone on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in growing male rats. Twenty male, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups, that underwent 9 weeks of experi-ental treatment. Animals were assigned to one of two diet groups (casein group or casein ...
Reinholz Julia - - 2008
There is increasing evidence for a role of dopamine in the development of obesity. More specifically, dopaminergic hypofunction might lead to (over)compensatory food intake. Overeating and resulting weight gain may be induced by genetic predisposition for lower dopaminergic activity, but might also be a behavioral mechanism of compensating for decreased ...
Munn Adam J - - 2008
Young mammalian herbivores are more vulnerable to harsh winter conditions than adults, especially among large circumpolar species like the muskox (Ovibos moschatus). We compared feeding responses of muskox calves (body mass 95 kg) with those of mature, non-reproductive females (body mass 227 kg) in mid-winter when air temperatures fell to ...
Rodríguez-Jimenez Andrea - - 2008
Jame's rule proposes a direct relationship between body size and altitude. There are several studies about this rule; however, few studies analyze proportional changes in body parts along gradients. The morphological variation of Agelaia pallipes (Olivier) in five sites along an altitudinal gradient (2600-3380 m) in the Santuario de Iguaque, ...
Vaughn Nerissa - - 2008
Some studies suggest that increased consumption of soy protein hydrolysates may cause body weight loss but the mechanism of action is unknown. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of soy protein hydrolysates decrease food intake and body weight. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n ...
Vincent R P - - 2008
Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatments for achieving long-term weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Bariatric surgery causes weight loss through substantial decline of hunger and increased satiety. Recently our understanding of neuroendocrine regulation of food intake and weight gain, especially regarding the role of gut hormones, ...
Wittenberg, Dankwart F.
Failure to gain weight in a normal way relates to problems of food intake, uptake and utilisation. Practically speaking, the problem is one of two main categories: insufficient food intake or an organic condition leading to failure to thrive. The health professional must distinguish between these in order to respond ...
Klein K M - - 2008
To evaluate prospectively the relationship between appetite, food composition, nutritional habits and weight loss following administration of topiramate (TPM) and to identify predictors for TPM induced weight loss. 22 patients with epilepsy who were started on TPM were prospectively followed for 6 months and contacted again after a mean follow-up ...
Johannsen Darcy L - - 2007
Current physical activity recommendations call for 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week, or the equivalent of expending approximately 1000 kcal in activity per week. These recommendations were formulated based on reducing the risk for chronic disease, but they do not appear adequate for weight loss ...
Pissios Pavlos - - 2007
Serotonergic agents have been used in the past for reduction of appetite and body weight. As reported by Zhou et al. (2007) in this issue of Cell Metabolism, they also have unexpected effects on peripheral glucose homeostasis independent of food intake and body weight.
Sargisson Rebecca J - - 2007
The weights of 5 pigeons with free access to food, monitored over 3 calendar years in the laboratory, were found to fluctuate with season. All pigeons were at their heaviest in the winter and were lightest in the summer. Five different pigeons performed a standard delayed matching-to-sample task for 44 ...
Cave N J - - 2007
The prevalence of obesity in domestic cats is increasing worldwide, and is strongly associated with gonadectomy. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of oestradiol in reducing food intake in both male and female neutered cats. This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that oestradiol or genistein would prevent the ...
Ma Yunsheng - - 2007
Popular weight-loss plans often have conflicting recommendations, which makes it difficult to determine the most healthful approach to weight loss. Our study compares the dietary quality of popular weight-loss plans. Dietary quality, measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), was calculated via sample menus provided in published media for ...
Ruud Johan - - 2007
In cancer-related anorexia, body weight loss is paradoxically associated with reduced appetite, which is contrary to the situation during starvation, implying that the normal coupling of food intake to energy expenditure is disarranged. Here we examined brainstem mechanisms that may underlie suppression of food intake in a rat model of ...
Shamsaie M - - 2007
In a 3 months experiment, the effects of three different kinds of food rations including culture rotifers, commercial food and the equal amount mixture of these two foods were studied on some growth specifications and survival of the whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) fry. The initial average weight and length of the ...
Mack Christine - - 2007
The ability of amylin to reduce acute food intake in rodents is well established. Longer-term administration in rats (up to 24 days) shows a concomitant reduction in body weight, suggesting energy intake plays a significant role in mediating amylin-induced weight loss. The current set of experiments further explores the long-term ...
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