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O'Brien A P - - 1997
The first list of plastics additives which may be assigned restrictions in a future amendment to Directive 90/128/ EEC is likely to contain over 200 substances. If food consumption factors are taken into account many compounds on this list could have restrictions removed but there would, without doubt, still be ...
Hollaender J - - 1997
Food components migrating through organic layers are able to influence the adhesive properties of multilayer materials. In the case of coated metal substrates the interaction stability may be reduced by delamination and subsequent corrosion processes during storage. Impedance spectroscopy can be used to give a very early indication of a ...
Guilbert S - - 1997
Certain newly discovered characteristics of natural biopolymers should make them a choice material to be used for different types of wrappings and films. Edible and/or biodegradable packagings produced from agricultural origin macromolecules provide a supplementary and sometimes essential means to control physiological, microbiological, and physicochemical changes in food products. This ...
Suominen I - - 1997
The microbiological barrier properties of food-packaging paperboards, coated with polyethylene, mineral pigment or a biodegradable polymer and of high-density paper were examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results show that the spatial distribution of microscopically observable bacterial cells was uneven inside the paperboard. The concentration in the interface between ...
Ahvenainen R - - 1997
Over the past few decades, many new packaging techniques have been introduced in the quest for natural preservation of foods and on-time quality monitoring of packaged food to ensure good product quality and safety for the consumer. This paper discusses scientific, technological, commercial and legislative development, as well as consumer ...
Franz R - - 1997
For several years there has been an ongoing controversial scientific discussion about the so-called functional barrier concept which, although mostly connected with the re-use of recycled plastics for food packaging, has general relevance and is principally applicable to any type of multilayer structure. Concerning the definition of the efficiency of ...
Komolprasert V - - 1997
This study measured the migration of benzene, butyric acid, dodecane, octadecane, tetracosane, diazinon, lindane, and copper (II) ethyl hexonate from poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PETE) sheets into the food simulants, 8% ethanol/water and n-heptane. The contaminated PETE sheets were extruded from PETE chips that had been previously contaminated but were washed, dried, and ...
Lydersen T T Fircrest School, 15230 15th Avene, N.E. Seattle, WA 98155-0550, - - 1997
Four rats obtained food on fixed-time (FT) 1-, 4-, and 16-min schedules. During FT schedules, a lever press produced a timeout period during which food could not be delivered. When timeout was in effect, a lever press ended the timeout period and reinstated the FT schedule. In different conditions, the ...
Petersen J H - - 1997
Samples of PVC cling films were taken at importers, wholesalers and retail shops, and their overall migration to the alternative food simulant iso-octane was measured, after establishment of a correlation between overall migration to olive oil at 40 degrees C in 10 days and to iso-octane in 2 h. Results ...
Riquet A M - - 1997
Migration of paramagnetic probes from rigid PVC within 24 h at 50 degrees C depends on the simulant to a considerable extent. With a strongly swelling simulant like tert.butyl acetate, the rate of diffusion is governed by the rate of penetration of the medium into the polymeric network. Isooctane has ...
Philo M R - - 1997
The reactions of four epoxides used as monomers for food contact plastics were studied in the food simulants distilled water, 15% aqueous ethanol, 3% aqueous acetic acid and olive oil. Loss of the parent substance and formation of products was monitored to establish the transformation products to be expected in ...
Greenwood M J - - 1997
"This study develops a methodology that allows migration decision-making to be studied in a laboratory experimental setting. Moreover, this methodology permits an examination of the importance of natural and man-made hazards in migration decisions--factors that have not been extensively studied as determinants of migration. The specific application is to the ...
Castle L - - 1997
A survey of 32 paper and board materials intended for food contact has been undertaken. Sample composition was analysed to identify chemicals with a potential to migrate to foods. Representative materials covering a range of uses such as aqueous and fatty foods, and use at ambient and elevated temperatures, were ...
Lickly T D - - 1997
A simple mathematical equation based on a diffusion model has been utilized recently to estimate migration of both acrylonitrile and styrene from polymers produced from these monomers which are used under a wide variety of food-contact applications. These calculated migration values have subsequently been used to estimate the US consumer's ...
Sadler G - - 1996
The safety of recycled plastics for food contact use is largely dictated by the ability of post-consumer organic contaminants to absorb into recycled materials and later diffuse from containers made from recycled plastics into the food supply. Diffusion and solubility data for organic contaminants in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) are scarce. ...
Gramiccioni L - - 1996
In Italy, data on aluminium concentration in food items are scarce although aluminium containers are widely used to cook, to freeze or to wrap foods (foil) and it is known that aluminium can migrate from containers to foods. Therefore, an experimental study was carried out to quantify aluminium exposure from ...
Mitchell K G KG Department of Psychology, 210 McAlester Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia MO 65211, - - 1996
The present experiment examined the attenuation and reacquisition of foraging behavior of pigeons on a restricted diet. Using the procedure of Roberts (1988), thirty-two feeders were arranged in four circular patches of eight feeders each. The feeders were baited so that each patch contained a different density of food. Pigeons ...
Reebs S G SG Département de biologie, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, - - 1996
The goal of this study was to determine whether fish can learn to forage in different places at different times of the day, each place being associated with a specific time. Groups of eight golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) were kept in aquaria equipped with automatic feeders that dropped food on ...
Brown J S JS - - 1996
An arboviral theory of multiple sclerosis (MS) is presented. Although high MS rates correlate with the distribution of certain population, high rates also correlate with the distribution of Ixodes genus tick viruses. These ticks and viruses are globally distributed by polar-migrating seabirds which are important food sources for island and ...
Castle L - - 1996
Vinyl chloride (VC) tetramer has been studied as a representative oligomer that has the potential for migration from plastics packaging. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bottles for retail beverages were analysed by a process of dissolution followed by gas chromatography. Tetramer levels ranged from 70 to 190 mg/kg in the plastic. When ...
Lawson G - - 1996
EU legislation requires that components from food contact plastics should not migrate significantly into the food. The nature and extent of species migrating from laminated materials used for packaging 'heat and eat' meals have been investigated. Selected target analytes included additives incorporated into the polyolefin, e.g. the Irganox and Irgafos ...
Hirano S - - 1996
This review article describes the current status of the production and consumption of chitin and chitosan, and their current practical applications in biotechnology with some attempted uses. The applications include: 1) cationic agents for polluted waste-water treatment, 2) agricultural materials, 3) food and feed additives, 4) hypocholesterolemic agents, 5) biomedical ...
Cooper I - - 1995
Hydrolysis studies using simulated gastrointestinal fluids have been performed on oleamide, an important fatty acid amide slip additive used in plastics food packaging. Experiments have been conducted using the simulated gastrointestinal fluids, specified by the Scientific Committee for Food for hydrolysis studies, and with slightly modified preparations believed to be ...
Chen H - - 1995
Edible films and coatings based on milk proteins have been developed to be used as a protective layer on foods or between food components. The most important functionalities of an edible film or coating include control of mass transfers, mechanical protection, and sensory appeal. Control of mass transfers involves preventing ...
Sharman M - - 1995
Susceptors are an example of one of the many new products being introduced into food packaging. They are used to achieve local areas of high temperature; this has the effect of browning the food during microwave cooking. Previous work by Begley et al. had suggested that one particular cold cure ...
Begley T H - - 1995
A method was developed to determine the amount of residual oligomers in nylon food packaging. In addition, a method was developed to measure oligomers that migrate to a food-stimulating liquid (oil) during oven cooking conditions. It was found that the total amount of nylon 6/66 oligomers that migrated from an ...
Fordham P J - - 1995
Polymers intended for food contact use have been analysed for inorganic residues which can be attributed to a range of substances employed as polymerization aids (e.g. catalysts), or to additives incorporated into the polymer to fulfil a specific task (e.g. lubricants). The migration of these residues into food simulants was ...
Brotons J A - - 1995
We present data showing that some foods preserved in lacquer-coated cans and the liquid in them may acquire estrogenic activity. Hormonal activity was measured using the E-screen bioassay. The biological activity of vegetables packed in cans was a result of plastic monomers used in manufacturing the containers. The plastic monomer ...
Lickly T D - - 1995
Polystyrene foam is used in many food-contact articles such as plates, cups, bowls, egg cartons, meat trays and hinged 'carryout' containers. In most of these applications the food is in contact with the article for a relatively short period of time at mild temperatures (up to 130 degrees F), or ...
Jobling S - - 1995
Sewage, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic chemicals, is considered to be a major source of environmental pollution. A random screen of 20 organic man-made chemicals present in liquid effluents revealed that half appeared able to interact with the estradiol receptor. This was demonstrated by their ability to inhibit ...
Conn R E - - 1995
This report constitutes a safety assessment of polylactide (PLA), a polymer of lactic acid intended for use in fabricating various food-contact articles. Migration studies were conducted on samples of the polymer following guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration. Potential migrants from PLA include lactic acid, lactide (the monomer), ...
Cooper I - - 1995
Specific migration studies, using food simulants, have been conducted on a range of polymers which are used in food packaging and contain commonly used fatty acid amide slip additives. Migration levels using the test conditions (10 days at 40 degrees C) were found to depend primarily upon the food simulant ...
Petersen J H - - 1995
Following exposure to the food simulant olive oil for 10 days at 5, 20 or 40 degrees C a global migration ranging from 20 to 30 mg/dm2 was detected from a common 'low migration' PVC film plasticized with a mixture of di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) and a polymeric plasticizer. In a laboratory ...
Fendorf M - - 1995
We have investigated a wide variety of oxide superconductors and report here on a number of techniques that can be effectively used to prepare transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens from these materials. Crushing, cleaving, ion milling, ultramicrotomy, and jet polishing all were successfully utilized, and details of each technique, as ...
Page B D - - 1995
Selected foods (260 samples) packaged in materials with the potential to contribute plasticizers to the food, and available food composites (98 samples) obtained from the Canadian Health Protection Branch Total Diet Program, were analysed for phthalate plasticizers and di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA). The available contacting packaging was also analysed for plasticizers. ...
Kenawi M A - - 1994
Orange juice concentrate has been fortified with calcium in order to fulfil part of the recommended daily allowance of calcium and to overcome the problem of the shortage of milk and dairy products in Egypt. The loss of quality of calcium-fortified and unfortified orange juice concentrate was evaluated in three ...
Shapiro A - - 1994
Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to ...
Schwartz P S - - 1994
The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) current research programme on migration from food packaging materials focuses on high-temperature packaging applications. Results from two studies conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the FDA, are presented as well as highlights of the FDA's research programme on migration from microwave ...
Feigenbaum A E - - 1994
Questions arising from the Commission of the European Communities Directives and guidelines regulating packaging materials are discussed in relation to whether compliance ensures safety in use and the consequent analytical problems. Difficulties may arise from interactions between food contact materials and food involving mass transfer (migration, off-odours, 'scalping', loss of ...
van Lierop J B - - 1994
The Dutch system for screening food contact materials, in which global migration no longer has any function, has been applied. An extensive investigation of baby soothers and bottle teats is described and the daily practice of the enforcement of the Dutch Packaging and Food Utensils Regulation is illustrated by an ...
Piringer O G - - 1994
One of the principal aims of the regulations for food contact materials and articles is the protection of the consumer. In order to fulfil this goal many analytical questions must be answered in the next few years. Of great help in the evaluation procedures can be theoretical predictions of migration ...
Ashby R - - 1994
CEC Directives have been implemented for plastics materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. These introduce limits upon the overall migration from plastics into food and food simulants. In addition, specific migration limits or composition limits for free monomer in the final article, have been set for ...
Wang L - - 1994
Four hundred and six food samples of 64 food items, as well as 19 samples of aluminum (Al) containing food additives, were collected from Guangdong, Hunan, Shanghai and Beijing, and their Al contents were determined. The migration of Al from cooking aluminium-utensils into foods was also studied. The results show ...
Heckman J H - - 1994
There are pronounced differences between the USA approach to the regulation of food packaging and the system being adopted in the European Economic Community (EEC). These differences have significant implications for the efficient regulation of packaging materials and for achieving the common goal of regulatory harmonization. The United States effects ...
Svensson K - - 1994
The present legislation in the Nordic countries for food contact materials is expressed in general terms and contains few detailed requirements. At present Finland is implementing the EEC legislation, Sweden and Norway will probably do so shortly and Denmark has been a member of the EEC since 1973. Current food ...
Tice P A - - 1994
The predicted migration test requirements for food and beverage cans with internal lacquer coatings and plastics paperboard composites against future EC legislation, are described. In a project currently in hand at Pira International on behalf of the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, some of the problems which arise ...
Barlow S M - - 1994
One of the tasks of the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) is to advise the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) on the safety-in-use of monomers, other starting substances and additives used in food packaging materials. This advice forms the basis of Community Directives for the regulation of food packaging ...
Rossi L - - 1994
The underlying principles of current European Community legislation in the area of food contact materials and articles are reviewed, and the prospects for extension to new areas are assessed. Future Directives are broadly described although it is not possible to timetable the programme for ultimate agreement and implementation. To assist ...
Overton B W - - 1994
Social and political pressures are stimulating a rapid growth in environmental legislation and the framework of national and European directives is reviewed. The pressure for recycling and the incorporation of recycled material is at risk of conflict with safety for food contact packaging. Various recycling opportunities are reviewed, concluding that ...
Gilbert J - - 1994
Recent research funded by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in the area of migration from food contact materials is reviewed and set within a framework of surveillance; evaluation of new technology; support of current regulations; and anticipation of future controls. Recent surveillance projects monitoring foods for ...
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