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Results 501 - 550 of 665
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Laurila E K - - 1998
The effects of potato variety (Van Gogh, Bintje and Fambo), washing with browning prevention chemicals in place of sodium bisulfite, percentages of CO2, O2, and N2 in the package headspace, and storage time (1, 4, and 7 days) on the sensory and microbiological quality of potato slices were examined. Citric ...
Garde J A - - 1998
Global migration and specific migration of antioxidants (AOs--Irgafos 168 [tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite], Irganox 1076 [octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-propionate], and Hostanox SE2 (distery thiodipropionate)--from polypropylene (PP) films into food simulants (water, 3% acetic acid, 95% ethanol, olive oil, and heptane) were studied. Films (50, 100, and 200 microns thick) were exposed to simulants at ...
Papaspyrides C D - - 1998
In the last 25 years, plastics have faced a massive demand in packaging technology due to their desirable properties, such as flexibility, light weight, etc. Moreover, their packaging applications have spread in the area of food and pharmaceutical products. Much concern has arisen from that fact as most of these ...
Wessling C - - 1998
The migration/sorption behaviour of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol was studied in packaging material in contact with fatty food simulants. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films, containing either BHT or alpha-tocopherol as antioxidants, were stored in contact with sunflower oil or 95% (v/v) ethanol. The antioxidant content was monitored in the ...
Tawfik M S - - 1998
The level of styrene migration from polystyrene cups was monitored in different food systems including: water, milk (0.5, 1.55 and 3.6% fat), cold beverages (apple juice, orange juice, carbonated water, cola, beer and chocolate drink), hot beverages (tea, coffee, chocolate and soup (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3.6% fat), take ...
Petersen J H - - 1998
A control campaign on the correct labelling of plasticized PVC film according to current legislation on food contact materials has been performed. Analytical methods based on the isotope dilution technique were developed. For enforcement purposes, the films were exposed to the official food simulant, olive oil, followed by clean-up using ...
Freire M T - - 1998
PET packaging materials have been tested for volatile content after exposure to high temperatures. Samples included laminates, bottles, and roasting bags, and were heated at 120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 230 degrees C for 50 min, according to sample type. Volatiles released from the material were trapped on ...
Boyle P - - 1998
"A substantial literature has developed regarding the relationship between migration and housing tenure in Britain.... It is important to control for individual characteristics before the independent effect of tenure on mobility can be determined. This paper is a report of an investigation of this relationship in the South East of ...
Howe S R - - 1998
The potential exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from the use of consumer products or packages made from bisphenol A-derived polycarbonate resins was calculated. The calculation was made on the basis of migration data from moulded discs prepared from a composite of polycarbonate resins. The data were obtained using the customary ...
Barham B - - 1998
"This paper examines the net effects of migration and remittances on income distribution. Potential home earnings of migrants are imputed, as are the earnings of non-migrants in migrant households, in order to construct no-migration counterfactuals to compare with the observed income distribution including remittances. The earnings functions used to impute ...
Devlieghere F - - 1998
The possibilities of recycling milk-contaminated HDPE were investigated. Bottles were blown of respectively untreated, caustic-washed and caustic-washed/steam-stripped/air-dried recycled material. The migration characteristics of the different bottles were compared using various food simulants, as well as their sensorial and mechanical properties. From the analytical and sensorial experiments, it was shown that ...
Santos C P - - 1998
The gastrodermis of Atriaster heterodus Lebedev & Paruchin, 1969 (Polyopisthocotylea), a gill parasite from Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes, 1930), is composed of "U"-shape hematin cells and a connecting syncytium, both having cytoplasmic lamellae. These cells show outgrowths and bent folds which were sent to enclose lumen material. The trapped material was ...
Moses RA - - 1998
Male-biased mortality in young animals is often viewed as adaptive discrimination against male offspring by parents unable to raise reproductively competitive sons. Unequivocal evidence of the presence or absence of parental discrimination against males is lacking, however, and the adaptive interpretation of male-biased mortality is confounded by an alternative explanation ...
Pérez-Lamela C - - 1998
To establish the stability of Ultranox 626 (an antioxidant added to plastics) in food simulants under migration conditions, migrations tests have been performed. A method has been developed for the determination of Ultranox 626 in the aqueous food simulants distilled water, 3% (w/v) acetic acid, and 15% (v/v) ethanol and ...
Incarnato L - - 1998
In this work the relationships between processing, structure and migration properties of recycled polypropylene (PP) were analysed in relation to the possible use of recycled PP in food packaging applications. PP containers used in food packaging were contaminated with food and then washed, reduced into a processable size, dried and ...
Hammarling L - - 1998
Expoxidized soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticizer in PVC gaskets in lids for glass jars used for packaging of ready-cooked baby food. The migration of ESBO from the lids has been determined in 81 samples of different dishes of baby food, including purées of beef, pork, fish, ...
Métois P - - 1998
In order to decide whether a plastic food packaging material complies with the European Communities (EC) regulation on migration, a quick analysis of two functional classes of plastics additives (aromatic antioxidants and antistatic agents) from polyolefin materials by 1H-NMR and UV-visible spectrophotometry is presented. The scope of spectroscopic methods for ...
KÖLLIKER M - - 1998
The evolutionary conflict over the amount of resources transferred between a parent and its offspring may be resolved by honest signalling of 'need' by offspring and parental investment in relation to signalling level. In birds, biparental care is the norm and evidence that male and female parents differ in their ...
Klärner P - - 1998
An oligostyrene-like product (F2L5250) was reported to have estrogen-like activity (statistically significant increases in means for absolute uterine weight and the ratios of the uterine weight to terminal body weight) in juvenile female rats provided a dietary concentration of 100 ppm F2L5250 for four consecutive days. The highest no-effect-level (NOEL) ...
Demertzis P G - - 1998
Whilst considerable research has been conducted on the stability of plastics additives during processing, there is, on the other hand, a lack of studies on the stability of the same additives in food simulants in the published literature. In the work presented a systematic study has been undertaken on the ...
Cooper I - - 1998
Many additives used in plastics materials and articles intended for food contact are expected to be assigned specific migration limits (SMLs) in a future amendment to EC Directive 90/128/EEC. In order to demonstrate compliance with these restrictions, specific migration tests will need to be performed on the finished plastics packaging ...
Gnanasekharan V - - 1997
Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focuses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such ...
Taylor P N - - 1997
Iodide and acrylamide were applied simultaneously in a double-quenching experiment to compare acrylamide quenching constants for internal and external fluorophores of high-density lipoproteins (HDL1 and HDL2) from manganese-adequate (MnA) and deficient (MnD) rats, free of the electrostatic effects associated with iodide. In MnA HDL1 compared to MnD HDL1, the acrylamide ...
Miltz J - - 1997
The two most widely used polymers in packaging in recent years are polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene (PE). The biggest fractions of these polymers are not re-utilized, in spite of the fact that they possess excellent properties even after their first application. The ban on using recycled polymers in food ...
Hotchkiss J H - - 1997
Interactions between foods and packaging can be detrimental to quality and/or safety. Changes in product flavour due to aroma sorption and the transfer of undesirable flavours from packaging to foods are important mechanisms of deterioration when foods are packaged in polymer-based materials. Careful consideration must be given to those factors ...
Begley T H - - 1997
In the Federal Register of July 17 1995 (60 FR 36582), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a 'threshold of regulation' process. This process was established for determining when the extent of migration to food is so trivial that safety concerns would be negligible. The process exempts materials ...
Laoubi S - - 1997
There is considerable interest in the recycling of food packaging, but also the potential for problems. Any chemical component initially located in the re-used food packaging may be responsible for contamination of the food. The kinetics of this transfer can be established whether the food is liquid or solid. The ...
Philo M R - - 1997
The concentration of styrene-7,8-oxide has been measured in nine base resins and 16 samples of polystyrene articles intended for food contact. The epoxide was not detected in the resins (limit of detection 0.5 mg/kg) but was found in 11 of the 16 packaging samples at up to 2.9 mg/kg. Assuming ...
Bovee E H - - 1997
EC Directive 93/43/EEC of 14 June 1993 on the hygiene of foodstuffs has been implemented in the Netherlands through the Food and Commodity Act (Warenwet) of 14 December 1995. This Directive requires food companies to identify steps in their activities that are critical to ensuring food safety, and to ensure ...
Cantoni D - - 1997
In species with biparental care, the degree of parental investment of each parent may be related to the size of the litter, the parental effort of the partner and the probability of future reproductive success with the same partner. These factors were examined in single females and mated pairs of ...
Biacs P A - - 1997
In the last 15 years, increasing demands for improvement in food quality, and for increased food choice have grown in Hungary. To meet these new requirements, packaging is of decisive importance. Considerable developments have been achieved as a result of wide-ranging R&D activities. A review compiled by the author is ...
Harding S G - - 1997
For a number of polymer/penetrant systems, for example fatty foods in direct contact with plastic wrapping, the migration of substances from the polymer is governed by the amount of penetrant entering the polymer. For food packaging this means that the rate of migration of substances into the food can be ...
Bayer F L - - 1997
Recycled plastics have been used in food-contact applications since 1990 in various countries around the world. To date, there have been no reported issues concerning health or off-taste resulting from the use of recycled plastics in food-contact applications. This is due to the fact that the criteria that have been ...
O'Brien A P - - 1997
The first list of plastics additives which may be assigned restrictions in a future amendment to Directive 90/128/ EEC is likely to contain over 200 substances. If food consumption factors are taken into account many compounds on this list could have restrictions removed but there would, without doubt, still be ...
Hollaender J - - 1997
Food components migrating through organic layers are able to influence the adhesive properties of multilayer materials. In the case of coated metal substrates the interaction stability may be reduced by delamination and subsequent corrosion processes during storage. Impedance spectroscopy can be used to give a very early indication of a ...
Guilbert S - - 1997
Certain newly discovered characteristics of natural biopolymers should make them a choice material to be used for different types of wrappings and films. Edible and/or biodegradable packagings produced from agricultural origin macromolecules provide a supplementary and sometimes essential means to control physiological, microbiological, and physicochemical changes in food products. This ...
Suominen I - - 1997
The microbiological barrier properties of food-packaging paperboards, coated with polyethylene, mineral pigment or a biodegradable polymer and of high-density paper were examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results show that the spatial distribution of microscopically observable bacterial cells was uneven inside the paperboard. The concentration in the interface between ...
Ahvenainen R - - 1997
Over the past few decades, many new packaging techniques have been introduced in the quest for natural preservation of foods and on-time quality monitoring of packaged food to ensure good product quality and safety for the consumer. This paper discusses scientific, technological, commercial and legislative development, as well as consumer ...
Franz R - - 1997
For several years there has been an ongoing controversial scientific discussion about the so-called functional barrier concept which, although mostly connected with the re-use of recycled plastics for food packaging, has general relevance and is principally applicable to any type of multilayer structure. Concerning the definition of the efficiency of ...
Komolprasert V - - 1997
This study measured the migration of benzene, butyric acid, dodecane, octadecane, tetracosane, diazinon, lindane, and copper (II) ethyl hexonate from poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PETE) sheets into the food simulants, 8% ethanol/water and n-heptane. The contaminated PETE sheets were extruded from PETE chips that had been previously contaminated but were washed, dried, and ...
Petersen J H - - 1997
Samples of PVC cling films were taken at importers, wholesalers and retail shops, and their overall migration to the alternative food simulant iso-octane was measured, after establishment of a correlation between overall migration to olive oil at 40 degrees C in 10 days and to iso-octane in 2 h. Results ...
Riquet A M - - 1997
Migration of paramagnetic probes from rigid PVC within 24 h at 50 degrees C depends on the simulant to a considerable extent. With a strongly swelling simulant like tert.butyl acetate, the rate of diffusion is governed by the rate of penetration of the medium into the polymeric network. Isooctane has ...
Philo M R - - 1997
The reactions of four epoxides used as monomers for food contact plastics were studied in the food simulants distilled water, 15% aqueous ethanol, 3% aqueous acetic acid and olive oil. Loss of the parent substance and formation of products was monitored to establish the transformation products to be expected in ...
Greenwood M J - - 1997
"This study develops a methodology that allows migration decision-making to be studied in a laboratory experimental setting. Moreover, this methodology permits an examination of the importance of natural and man-made hazards in migration decisions--factors that have not been extensively studied as determinants of migration. The specific application is to the ...
Castle L - - 1997
A survey of 32 paper and board materials intended for food contact has been undertaken. Sample composition was analysed to identify chemicals with a potential to migrate to foods. Representative materials covering a range of uses such as aqueous and fatty foods, and use at ambient and elevated temperatures, were ...
Lickly T D - - 1997
A simple mathematical equation based on a diffusion model has been utilized recently to estimate migration of both acrylonitrile and styrene from polymers produced from these monomers which are used under a wide variety of food-contact applications. These calculated migration values have subsequently been used to estimate the US consumer's ...
Sadler G - - 1996
The safety of recycled plastics for food contact use is largely dictated by the ability of post-consumer organic contaminants to absorb into recycled materials and later diffuse from containers made from recycled plastics into the food supply. Diffusion and solubility data for organic contaminants in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) are scarce. ...
Gramiccioni L - - 1996
In Italy, data on aluminium concentration in food items are scarce although aluminium containers are widely used to cook, to freeze or to wrap foods (foil) and it is known that aluminium can migrate from containers to foods. Therefore, an experimental study was carried out to quantify aluminium exposure from ...
Brown J S JS - - 1996
An arboviral theory of multiple sclerosis (MS) is presented. Although high MS rates correlate with the distribution of certain population, high rates also correlate with the distribution of Ixodes genus tick viruses. These ticks and viruses are globally distributed by polar-migrating seabirds which are important food sources for island and ...
Castle L - - 1996
Vinyl chloride (VC) tetramer has been studied as a representative oligomer that has the potential for migration from plastics packaging. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bottles for retail beverages were analysed by a process of dissolution followed by gas chromatography. Tetramer levels ranged from 70 to 190 mg/kg in the plastic. When ...
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