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Results 501 - 550 of 687
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Petersen J H - - 2000
The plasticizers di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) were analysed in 29 total diet samples, in 11 samples of baby food and in 11 samples of infant formulae. In all of the total diet samples the presence of one or more of the plasticizers was demonstrated. Maximum ...
Lawson G - - 2000
The identification of the migrants, into food simulants, from a series of polyurethane adhesives used in the manufacture of plastic film laminates for use in common food packaging is described. Commercial materials, based on four different model adhesive systems, were prepared by an industrial collaborator. The MALDI-MS fingerprint patterns of ...
Regier M - - 2000
To measure mean complex dielectric constants of heterogeneous materials with high dielectric losses (like emulsions or granular materials), partially filled TE011 cavities with a time consuming calibration procedure have been used [Persch, 1997], [Risman, 1971], since no suitable theory could be found in literature. In this work, an analytical solution ...
Gilbert J - - 2000
A strong science base is required to underpin the planning and decision-making process involved in determining future European community legislation on materials and articles in contact with food. Significant progress has been made in the past 5 years in European funded work in this area, with many developments contributing to ...
Grob K - - 1999
The analysis of migrates from the internal coatings of food cans showed that the present regulation is not sufficient to ensure safety of food contact polymers. The migrates often consist of complex mixtures of reaction products and impurities, and their harmlessness cannot be deduced from the use of non-toxic starting ...
Ozdemir M - - 1999
Continued innovations in the polymer industry have made polymer surface modification methods a subject of intense research. The importance and necessity of surface modification of plastics are explained, and the advantages of physical surface treatments over the less-sophisticated chemical methods are outlined. Currently available physical surface modification methods for food ...
Piergiovanni L - - 1999
The apparent diffusion coefficients (D) across a PE-LD film of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) dissolved in isooctane and ethanol, were calculated in different ways and compared. DnBP, a common plasticizer of plastics and printing inks, may be a possible contaminant of flexible packaging and PE-LD is the most common food-contacting polymer. ...
Perou A L - - 1999
Reusing old polymer packages as new food packages necessitates the coextrusion of tri-layer polymers, the old polymer being located between two virgin polymer layers. As it takes some time for the contaminant initially located in the old polymer, the virgin polymer layer acts upon the food pollution as a functional ...
Simoneau C - - 1999
Within the framework of the AIR3-CT94-2360 EU-project, the stability of three plastics additives in three EU aqueous and fatty food simulants and in two alternative simulants was studied under various time-temperature conditions. The additives tested were bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate (Irganox 1076). The various ...
Biles J E - - 1999
Migration of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) to food from can enamels and can pull-top seals is reported. Derivatives of DGEBA are also determined in some foods. Levels of DGEBA in the foods surveyed in this study range from nondetected (<0.3 ppb) to 50 mg/kg as determined by ...
Boccacco Mariani M - - 1999
The results of a study of the potential migration of diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) from recycled paperboard packaging into some types of dry solid foodstuffs are reported. Paperboard diskettes containing different DIPN concentrations were prepared and put into contact with four types of dry solid foodstuffs, having high specific surface areas ...
Tewari G - - 1999
Centralized packaging of retail meat cuts is growing more popular because of its economies and potential to maintain quality, enhance safety, and extend the shelf life of fresh meat. Requirements for optimizing shelf life of centrally prepared retail cuts for periods up to 15 weeks are slightly different from those ...
Jetten J - - 1999
The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by industry and regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical) of reused plastics for food packaging. The study included thermal degradation effects, flavour carry-over caused by flavour and ...
Vergnaud J M - - 1998
When a polymer is in contact with a liquid, generally some matter transfers take place: the liquid enters the polymer, while some additives leave the polymer. This fact is responsible for a reduction in the properties of the polymer and pollution of the liquid food is obtained. However, it is ...
Tulloch L - - 1998
Lori Tulloch caters to the migrating men of the morning who rove from one dumpster to the next searching for bottles, food, whatever. Her Whitehorse, Yukon clinic is deliberately on their route, in a cramped room of an aging downtown hotel, and they stop by for a little snack, warm ...
Summerfield W - - 1998
2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether (BADGE) is used in the manufacture of lacquers for coating the inside of food and beverage cans. In June 1996 the EC Scientific Committee for Food temporarily increased the specific migration limit applying to BADGE to 1 mg/kg pending consideration of additional toxicological data. In order to ...
Nerín C - - 1998
Two multicomponent post-use recycled plastics named as NPP40A3 (formulated with 85% HDPE and 15% of a PP-PS-PVC mixture) and NPP40A6 (formulated with 80% NPP40A3, 10% ABS and 10% HIPS), both of them with 3.1% of plasticizer and 0.6% of stabilizer to obtain a better final product, have been analysed. Plastics ...
Marque D - - 1998
The main concern in safety evaluation of ionized plastic food packaging materials is the possible formation of unsuspected potential migrants. Solvent extracts and migrates of a polypropylene-based multilayer film, beta-irradiated at 80 kGy and widely used for vacuum cooking of packaged meat were studied, using complementary analytical techniques. 1H-NMR and ...
Laurila E K - - 1998
The effects of potato variety (Van Gogh, Bintje and Fambo), washing with browning prevention chemicals in place of sodium bisulfite, percentages of CO2, O2, and N2 in the package headspace, and storage time (1, 4, and 7 days) on the sensory and microbiological quality of potato slices were examined. Citric ...
Garde J A - - 1998
Global migration and specific migration of antioxidants (AOs--Irgafos 168 [tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite], Irganox 1076 [octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-propionate], and Hostanox SE2 (distery thiodipropionate)--from polypropylene (PP) films into food simulants (water, 3% acetic acid, 95% ethanol, olive oil, and heptane) were studied. Films (50, 100, and 200 microns thick) were exposed to simulants at ...
Papaspyrides C D - - 1998
In the last 25 years, plastics have faced a massive demand in packaging technology due to their desirable properties, such as flexibility, light weight, etc. Moreover, their packaging applications have spread in the area of food and pharmaceutical products. Much concern has arisen from that fact as most of these ...
Wessling C - - 1998
The migration/sorption behaviour of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol was studied in packaging material in contact with fatty food simulants. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films, containing either BHT or alpha-tocopherol as antioxidants, were stored in contact with sunflower oil or 95% (v/v) ethanol. The antioxidant content was monitored in the ...
Tawfik M S - - 1998
The level of styrene migration from polystyrene cups was monitored in different food systems including: water, milk (0.5, 1.55 and 3.6% fat), cold beverages (apple juice, orange juice, carbonated water, cola, beer and chocolate drink), hot beverages (tea, coffee, chocolate and soup (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3.6% fat), take ...
Petersen J H - - 1998
A control campaign on the correct labelling of plasticized PVC film according to current legislation on food contact materials has been performed. Analytical methods based on the isotope dilution technique were developed. For enforcement purposes, the films were exposed to the official food simulant, olive oil, followed by clean-up using ...
Freire M T - - 1998
PET packaging materials have been tested for volatile content after exposure to high temperatures. Samples included laminates, bottles, and roasting bags, and were heated at 120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 230 degrees C for 50 min, according to sample type. Volatiles released from the material were trapped on ...
Boyle P - - 1998
"A substantial literature has developed regarding the relationship between migration and housing tenure in Britain.... It is important to control for individual characteristics before the independent effect of tenure on mobility can be determined. This paper is a report of an investigation of this relationship in the South East of ...
Howe S R - - 1998
The potential exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from the use of consumer products or packages made from bisphenol A-derived polycarbonate resins was calculated. The calculation was made on the basis of migration data from moulded discs prepared from a composite of polycarbonate resins. The data were obtained using the customary ...
Barham B - - 1998
"This paper examines the net effects of migration and remittances on income distribution. Potential home earnings of migrants are imputed, as are the earnings of non-migrants in migrant households, in order to construct no-migration counterfactuals to compare with the observed income distribution including remittances. The earnings functions used to impute ...
Devlieghere F - - 1998
The possibilities of recycling milk-contaminated HDPE were investigated. Bottles were blown of respectively untreated, caustic-washed and caustic-washed/steam-stripped/air-dried recycled material. The migration characteristics of the different bottles were compared using various food simulants, as well as their sensorial and mechanical properties. From the analytical and sensorial experiments, it was shown that ...
Santos C P - - 1998
The gastrodermis of Atriaster heterodus Lebedev & Paruchin, 1969 (Polyopisthocotylea), a gill parasite from Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes, 1930), is composed of "U"-shape hematin cells and a connecting syncytium, both having cytoplasmic lamellae. These cells show outgrowths and bent folds which were sent to enclose lumen material. The trapped material was ...
Moses RA - - 1998
Male-biased mortality in young animals is often viewed as adaptive discrimination against male offspring by parents unable to raise reproductively competitive sons. Unequivocal evidence of the presence or absence of parental discrimination against males is lacking, however, and the adaptive interpretation of male-biased mortality is confounded by an alternative explanation ...
Pérez-Lamela C - - 1998
To establish the stability of Ultranox 626 (an antioxidant added to plastics) in food simulants under migration conditions, migrations tests have been performed. A method has been developed for the determination of Ultranox 626 in the aqueous food simulants distilled water, 3% (w/v) acetic acid, and 15% (v/v) ethanol and ...
Incarnato L - - 1998
In this work the relationships between processing, structure and migration properties of recycled polypropylene (PP) were analysed in relation to the possible use of recycled PP in food packaging applications. PP containers used in food packaging were contaminated with food and then washed, reduced into a processable size, dried and ...
Hammarling L - - 1998
Expoxidized soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticizer in PVC gaskets in lids for glass jars used for packaging of ready-cooked baby food. The migration of ESBO from the lids has been determined in 81 samples of different dishes of baby food, including purées of beef, pork, fish, ...
Métois P - - 1998
In order to decide whether a plastic food packaging material complies with the European Communities (EC) regulation on migration, a quick analysis of two functional classes of plastics additives (aromatic antioxidants and antistatic agents) from polyolefin materials by 1H-NMR and UV-visible spectrophotometry is presented. The scope of spectroscopic methods for ...
KÖLLIKER M - - 1998
The evolutionary conflict over the amount of resources transferred between a parent and its offspring may be resolved by honest signalling of 'need' by offspring and parental investment in relation to signalling level. In birds, biparental care is the norm and evidence that male and female parents differ in their ...
Klärner P - - 1998
An oligostyrene-like product (F2L5250) was reported to have estrogen-like activity (statistically significant increases in means for absolute uterine weight and the ratios of the uterine weight to terminal body weight) in juvenile female rats provided a dietary concentration of 100 ppm F2L5250 for four consecutive days. The highest no-effect-level (NOEL) ...
Demertzis P G - - 1998
Whilst considerable research has been conducted on the stability of plastics additives during processing, there is, on the other hand, a lack of studies on the stability of the same additives in food simulants in the published literature. In the work presented a systematic study has been undertaken on the ...
Cooper I - - 1998
Many additives used in plastics materials and articles intended for food contact are expected to be assigned specific migration limits (SMLs) in a future amendment to EC Directive 90/128/EEC. In order to demonstrate compliance with these restrictions, specific migration tests will need to be performed on the finished plastics packaging ...
Gnanasekharan V - - 1997
Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focuses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such ...
Taylor P N - - 1997
Iodide and acrylamide were applied simultaneously in a double-quenching experiment to compare acrylamide quenching constants for internal and external fluorophores of high-density lipoproteins (HDL1 and HDL2) from manganese-adequate (MnA) and deficient (MnD) rats, free of the electrostatic effects associated with iodide. In MnA HDL1 compared to MnD HDL1, the acrylamide ...
Miltz J - - 1997
The two most widely used polymers in packaging in recent years are polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene (PE). The biggest fractions of these polymers are not re-utilized, in spite of the fact that they possess excellent properties even after their first application. The ban on using recycled polymers in food ...
Hotchkiss J H - - 1997
Interactions between foods and packaging can be detrimental to quality and/or safety. Changes in product flavour due to aroma sorption and the transfer of undesirable flavours from packaging to foods are important mechanisms of deterioration when foods are packaged in polymer-based materials. Careful consideration must be given to those factors ...
Begley T H - - 1997
In the Federal Register of July 17 1995 (60 FR 36582), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a 'threshold of regulation' process. This process was established for determining when the extent of migration to food is so trivial that safety concerns would be negligible. The process exempts materials ...
Laoubi S - - 1997
There is considerable interest in the recycling of food packaging, but also the potential for problems. Any chemical component initially located in the re-used food packaging may be responsible for contamination of the food. The kinetics of this transfer can be established whether the food is liquid or solid. The ...
Philo M R - - 1997
The concentration of styrene-7,8-oxide has been measured in nine base resins and 16 samples of polystyrene articles intended for food contact. The epoxide was not detected in the resins (limit of detection 0.5 mg/kg) but was found in 11 of the 16 packaging samples at up to 2.9 mg/kg. Assuming ...
Bovee E H - - 1997
EC Directive 93/43/EEC of 14 June 1993 on the hygiene of foodstuffs has been implemented in the Netherlands through the Food and Commodity Act (Warenwet) of 14 December 1995. This Directive requires food companies to identify steps in their activities that are critical to ensuring food safety, and to ensure ...
Cantoni D - - 1997
In species with biparental care, the degree of parental investment of each parent may be related to the size of the litter, the parental effort of the partner and the probability of future reproductive success with the same partner. These factors were examined in single females and mated pairs of ...
Biacs P A - - 1997
In the last 15 years, increasing demands for improvement in food quality, and for increased food choice have grown in Hungary. To meet these new requirements, packaging is of decisive importance. Considerable developments have been achieved as a result of wide-ranging R&D activities. A review compiled by the author is ...
Harding S G - - 1997
For a number of polymer/penetrant systems, for example fatty foods in direct contact with plastic wrapping, the migration of substances from the polymer is governed by the amount of penetrant entering the polymer. For food packaging this means that the rate of migration of substances into the food can be ...
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