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Results 601 - 650 of 691
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Tice P A - - 1994
The predicted migration test requirements for food and beverage cans with internal lacquer coatings and plastics paperboard composites against future EC legislation, are described. In a project currently in hand at Pira International on behalf of the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, some of the problems which arise ...
Barlow S M - - 1994
One of the tasks of the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) is to advise the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) on the safety-in-use of monomers, other starting substances and additives used in food packaging materials. This advice forms the basis of Community Directives for the regulation of food packaging ...
Rossi L - - 1994
The underlying principles of current European Community legislation in the area of food contact materials and articles are reviewed, and the prospects for extension to new areas are assessed. Future Directives are broadly described although it is not possible to timetable the programme for ultimate agreement and implementation. To assist ...
Overton B W - - 1994
Social and political pressures are stimulating a rapid growth in environmental legislation and the framework of national and European directives is reviewed. The pressure for recycling and the incorporation of recycled material is at risk of conflict with safety for food contact packaging. Various recycling opportunities are reviewed, concluding that ...
Gilbert J - - 1994
Recent research funded by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in the area of migration from food contact materials is reviewed and set within a framework of surveillance; evaluation of new technology; support of current regulations; and anticipation of future controls. Recent surveillance projects monitoring foods for ...
Wessels C - - 1994
The relationship between isolation and language spoken is explored using the example of the spread of Castilian Spanish in the Catalonia region of Spain. "With the help of Geographical Information Systems and characteristics of the road and railway networks, centrality scores for urban municipalities and municipalities near the city of ...
Loftus N J - - 1994
The plasticizer di-2-(ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), which may be present in food-contact films, can migrate into certain foodstuffs. Results from plasticizer migration studies into food have enabled an indirect estimate of the maximum daily dietary intake of DEHA. A previous study of the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of DEHA in humans identified ...
Velenchik A D - - 1993
"This paper presents estimates of an aggregate place-to-place migration function for Cote d'Ivoire based on the premise that migration is motivated by rural residents' desire for cash income. The results indicate that migration from a region responds differently to changes in cash and food income, which supports the idea that ...
Risch S - - 1993
A number of packaging materials are being used not only to contain food during distribution but also to serve as the cooking container. The higher temperatures that these materials reach led the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to issue an intent to publish new regulations in 1989. The food ...
Jickells S M - - 1993
A testing scheme is described whereby the susceptor is heated in an enclosed system and potential volatile migrants detected by GC-FID or GC-MS. This compositional information is then combined with knowledge on the relationship between volatility and transfer to foods to predict migration levels. The scheme can be simplified to ...
Lehr K M - - 1993
General purpose and high impact polystyrene (GPPS and HIPS, respectively) are used in many food packaging applications. In some packaging configurations, where there is no direct contact of a liquid surface with the polymer, 'vapour-phase' migration of styrene monomer from the polymer with subsequent absorption into food is thought to ...
Simal Gándara J - - 1993
The overall and specific migrations of BADGE n = 0 monomer and m-XDA hardener from a BEPOX LAB 889 (Gairesa internal code), epoxy system cured at room temperature, into three water-based food simulants are studied. Hydrolysis of BADGE n = 0 was observed in all of these simulants, giving more ...
Castle L - - 1993
The polymeric plasticizers poly(butylene adipate) and poly(propylene adipate), and a low molecular weight oligomer fraction from each, were exposed in vitro to simulated gastric and intestinal hydrolysis in order to study their likely fate after ingestion of foods contaminated by migration from plastics packaging. Analysis for loss of the parent ...
Nerín C - - 1993
A survey of plasticizers in printing inks present in a selection of food packaging including confectionery, snacks, crisps, potatoes, chocolate bars and biscuits, has been carried out both in England and Spain. The identification of the polymer used as packaging showed that almost all of them were oriented polypropylene. Printing ...
Allamandola L J - - 1993
Observations of a newly discovered infrared C-H stretching band indicate that interstellar diamond-like material appears to be characteristic of dense clouds. In sharp contrast, the spectral signature of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium is dominated by -CH2- and -CH3 groups. This dichotomy in the aliphatic organic component between the ...
Anyanwu S O - - 1992
"This paper discusses some major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria using the logit estimation technique. It utilizes cross-sectional data generated from a national sample survey of internal migration conducted...between January and March 1988.... The empirical results revealed that the significant determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria are income, contact, ...
Schuind F A - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in wrist and forearm configuration with grasp and elbow flexor contraction by analysis of resting and grasping x-ray films of 15 normal adults and forearm scanograms of 10 other normal subjects. With grasp, a significant proximal migration of the radius ...
Ehret-Henry J - - 1992
A new approach for the identification of the additives in extracts of packaging plastics, using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), is presented. The technique can be used in a preliminary step for the determination of contaminants potentially released by the food packaging materials; it may greatly reduce the time required ...
Castle L - - 1992
Migration of polyisobutylene from polyethylene/polyisobutylene film into foods has been studied in domestic applications such as wrapping of foods and reheating in a microwave oven. The results of these migration studies were obtained by direct measurement using newly developed analytical methods utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy ...
Belkin N L - - 1992
1. Although some of the basic principles of aseptic technique are fundamentally similar, their roles in terms of protection is reversed. 2. Whereas the use of the surgical mask has often been abused, ie, being saved by hanging around the neck, there is reason to believe that masks may only ...
Ng C L - - 1992
A mixture of food additives is separated using ion-pairing electrokinetic chromatography with on-column ultraviolet detection at 190 nm. Tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulfate (TBA) is used as modifier. The effect of the concentration of TBA on the migration behavior of the solutes is investigated. This method is used for the determination ...
Gibson E K EK - - 1992
The paper presents a review of the volatiles found within interplanetary dust particles. These particles have been shown to represent primitive material from early in the solar system's formation and also may contain records of stellar processes. The organogenic elements (i.e., H, C, N, O, and S) are among the ...
Baner A - - 1992
The amounts of substances migrating from plastics into foodstuffs with high fat contents are in most cases higher than in foodstuffs with water contents. This increase in migration commonly is due to the higher solubility of the migrating organic compounds in fat compared to water. The increase in migration is ...
Blok R J - - 1992
Realistic training in aviation now includes the use of sophisticated flight simulators which can provide near total perception of aircraft flight. Reports of simulator sickness seem to be increasing in simulators with multi-directional motion, computer-generated imagery, and infinity optics. A voluntary, subjective, symptom-oriented questionnaire was completed by 141 pilots after ...
Murphy P G - - 1992
General-purpose and high-impact polystyrenes (GPPS and HIPS, respectively) are used in many food-contact applications for the packaging of aqueous-based, fatty and dry foods. The correlation of residual styrene concentrations in polystyrene with styrene migration into food-stimulating solvents is of interest in order to predict the potential exposure of consumers to ...
Bass E V - - 1992
All dual-arch impression techniques utilize special stock impression trays of various designs. These trays are made of flexible plastic with fabric or mesh material placed across the occlusal surfaces of the teeth connecting their buccal and lingual flanges. The presence of this material will result in errors by (1) not ...
Sharp G J - - 1992
The migration-inducing abilities of both synthetic lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) for rainbow trout neutrophils were examined with an in vitro assay. LXA4 caused enhanced migration of these cells with a three- to fourfold greater response than that observed toward LTB4 at most concentrations tested. Checkerboard assays showed ...
Jickells S M - - 1992
Experiments have been carried out with (a) microwave treatment of plastics followed by migration testing using the food simulant, olive oil, and (b) microwave treatment of plastics in direct contact with an organic extractant (iso-octane). In neither of these complementary approaches was there evidence of any difference in migration from ...
Castle L - - 1991
Mineral hydrocarbons are used as processing aids at levels between 0.3 and 3% by weight in crystal polystyrene articles, the food contact uses of which include the dispensing of hot and cold beverages from automatic machines as well as in 'fast-food' and catering establishments. The levels of migration of mineral ...
Grob K - - 1991
Paraffins from raw extracts of foods and packing materials were isolated by LC and directly transferred to GC, applying concurrent eluent evaporation and a loop-type interface. Paraffins from various packing materials have been characterized: sisal bags, cardboard boxes, plastic films, wax-coated paper and cardboard as well as paraffin coatings. Important ...
Castle L - - 1991
To assess the significance of migration of polymeric plasticizers into foods, chemical characterization and quantification of individual oligomeric species is required. This paper reports the identification of seven individual oligomers isolated from a poly(butylene adipate) plasticizer. Based on mass spectrometry, NMR and chemical degradation, the oligomers were identified as a ...
Weisel C - - 1991
The presence of lead in labels painted on soft plastic bread packaging was evaluated. Lead was detected on the outside of 17 of 18 soft plastic bread bags that were analyzed, with an average of 26 +/- 6 mg per bag with lead. Of 106 families questioned, 16 percent of ...
Smerasta P - - 1991
Migration and material tests of food-contact plastic wares were carried out in compliance with the Thai Food Act. Sample materials studied were melamine resin, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and polyvinyl chloride. Migration levels of phenol, formaldehyde, colors and heavy metals were determined. A test for vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride ...
Karel M - - 1991
A number of operations in food processing, and the stability of stored foods, are affected by diffusional properties of food systems, which include the foods themselves, their immediate environment within a package, and any barriers (packaging or coating) used with the foods. Water content and "water activity" affect these diffusional ...
Lickly T D - - 1991
The correlation of residual acrylonitrile (AN) monomer concentration in AN-containing polymers with AN migration into food simulants is of interest because the US FDA regulates the use of these polymers on the basis of the amount of AN that may migrate into food simulants. Studies of the migration of AN ...
Begley T H - - 1990
A quantitative method has been developed to measure the migration of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) cyclic oligomers from aluminized PET susceptor film-type food packaging into several food types. Microwaveable French fries, popcorn, fish sticks, waffles and pizza sold in susceptor-type packaging were purchased in local markets, cooked according to package instructions ...
Lickly T D - - 1990
Alternatives to highly-volatile ethanol or analytically complex cooking oil were examined as potential fatty-food simulants which would undergo high-temperature exposures to food-packaging polymers in food-packaging evaluation studies. The alternatives consisted of alcohols containing four to eight carbons. As test cases, the migration of Irganox 1010 antioxidant from high-density polyethylene and ...
Castle L - - 1990
Temperatures have been measured using a fluoro-optic probe at the food/container or food/packaging interfaces as appropriate, for a range of foods heated in either a microwave or a conventional oven. Reheating ready-prepared foods packaged in plastics pouches, trays or dishes in the microwave oven, according to the manufacturers' instructions, resulted ...
Begley T H - - 1990
The polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is widely used for packaging food that will be heated or cooked in the PET container. A procedure was developed to predict the potential of PET to migrate from the container into the food. Migration experiments using crystallized polyethylene terephthalate (CPET) and corn oil were ...
Kim-Kang H - - 1990
The increasing application of complex natural and/or synthetic polymers to food packaging has required definitive information on the characteristics of the finished products. High temperature encountered during the manufacturing process may induce thermal decomposition products that can migrate into the packaged product and cause undesirable flavor. A general methodology for ...
Allan R W RW Department of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey 07940, - - 1989
Groups of naive pigeons were either food or water deprived and exposed to response-independent fixed time schedules of reinforcement. Reinforcers were always appropriate to the deprivation state. After 15 Phase One sessions under the original deprivation state, an additional 15 Phase Two sessions were run under the alternate deprivation regimen. ...
Sujoldzić A - - 1989
For several centuries the village populations on the Yugoslav island of Korcula have remained essentially isolated from each other and from the mainland. Historical, linguistic and biological data indicate that systematic population pressure predominantly came from the coastal area of the Balkan peninsula westward onto the island. To examine short ...
Castle L - - 1989
It has been demonstrated that on storage of a tightly wound reel of polypropylene packaging film, specially printed for experimental purposes, transfer can occur of components from the ink on the outer surface of the film on to the inner food contact surface. For dicyclohexyl phthalate this transfer amounted to ...
Autier P - - 1989
In the Sahel, migration is of considerable importance. It permits the peasants to adjust to variable food conditions. In areas affected by food shortages, cluster sample studies of villages showed that, as the number of recently abandoned houses in a cluster increased, the prevalence of malnutrition decreased, and this linear ...
Leadbeatter S - - 1989
An 84-year-old woman died suddenly 20 days after a head injury; a medical witness to the death described laboured breathing consistent with stridor. At postmortem examination, her larynx was found to be occluded by a firm mass of jelly-like material considered initially to be regurgitated food material. The microscopic features ...
Cumpstey M - - 1989
In 1989 the European Space Agency will launch the Olympus Communications Satellite, paid for by seven European nations and intended for experiment and demonstration. A number of the facilities will be offered free for a period of up to 5 years in order to stimulate new uses and services. Many ...
Bergeron J M - - 1989
Recent studies suggest that diet quality is responsible for differential survivorship of vole cohorts (Boonstra and Boag 1987) and spacing behavior of females (Ims 1987). These phenomena have been related either to a lack of or a deterioration in the quality of the preferred food. To test this hypothesis, we ...
King D J - - 1989
The purpose of this paper is to present information gathered regarding, in general, the physical characteristics, and, in particular, the possible toxic nature of polyacrylamide A short discussion of the properties and toxicity of the acrylamide monomer is also included. The United States government, specifically the Food and Drug Administration ...
Castle L - - 1988
Chocolates, boiled sweets, toffees, cakes and meat pies were wrapped in regenerated cellulose films (with or without coatings) that contained various mixtures of glycol softeners and which had been specially formulated for particular food applications. Samples were unwrapped at intervals (up to the end of the usual maximum shelf-life for ...
Shenassa M M - - 1988
The purpose of this review is to establish a rational approach to the assessment of children with food allergy related to an immunologic state in which alteration of response to antigenic material has developed after repeated exposure. The author offers a practical approach to the problem of food allergy in ...
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