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Results 551 - 600 of 665
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Lawson G - - 1996
EU legislation requires that components from food contact plastics should not migrate significantly into the food. The nature and extent of species migrating from laminated materials used for packaging 'heat and eat' meals have been investigated. Selected target analytes included additives incorporated into the polyolefin, e.g. the Irganox and Irgafos ...
Hirano S - - 1996
This review article describes the current status of the production and consumption of chitin and chitosan, and their current practical applications in biotechnology with some attempted uses. The applications include: 1) cationic agents for polluted waste-water treatment, 2) agricultural materials, 3) food and feed additives, 4) hypocholesterolemic agents, 5) biomedical ...
Cooper I - - 1995
Hydrolysis studies using simulated gastrointestinal fluids have been performed on oleamide, an important fatty acid amide slip additive used in plastics food packaging. Experiments have been conducted using the simulated gastrointestinal fluids, specified by the Scientific Committee for Food for hydrolysis studies, and with slightly modified preparations believed to be ...
Chen H - - 1995
Edible films and coatings based on milk proteins have been developed to be used as a protective layer on foods or between food components. The most important functionalities of an edible film or coating include control of mass transfers, mechanical protection, and sensory appeal. Control of mass transfers involves preventing ...
Sharman M - - 1995
Susceptors are an example of one of the many new products being introduced into food packaging. They are used to achieve local areas of high temperature; this has the effect of browning the food during microwave cooking. Previous work by Begley et al. had suggested that one particular cold cure ...
Begley T H - - 1995
A method was developed to determine the amount of residual oligomers in nylon food packaging. In addition, a method was developed to measure oligomers that migrate to a food-stimulating liquid (oil) during oven cooking conditions. It was found that the total amount of nylon 6/66 oligomers that migrated from an ...
Fordham P J - - 1995
Polymers intended for food contact use have been analysed for inorganic residues which can be attributed to a range of substances employed as polymerization aids (e.g. catalysts), or to additives incorporated into the polymer to fulfil a specific task (e.g. lubricants). The migration of these residues into food simulants was ...
Brotons J A - - 1995
We present data showing that some foods preserved in lacquer-coated cans and the liquid in them may acquire estrogenic activity. Hormonal activity was measured using the E-screen bioassay. The biological activity of vegetables packed in cans was a result of plastic monomers used in manufacturing the containers. The plastic monomer ...
Lickly T D - - 1995
Polystyrene foam is used in many food-contact articles such as plates, cups, bowls, egg cartons, meat trays and hinged 'carryout' containers. In most of these applications the food is in contact with the article for a relatively short period of time at mild temperatures (up to 130 degrees F), or ...
Jobling S - - 1995
Sewage, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic chemicals, is considered to be a major source of environmental pollution. A random screen of 20 organic man-made chemicals present in liquid effluents revealed that half appeared able to interact with the estradiol receptor. This was demonstrated by their ability to inhibit ...
Conn R E - - 1995
This report constitutes a safety assessment of polylactide (PLA), a polymer of lactic acid intended for use in fabricating various food-contact articles. Migration studies were conducted on samples of the polymer following guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration. Potential migrants from PLA include lactic acid, lactide (the monomer), ...
Cooper I - - 1995
Specific migration studies, using food simulants, have been conducted on a range of polymers which are used in food packaging and contain commonly used fatty acid amide slip additives. Migration levels using the test conditions (10 days at 40 degrees C) were found to depend primarily upon the food simulant ...
Petersen J H - - 1995
Following exposure to the food simulant olive oil for 10 days at 5, 20 or 40 degrees C a global migration ranging from 20 to 30 mg/dm2 was detected from a common 'low migration' PVC film plasticized with a mixture of di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) and a polymeric plasticizer. In a laboratory ...
Fendorf M - - 1995
We have investigated a wide variety of oxide superconductors and report here on a number of techniques that can be effectively used to prepare transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens from these materials. Crushing, cleaving, ion milling, ultramicrotomy, and jet polishing all were successfully utilized, and details of each technique, as ...
Page B D - - 1995
Selected foods (260 samples) packaged in materials with the potential to contribute plasticizers to the food, and available food composites (98 samples) obtained from the Canadian Health Protection Branch Total Diet Program, were analysed for phthalate plasticizers and di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA). The available contacting packaging was also analysed for plasticizers. ...
Kenawi M A - - 1994
Orange juice concentrate has been fortified with calcium in order to fulfil part of the recommended daily allowance of calcium and to overcome the problem of the shortage of milk and dairy products in Egypt. The loss of quality of calcium-fortified and unfortified orange juice concentrate was evaluated in three ...
Shapiro A - - 1994
Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to ...
Schwartz P S - - 1994
The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) current research programme on migration from food packaging materials focuses on high-temperature packaging applications. Results from two studies conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the FDA, are presented as well as highlights of the FDA's research programme on migration from microwave ...
Feigenbaum A E - - 1994
Questions arising from the Commission of the European Communities Directives and guidelines regulating packaging materials are discussed in relation to whether compliance ensures safety in use and the consequent analytical problems. Difficulties may arise from interactions between food contact materials and food involving mass transfer (migration, off-odours, 'scalping', loss of ...
van Lierop J B - - 1994
The Dutch system for screening food contact materials, in which global migration no longer has any function, has been applied. An extensive investigation of baby soothers and bottle teats is described and the daily practice of the enforcement of the Dutch Packaging and Food Utensils Regulation is illustrated by an ...
Piringer O G - - 1994
One of the principal aims of the regulations for food contact materials and articles is the protection of the consumer. In order to fulfil this goal many analytical questions must be answered in the next few years. Of great help in the evaluation procedures can be theoretical predictions of migration ...
Ashby R - - 1994
CEC Directives have been implemented for plastics materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. These introduce limits upon the overall migration from plastics into food and food simulants. In addition, specific migration limits or composition limits for free monomer in the final article, have been set for ...
Wang L - - 1994
Four hundred and six food samples of 64 food items, as well as 19 samples of aluminum (Al) containing food additives, were collected from Guangdong, Hunan, Shanghai and Beijing, and their Al contents were determined. The migration of Al from cooking aluminium-utensils into foods was also studied. The results show ...
Heckman J H - - 1994
There are pronounced differences between the USA approach to the regulation of food packaging and the system being adopted in the European Economic Community (EEC). These differences have significant implications for the efficient regulation of packaging materials and for achieving the common goal of regulatory harmonization. The United States effects ...
Svensson K - - 1994
The present legislation in the Nordic countries for food contact materials is expressed in general terms and contains few detailed requirements. At present Finland is implementing the EEC legislation, Sweden and Norway will probably do so shortly and Denmark has been a member of the EEC since 1973. Current food ...
Tice P A - - 1994
The predicted migration test requirements for food and beverage cans with internal lacquer coatings and plastics paperboard composites against future EC legislation, are described. In a project currently in hand at Pira International on behalf of the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, some of the problems which arise ...
Barlow S M - - 1994
One of the tasks of the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) is to advise the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) on the safety-in-use of monomers, other starting substances and additives used in food packaging materials. This advice forms the basis of Community Directives for the regulation of food packaging ...
Rossi L - - 1994
The underlying principles of current European Community legislation in the area of food contact materials and articles are reviewed, and the prospects for extension to new areas are assessed. Future Directives are broadly described although it is not possible to timetable the programme for ultimate agreement and implementation. To assist ...
Overton B W - - 1994
Social and political pressures are stimulating a rapid growth in environmental legislation and the framework of national and European directives is reviewed. The pressure for recycling and the incorporation of recycled material is at risk of conflict with safety for food contact packaging. Various recycling opportunities are reviewed, concluding that ...
Gilbert J - - 1994
Recent research funded by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in the area of migration from food contact materials is reviewed and set within a framework of surveillance; evaluation of new technology; support of current regulations; and anticipation of future controls. Recent surveillance projects monitoring foods for ...
Wessels C - - 1994
The relationship between isolation and language spoken is explored using the example of the spread of Castilian Spanish in the Catalonia region of Spain. "With the help of Geographical Information Systems and characteristics of the road and railway networks, centrality scores for urban municipalities and municipalities near the city of ...
Loftus N J - - 1994
The plasticizer di-2-(ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), which may be present in food-contact films, can migrate into certain foodstuffs. Results from plasticizer migration studies into food have enabled an indirect estimate of the maximum daily dietary intake of DEHA. A previous study of the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of DEHA in humans identified ...
Velenchik A D - - 1993
"This paper presents estimates of an aggregate place-to-place migration function for Cote d'Ivoire based on the premise that migration is motivated by rural residents' desire for cash income. The results indicate that migration from a region responds differently to changes in cash and food income, which supports the idea that ...
Risch S - - 1993
A number of packaging materials are being used not only to contain food during distribution but also to serve as the cooking container. The higher temperatures that these materials reach led the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to issue an intent to publish new regulations in 1989. The food ...
Jickells S M - - 1993
A testing scheme is described whereby the susceptor is heated in an enclosed system and potential volatile migrants detected by GC-FID or GC-MS. This compositional information is then combined with knowledge on the relationship between volatility and transfer to foods to predict migration levels. The scheme can be simplified to ...
Lehr K M - - 1993
General purpose and high impact polystyrene (GPPS and HIPS, respectively) are used in many food packaging applications. In some packaging configurations, where there is no direct contact of a liquid surface with the polymer, 'vapour-phase' migration of styrene monomer from the polymer with subsequent absorption into food is thought to ...
Simal Gándara J - - 1993
The overall and specific migrations of BADGE n = 0 monomer and m-XDA hardener from a BEPOX LAB 889 (Gairesa internal code), epoxy system cured at room temperature, into three water-based food simulants are studied. Hydrolysis of BADGE n = 0 was observed in all of these simulants, giving more ...
Castle L - - 1993
The polymeric plasticizers poly(butylene adipate) and poly(propylene adipate), and a low molecular weight oligomer fraction from each, were exposed in vitro to simulated gastric and intestinal hydrolysis in order to study their likely fate after ingestion of foods contaminated by migration from plastics packaging. Analysis for loss of the parent ...
Nerín C - - 1993
A survey of plasticizers in printing inks present in a selection of food packaging including confectionery, snacks, crisps, potatoes, chocolate bars and biscuits, has been carried out both in England and Spain. The identification of the polymer used as packaging showed that almost all of them were oriented polypropylene. Printing ...
Allamandola L J - - 1993
Observations of a newly discovered infrared C-H stretching band indicate that interstellar diamond-like material appears to be characteristic of dense clouds. In sharp contrast, the spectral signature of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium is dominated by -CH2- and -CH3 groups. This dichotomy in the aliphatic organic component between the ...
Anyanwu S O - - 1992
"This paper discusses some major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria using the logit estimation technique. It utilizes cross-sectional data generated from a national sample survey of internal migration conducted...between January and March 1988.... The empirical results revealed that the significant determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria are income, contact, ...
Schuind F A - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in wrist and forearm configuration with grasp and elbow flexor contraction by analysis of resting and grasping x-ray films of 15 normal adults and forearm scanograms of 10 other normal subjects. With grasp, a significant proximal migration of the radius ...
Ehret-Henry J - - 1992
A new approach for the identification of the additives in extracts of packaging plastics, using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), is presented. The technique can be used in a preliminary step for the determination of contaminants potentially released by the food packaging materials; it may greatly reduce the time required ...
Castle L - - 1992
Migration of polyisobutylene from polyethylene/polyisobutylene film into foods has been studied in domestic applications such as wrapping of foods and reheating in a microwave oven. The results of these migration studies were obtained by direct measurement using newly developed analytical methods utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy ...
Belkin N L - - 1992
1. Although some of the basic principles of aseptic technique are fundamentally similar, their roles in terms of protection is reversed. 2. Whereas the use of the surgical mask has often been abused, ie, being saved by hanging around the neck, there is reason to believe that masks may only ...
Ng C L - - 1992
A mixture of food additives is separated using ion-pairing electrokinetic chromatography with on-column ultraviolet detection at 190 nm. Tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulfate (TBA) is used as modifier. The effect of the concentration of TBA on the migration behavior of the solutes is investigated. This method is used for the determination ...
Gibson E K EK - - 1992
The paper presents a review of the volatiles found within interplanetary dust particles. These particles have been shown to represent primitive material from early in the solar system's formation and also may contain records of stellar processes. The organogenic elements (i.e., H, C, N, O, and S) are among the ...
Baner A - - 1992
The amounts of substances migrating from plastics into foodstuffs with high fat contents are in most cases higher than in foodstuffs with water contents. This increase in migration commonly is due to the higher solubility of the migrating organic compounds in fat compared to water. The increase in migration is ...
Blok R J - - 1992
Realistic training in aviation now includes the use of sophisticated flight simulators which can provide near total perception of aircraft flight. Reports of simulator sickness seem to be increasing in simulators with multi-directional motion, computer-generated imagery, and infinity optics. A voluntary, subjective, symptom-oriented questionnaire was completed by 141 pilots after ...
Murphy P G - - 1992
General-purpose and high-impact polystyrenes (GPPS and HIPS, respectively) are used in many food-contact applications for the packaging of aqueous-based, fatty and dry foods. The correlation of residual styrene concentrations in polystyrene with styrene migration into food-stimulating solvents is of interest in order to predict the potential exposure of consumers to ...
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