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Stubbs R James RJ Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, - - 2014
To date, no study has directly and simultaneously measured the discrepancy between what people actually eat and what they report eating under observation in the context of energy balance (EB). The present study aimed to objectively measure the 'extent' and 'nature' of misreporting of dietary intakes under conditions in which ...
Rulquin Charlotte C École Normale Supérieure, International Center of Fundamental Physics, 45 Rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris, France and Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, - - 2014
The rock-paper-scissors game and its generalizations with S>3 species are well-studied models for cyclically interacting populations. Four is, however, the minimum number of species that, by allowing other interactions beyond the single, cyclic loop, breaks both the full intransitivity of the food graph and the one-predator, one-prey symmetry. Lütz et al. ...
Pendergast Julie S JS Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, - - 2014
The circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in mice is synchronized to environmental factors such as light and food availability. It is well-known that entrainment of the activity rhythm to the light-dark cycle is attained by the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Locomotor activity is also controlled by two ...
Tan Lavinia L Reed - - 2014
The present study examined the social foraging of rats in an open arena. The relative quantity of food varied across two food sources, or "patches." Five food quantity ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:8, 8:1, 2:1) were presented in a series of 30-min sessions. Ratios varied randomly across 6-min components within sessions ...
Fang Shuhong - - 2014
Biomagnification of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are well studied in marine food webs, but related information in fresh water ecosystem and knowledge on fractionation of their isomers along the food web are limited. The distribution, bioaccumulation, magnification and isomer fractionation of PFASs were investigated in a food web of Taihu Lake, ...
Duriez Olivier O Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (UMR5175), Université Montpellier 2, Biogeography and Ecology of Vertebrates, Montpellier, France ; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR7204 CERSP, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, - - 2014
Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the ...
Buckley Jessica L JL Department of Psychology, Idaho State University, Stop 8112, Pocatello, ID, - - 2014
Cannabinoid antagonists purportedly have greater effects in reducing the intake of highly palatable food compared to less palatable food. However, this assertion is based on free-feeding studies in which the amount of palatable food eaten under baseline conditions is often confounded with other variables, such as unequal access to both ...
Mason Belinda B Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The study objective was to develop and evaluate the feasibility and validity of a self-administered Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) for use in the routine clinical care of Australian chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The study took place in community-based outreach clinics using a multidisciplinary model of care. Assessment of sources ...
Takahashi Masaya - - 2014
The aim of the study was to elucidate whether leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) can prevent severe allergic reactions, which occur during oral immunotherapy (OIT) in children with food allergies. Five children with food allergies [3 allergic to hen's egg (HE), 1 to wheat, and one to cow's milk (CM); aged ...
Puleston Cedric C Department of Anthropology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of - - 2014
Analysis of a natural fertility agrarian society with a multi-variate model of population ecology isolates three distinct phases of population growth following settlement of a new habitat: (1) a sometimes lengthy copial phase of surplus food production and constant vital rates; (2) a brief transition phase in which food shortages ...
Bégin Philippe - - 2014
Up to 30% of patients with food allergies have clinical reactivity to more than one food allergen. Although there is currently no cure, oral immunotherapy (OIT) is under investigation. Pilot data have shown that omalizumab may hasten the ability to tolerate over 4 g of food allergen protein. To evaluate the ...
de Sá Diana S Ferreira DS Institute of Psychobiology, Division of Clinical Psychophysiology, University of Trier, Trier, - - 2013
Previous research has shown that food deprivation enhances the acoustic startle reflex when it is elicited during presentation of visual food cues. Frustrative nonreward may explain this effect, since visual food cues are also rated to be more appetitive and arousing during food deprivation. However, the impact of menstrual cycle ...
Kawai Masanobu - - 2013
The circadian clock network is well known to link food intake and metabolic outputs. Phosphorus is a pivotal nutritional factor involved in energy and skeletal metabolisms, and possesses a circadian profile in the circulation; however, the precise mechanisms whereby phosphate metabolism is regulated by the circadian clock network remain largely ...
Witt Ashley A - - 2013
Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate ...
Koerber Jonathon - - 2013
Dopamine receptors are implicated in the reinforcing effects of food and drug reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether blocking D2 dopamine receptors during extinction (secondary reinforcement) would affect reacquisition of responding for food pellets (primary reinforcement). Food-restricted rats self-administered (fixed-ratio 1) food pellets in 1-h daily ...
Nielsen A - - 2013
Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were applied in the analysis.Results:There were marked differences in mothers' health concerns in early ...
Wiater Michael Foster - - 2013
Previously we investigated the role of NPY and leptin sensitive networks in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) in sleep and feeding and found profound homeostatic and circadian deficits with an intact suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We propose that the arcuate nuclei (Arc) are required for the integration of homeostatic circadian systems including ...
Lim J W - - 2013
The objective of this work was to study the microbial community and reactor performance for the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste in single- and two-phase continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Bacterial and archaeal communities were analyzed after 150days of reactor operation. As compared to single-phase CSTR, methane ...
Grebenstein Patricia E - - 2013
Increased appetite and weight gain after cessation are deterrents for quitting smoking. Pharmacotherapies that can reduce this weight gain in ex-smokers would be invaluable, and yet are not well studied in this context. To examine the effects of extended daily exposure to intravenous cytisine, an alpha4beta2 nAChR partial agonist used ...
Delezene Lucas K - - 2013
The mandibular third premolar (P3) of Australopithecus afarensis is notable for extensive morphological variability (e.g., metaconid presence/absence, closure of the anterior fovea, root number) and temporal trends in crown length and shape change over its 700 Ka time range. Hominins preceding A. afarensis have unicuspid, mesiodistally elongated P3s with smaller talonids, and ...
Nakasaki Kiyohiko - - 2013
In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, ...
Wellicome Troy I TI Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta T6G 2E9, Edmonton, Canada ; Canadian Wildlife Service Room 200, 4999-98th Ave., T6B 2X3, Edmonton, - - 2013
Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and ...
Shen Fei - - 2013
The co-digestion of fruit & vegetable waste (FVW) and food waste (FW) was performed at various organic loading ratios (OLRs) in single-phase and two-phase system, respectively. The results showed that the ethanol-type fermentation dominated in both digestion processes when OLR was at low levels (<2.0g(VS)L(-1)d(-1)). The propionic acid was rapidly ...
Moore Carla J - - 2013
The complex, interacting influences on eating behavior and energy expenditure prevent elucidation of the causal role of any single factor in the current obesity epidemic. However, greater variety in the food supply, particularly in the form of highly palatable, energy-dense foods, has likely made a contribution. This study was undertaken ...
Fleming Joshua W JW Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Jackson, MS, - - 2013
To evaluate the evidence for lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate in the treatment of obesity. Literature was accessed through PubMed (June 1975-March 2013) using the search terms lorcaserin, phentermine, topiramate, or phenter mine/topiramate. Additionally, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. Additional information was obtained from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ...
Rocha R A - - 2013
Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility ...
Kumazawa Y - - 2013
Type-1 allergic diseases consist of two phases. An inductive phase comprises IgE formation to allergens based on the immune system being biased to predominant T-helper type 2 responses. In a triggering phase allergic symptoms are triggered due to a robust secretion of mediators from mast cells and other cells after ...
Sedbazar Udval - - 2013
Obesity often results from hyperphagia and involves rhythm disorder. Circadian feeding pattern is suggested to be implicated in energy homeostasis while its disorder in obesity. However, the mechanism underlying circadian feeding is little known. PVN is considered a regulatory center for feeding and circadian activities of hormone release and autonomic ...
Meijer Tomas - - 2013
The reproduction of many species depends strongly on variation in food availability. The main prey of the arctic fox in Fennoscandia are cyclic small rodents, and its number of litters and litter size vary depending on the phase of the rodent cycle. In this experiment, we studied if the arctic ...
Pereira P H C - - 2013
During this study (December 2009 to December 2010), underwater visual surveys using the focal animal method were performed in the coastal reefs of Tamandaré, north-eastern Brazil. The aim was to analyse the effects of the life phase (juvenile and adult) and schooling patterns (school and solitary) on the feeding behaviour ...
Gibbons Catherine - - 2013
Context:The relationship between postprandial peptides at circulating physiological levels and short-term appetite control is not well understood.Objective:The purpose of this study was first to compare the postprandial profiles of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) after isoenergetic meals differing in fat and carbohydrate content and second to ...
Fungfuang Wirasak - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate food intake, serum leptin levels, and leptin mRNA expression during the sexual cycle in rats. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats aged 8-10 weeks were used in this experiment. Food intake was measured during the light and dark phases (light on at 07:00 and off ...
Scheer Frank A J L - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Despite the extended overnight fast, paradoxically, people are typically not ravenous in the morning and breakfast is typically the smallest meal of the day. Here we assessed whether this paradox could be explained by an endogenous circadian influence on appetite with a morning trough, while controlling for sleep/wake and ...
McNeil Jessica - - 2013
Increases in energy, lipid and carbohydrate intakes during the luteal phase have been previously observed. However, it is not known whether this is due to phase-dependent variations in the reward value of certain foods. Moreover, increases in olfactory sensitivity have been proposed and may be involved in these changes in ...
Schultheiss Corinna - - 2013
A neuroprosthetic device for treating swallowing disorders requires an implantable measurement system capable to analysing the timing and quality of the swallowing process in real time. A combined EMG bioimpedance (EMBI) measurement system was developed and is evaluated here. The study was planned and performed as a case-control study. The ...
Sakurazawa Nobuko - - 2013
Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of ghrelin increases food intake via activation of neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, which express growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc) in male rats. Conversely, elevation in endogenous estrogens or exogenous estrogens decreases food intake, but the ...
Leslie Julian C - - 2013
The aim was to compare operant extinction with re-extinction following re-acquisition and to investigate neuropharmacological mechanisms through administration of drugs potentiating GABAergic or glutamatergic systems. Groups of C57Bl/6 mice were trained to lever press for food on a fixed ratio schedule, then extinguished with or without pre-session chlordiazepoxide or post-session ...
Igo J L - - 2013
The National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA) - 2011 benchmarked the current status of, and assessed progress being made towards, quality and consistency of U.S. cattle, carcasses, and beef products since the completion of the first NBQA in 1991. Unlike previous NBQAs, objectives of the 2011 Phase I study were to ...
Dabeka Robert - - 2013
This paper describes the design of the fourth phase of the Canadian total diet study, conducted for the period 1992-1999. During this phase, complete sets of foods were purchased from eight cities (from one of them twice). For each of the sets, individual foods were prepared as for consumption into ...
Garaulet M - - 2013
Background:There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown.Objective:To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in a sample of 420 individuals ...
Ellwood Philippa - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Certain foods may increase or decrease the risk of developing asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. We explored the impact of the intake of types of food on these diseases in Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. METHODS: Written questionnaires on the symptom prevalence of ...
Pettigrew Simone - - 2013
This study identified predictors of parents' and school principals' perceptions of the impact of a Western Australian school food policy. An initial qualitative phase involving focus groups with parents and interviews with school principals, teachers, canteen managers and Parents & Citizens Committee members provided general feedback on the policy and ...
Salgado-Delgado Roberto C - - 2013
In the liver, clock genes are proposed to drive metabolic rhythms. These gene rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) mainly by food intake and via autonomic and hormonal pathways. Forced activity during the normal rest phase, induces also food intake, thus neglecting the signals of the SCN, leading ...
Woodland Ryan J - - 2013
The fate of diazotrophic nitrogen (ND) fixed by planktonic cyanobacteria in pelagic food webs remains unresolved, particularly for toxic cyanophytes that are selectively avoided by most herbivorous zooplankton. Current theory suggests that ND fixed during cyanobacterial blooms can enter planktonic food webs contemporaneously with peak bloom biomass via direct grazing ...
Silveira Lidimara Souza da - - 2013
Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to ...
Caracheo Barak F - - 2013
Foraging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently ...
Smit Andrea N - - 2013
Circadian activity rhythms are jointly controlled by a master pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and by food-entrainable circadian oscillators (FEOs) located elsewhere. The SCN mediates synchrony to daily light-dark cycles, whereas FEOs generate activity rhythms synchronized with regular daily mealtimes. The location of FEOs generating food anticipation rhythms, ...
Hewson-Hughes Adrian K - - 2012
We investigated the ability of domestic cats to regulate the macronutrient composition of their diet when provided with foods that differed not only in macronutrient content but also in texture and moisture content, as typically found in the main forms of commercially manufactured cat foods. Cats were provided with foods ...
Agarwal Ekta - - 2012
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Australasian Nutrition Care Day Survey (ANCDS) ascertained if malnutrition and poor food intake are independent risk factors for health-related outcomes in Australian and New Zealand hospital patients. METHODS: Phase 1 recorded nutritional status (Subjective Global Assessment) and 24-h food intake (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% intake). ...
Kim Dae Ha - - 2012
To investigate the inter-rater agreement using the Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS). The present study was designed as a multicenter, single-blind trial. A Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) was performed using the protocol described by J.A Logemann. Thick-fluid, pureed food, mechanically altered food, regularly textured food, and thin-fluid boluses were sequentially swallowed. ...
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