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Behary Preeshila P Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London, - - 2014
In this symposium report, we examine how functional neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of human eating behaviour. In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography techniques have enabled researchers to understand how the human brain regions that control homeostatic and hedonic eating respond to food in ...
Bednarska Agnieszka J AJ Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Kraków, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Although terrestrial invertebrates are often exposed to mixtures of chemicals in the field, little is known about their combined effects on metabolism. We studied the effects of nickel (Ni), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and their mixtures on the respiration rate of the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus in a toxicokinetics experiment. The respiration ...
Mulder Cornelis Kees CK Department of Molecular Neurobiology - - 2014
During Time-Place Learning (TPL), animals link biological significant events (e.g. encountering predators, food, mates) with the location and time of occurrence in the environment. This allows animals to anticipate which locations to visit or avoid based on previous experience and knowledge of the current time of day. The TPL task ...
Okada Y - - 2014
The preferences of the West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), to tubers of sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.), for food and for oviposition were evaluated, and correlated to sweet potato's resistance to immatures. Adults (parent) were released in a plastic box containing tubers of sweet potato cultivars and ...
Karasawa Hiroshi H - - 2014
Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of stable somatostatin (SST) agonists stimulates food and water intake in rats. We investigated the receptor subtype(s) involved in the dipsogenic effect of icv SST agonists, mechanisms of action and role. In non-fasted and non-water deprived male rats with chronic icv cannula, intake of water without food ...
Boons Kathleen K CPMF - Flemish Cluster Predictive Microbiology in Foods - www.cpmf2.be BioTeC - Chemical and Biochemical Process Technology and Control, Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, - - 2014
Literature acknowledges the effect of food structure on bacterial dynamics. Most studies introduce this "structure" factor using a single gelling agent, resulting in a homogeneous environment, while in practice most food products are heterogeneous. Therefore, this study focuses on heterogeneous protein-polysaccharide mixtures, based on gelatin and dextran. These mixtures show ...
Arquiza J M R Apollo JM Department of Biological & Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, - - 2014
Fungal growth on solid foods can make them unfit for human consumption, but certain specialty foods require fungi to produce their characteristic properties. In either case, a reliable way of measuring biomass is needed to study how various factors (e.g. water activity) affect fungal growth rates on these substrates. Biochemical ...
Pyszczynski Adam D AD Utah State - - 2014
Resurgence refers to the reappearance of an extinguished operant behavior when reinforcement for an alternative behavior is also subsequently discontinued. Resurgence has been noted as a source of relapse to problem behavior following interventions involving alternative reinforcement, and has also been recently used as an animal model of relapse to ...
Arcand JoAnne J Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
Population-wide sodium reduction strategies aim to reduce the cardiovascular burden of excess dietary sodium. Lowering sodium in packaged foods, which contribute the most dietary sodium, is an important intervention to lower population intakes. To determine sodium levels in Canadian packaged foods and evaluate the proportion of foods meeting sodium benchmark ...
Gong Xiao X a Chinese Agricultural Ministry Key Laboratory of Tropical Crop Products Processing , Zhanjiang , - - 2014
A survey of biogenic amine content of traditional Chinese fermented foods (douchi, sufu, fermented sausage, yulu, and shrimp paste) was carried out. Eight major biogenic amines including putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tyramine, spermine, spermidine, and tryptamine were separated by reversed phase HPLC-DAD on Inertsil ODS-SP column after pre-column derivatization with ...
Swiergosz-Kowalewska Renata R Jegiellonian University, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
One of the most important issues in ecotoxicology is better understanding the effects of interactions between chemical pollutants and physical environmental factors on animals. To fill this knowledge gap, changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain samples of bank voles Myodes (Clethrionomys) glareolus due to temperature effects, ...
Anderson Megan R MR a Animal Care Sciences, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution , Washington , - - 2014
Gibbons have adapted to live in the canopy layer of the rainforest. Gibbons in the wild predominantly spend their time high in the trees resting, traveling, and foraging for food. Comparatively, gibbons in the zoo often rest and search for their food terrestrially. The purpose of this study was to ...
Lowe Michael R MR Department of Psychology, Stratton Hall, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104. Electronic address: - - 2014
As a discussant for the 2013 IBRC Symposium on Eating Patterns, Diet Quality and Energy Balance at Purdue University, I describe here several reflections I had on the papers as a whole. I initially focus on the keynote address by Dr. Leonard. His address suggested that the evolutionary development of ...
Afeworki Y Y Department of Ocean Ecosystems, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, Groningen, 9747 AG, The Netherlands; Department of Applied Marine Science, College of Marine Science and Technology, P. O. Box 170, Massawa, - - 2014
Temporal trends in growth of the rusty parrotfish Scarus ferrugineus were studied on a southern Red Sea fringing reef that experiences seasonal changes in environmental conditions and benthic algal resources. Length increment data from tagging and recapture were compared among periods and sexes and modelled using GROTAG, a von Bertalanffy ...
Albertini Beatrice B Department of Pharmacy and BioTecnology, University of Bologna, Via San Donato 19/2, 40127, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The formulation development of melatonin (MLT) for infants and children with neurodevelopmental difficulties was fully investigated. This population have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders and present special challenges for drug administration and swallowing. To solve these issues, solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) were designed to obtain an oral flexible dosage ...
Oates Liza L School of Health Sciences, Wellness Group, RMIT University; PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Conventional food production commonly uses organophosphate (OP) pesticides, which can have negative health effects, while organic food is deemed healthier because it is produced without these pesticides. Studies suggest that organic food consumption may significantly reduce OP pesticide exposure in children who have relatively higher pesticide exposure than adults due ...
Oliveira Eder Costa EC UFABC - Federal University of ABC, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Bangú, CEP 09210-580, Santo André, SP, - - 2014
Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HFLPME) and solid phase microextraction (SPME) methods for pre-concentration of contaminants (toluene, benzophenone, tetracosane and chloroform) in food simulants were investigated. For HFLPME 1-heptanol, 2-octanone and dibutyl-ether were studied as extracting solvents. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame ionization (GC-FID) and ...
Stubbs R James RJ Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, - - 2014
To date, no study has directly and simultaneously measured the discrepancy between what people actually eat and what they report eating under observation in the context of energy balance (EB). The present study aimed to objectively measure the 'extent' and 'nature' of misreporting of dietary intakes under conditions in which ...
Rulquin Charlotte C École Normale Supérieure, International Center of Fundamental Physics, 45 Rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris, France and Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, - - 2014
The rock-paper-scissors game and its generalizations with S>3 species are well-studied models for cyclically interacting populations. Four is, however, the minimum number of species that, by allowing other interactions beyond the single, cyclic loop, breaks both the full intransitivity of the food graph and the one-predator, one-prey symmetry. Lütz et al. ...
Pendergast Julie S JS Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, - - 2014
The circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in mice is synchronized to environmental factors such as light and food availability. It is well-known that entrainment of the activity rhythm to the light-dark cycle is attained by the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Locomotor activity is also controlled by two ...
Tan Lavinia L Reed - - 2014
The present study examined the social foraging of rats in an open arena. The relative quantity of food varied across two food sources, or "patches." Five food quantity ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:8, 8:1, 2:1) were presented in a series of 30-min sessions. Ratios varied randomly across 6-min components within sessions ...
Fang Shuhong - - 2014
Biomagnification of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are well studied in marine food webs, but related information in fresh water ecosystem and knowledge on fractionation of their isomers along the food web are limited. The distribution, bioaccumulation, magnification and isomer fractionation of PFASs were investigated in a food web of Taihu Lake, ...
Duriez Olivier O Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (UMR5175), Université Montpellier 2, Biogeography and Ecology of Vertebrates, Montpellier, France ; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR7204 CERSP, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, - - 2014
Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the ...
Buckley Jessica L JL Department of Psychology, Idaho State University, Stop 8112, Pocatello, ID, - - 2014
Cannabinoid antagonists purportedly have greater effects in reducing the intake of highly palatable food compared to less palatable food. However, this assertion is based on free-feeding studies in which the amount of palatable food eaten under baseline conditions is often confounded with other variables, such as unequal access to both ...
Mason Belinda B Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The study objective was to develop and evaluate the feasibility and validity of a self-administered Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) for use in the routine clinical care of Australian chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The study took place in community-based outreach clinics using a multidisciplinary model of care. Assessment of sources ...
Takahashi Masaya - - 2014
The aim of the study was to elucidate whether leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) can prevent severe allergic reactions, which occur during oral immunotherapy (OIT) in children with food allergies. Five children with food allergies [3 allergic to hen's egg (HE), 1 to wheat, and one to cow's milk (CM); aged ...
Puleston Cedric C Department of Anthropology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of - - 2014
Analysis of a natural fertility agrarian society with a multi-variate model of population ecology isolates three distinct phases of population growth following settlement of a new habitat: (1) a sometimes lengthy copial phase of surplus food production and constant vital rates; (2) a brief transition phase in which food shortages ...
Bégin Philippe - - 2014
Up to 30% of patients with food allergies have clinical reactivity to more than one food allergen. Although there is currently no cure, oral immunotherapy (OIT) is under investigation. Pilot data have shown that omalizumab may hasten the ability to tolerate over 4 g of food allergen protein. To evaluate the ...
Singh Minati M Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa Iowa City, IA, USA ; Department of Pediatrics, HHMI, University of Iowa Iowa City, IA, - - 2014
Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of ...
de Sá Diana S Ferreira DS Institute of Psychobiology, Division of Clinical Psychophysiology, University of Trier, Trier, - - 2013
Previous research has shown that food deprivation enhances the acoustic startle reflex when it is elicited during presentation of visual food cues. Frustrative nonreward may explain this effect, since visual food cues are also rated to be more appetitive and arousing during food deprivation. However, the impact of menstrual cycle ...
Kawai Masanobu - - 2013
The circadian clock network is well known to link food intake and metabolic outputs. Phosphorus is a pivotal nutritional factor involved in energy and skeletal metabolisms, and possesses a circadian profile in the circulation; however, the precise mechanisms whereby phosphate metabolism is regulated by the circadian clock network remain largely ...
Witt Ashley A - - 2013
Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate ...
Koerber Jonathon - - 2013
Dopamine receptors are implicated in the reinforcing effects of food and drug reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether blocking D2 dopamine receptors during extinction (secondary reinforcement) would affect reacquisition of responding for food pellets (primary reinforcement). Food-restricted rats self-administered (fixed-ratio 1) food pellets in 1-h daily ...
Nielsen A - - 2013
Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were applied in the analysis.Results:There were marked differences in mothers' health concerns in early ...
Wiater Michael F MF Programs in Neuroscience, Washington State University, Pullman, - - 2013
Previously, we investigated the role of neuropeptide Y and leptin-sensitive networks in the mediobasal hypothalamus in sleep and feeding and found profound homeostatic and circadian deficits with an intact suprachiasmatic nucleus. We propose that the arcuate nuclei (Arc) are required for the integration of homeostatic circadian systems, including temperature and ...
Lim J W - - 2013
The objective of this work was to study the microbial community and reactor performance for the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste in single- and two-phase continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Bacterial and archaeal communities were analyzed after 150days of reactor operation. As compared to single-phase CSTR, methane ...
Grebenstein Patricia E PE Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
Increased appetite and weight gain after cessation are deterrents for quitting smoking. Pharmacotherapies that can reduce this weight gain in ex-smokers would be invaluable, and yet are not well studied in this context. To examine the effects of extended daily exposure to intravenous cytisine, an alpha4beta2 nAChR partial agonist used ...
Delezene Lucas K - - 2013
The mandibular third premolar (P3) of Australopithecus afarensis is notable for extensive morphological variability (e.g., metaconid presence/absence, closure of the anterior fovea, root number) and temporal trends in crown length and shape change over its 700 Ka time range. Hominins preceding A. afarensis have unicuspid, mesiodistally elongated P3s with smaller talonids, and ...
Nakasaki Kiyohiko - - 2013
In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, ...
Wellicome Troy I TI Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta T6G 2E9, Edmonton, Canada ; Canadian Wildlife Service Room 200, 4999-98th Ave., T6B 2X3, Edmonton, - - 2013
Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and ...
Shen Fei - - 2013
The co-digestion of fruit & vegetable waste (FVW) and food waste (FW) was performed at various organic loading ratios (OLRs) in single-phase and two-phase system, respectively. The results showed that the ethanol-type fermentation dominated in both digestion processes when OLR was at low levels (<2.0g(VS)L(-1)d(-1)). The propionic acid was rapidly ...
Moore Carla J CJ Division of Developmental & Cognitive Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States. - - 2013
The complex, interacting influences on eating behavior and energy expenditure prevent elucidation of the causal role of any single factor in the current obesity epidemic. However, greater variety in the food supply, particularly in the form of highly palatable, energy-dense foods, has likely made a contribution. This study was undertaken ...
Fleming Joshua W JW Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Jackson, MS, - - 2013
To evaluate the evidence for lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate in the treatment of obesity. Literature was accessed through PubMed (June 1975-March 2013) using the search terms lorcaserin, phentermine, topiramate, or phenter mine/topiramate. Additionally, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. Additional information was obtained from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ...
Rocha R A - - 2013
Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility ...
Kumazawa Y - - 2013
Type-1 allergic diseases consist of two phases. An inductive phase comprises IgE formation to allergens based on the immune system being biased to predominant T-helper type 2 responses. In a triggering phase allergic symptoms are triggered due to a robust secretion of mediators from mast cells and other cells after ...
Sedbazar Udval - - 2013
Obesity often results from hyperphagia and involves rhythm disorder. Circadian feeding pattern is suggested to be implicated in energy homeostasis while its disorder in obesity. However, the mechanism underlying circadian feeding is little known. PVN is considered a regulatory center for feeding and circadian activities of hormone release and autonomic ...
Meijer Tomas - - 2013
The reproduction of many species depends strongly on variation in food availability. The main prey of the arctic fox in Fennoscandia are cyclic small rodents, and its number of litters and litter size vary depending on the phase of the rodent cycle. In this experiment, we studied if the arctic ...
Pereira P H C - - 2013
During this study (December 2009 to December 2010), underwater visual surveys using the focal animal method were performed in the coastal reefs of Tamandaré, north-eastern Brazil. The aim was to analyse the effects of the life phase (juvenile and adult) and schooling patterns (school and solitary) on the feeding behaviour ...
Gibbons Catherine - - 2013
Context:The relationship between postprandial peptides at circulating physiological levels and short-term appetite control is not well understood.Objective:The purpose of this study was first to compare the postprandial profiles of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) after isoenergetic meals differing in fat and carbohydrate content and second to ...
Fungfuang Wirasak - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate food intake, serum leptin levels, and leptin mRNA expression during the sexual cycle in rats. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats aged 8-10 weeks were used in this experiment. Food intake was measured during the light and dark phases (light on at 07:00 and off ...
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