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Results 451 - 500 of 665
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Munro C - - 2002
Risk assessment of packaging materials provides a unique challenge. Human exposure to packaging materials and/or their components occurs from migration into foods. There are various methods for determining migration into foods. Unlike most food additives, these exposures typically are very small. Because of this, and since complete toxicological data sets ...
Howe S R - - 2001
The potential exposure to p-nonylphenol from the use of tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite (TNPP) in food-contact materials was calculated. The calculation was made on the basis of migration data from moulded plaques prepared from linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), films prepared from LLDPE and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films. The data were obtained using the ...
Garde J A - - 2001
The migration (diffusion and equilibrium) processes of antioxidants (AOs) from polypropylene (PP) films of different thicknesses into n-heptane and 95% ethanol as fatty food simulants were analysed at 20, 37 and 60 degrees C. Heptane fully extracted the AOs from the polymer while a partition equilibrium described the migration to ...
Foarde K K - - 2001
Recent experiments confirm field experience that duct cleaning alone may not provide adequate protection from regrowth of fungal contamination on fiberglass duct liner (FGDL). Current recommendations for remediation of fungally contaminated fiberglass duct materials specify complete removal of the materials. But removal of contaminated materials can be extremely expensive. Therefore, ...
Munguia-Lopez E M - - 2001
Effects of heat processing and storage time (up to 70 days) on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from can coatings into an aqueous food simulant were determined. Distilled water was canned in two types of Mexican cans: for tuna and for jalapeño peppers. Results showed ...
Ahearn W H - - 2001
An ABAC comparison of two treatment packages for food refusal, physical guidance and nonremoval of the spoon, was conducted with two children with limited food acceptance. Both of these treatment packages included prevention of escape from presented food. Subsequent to baseline, one of the two treatment packages was implemented for ...
Adamczewsk A M - - 2001
The terrestrial crab Gecarcoidea natalis is endemic to the forests of Christmas Island but must migrate each year to the coast to breed. During 1993 and 1995, radio-tracking, mark and recapture, and counting methods were used to establish the routes, walking speeds, direction of travel, and destinations of migrating crabs, ...
Leber A P - - 2001
Many consumer products are composed completely, or in part, of polymeric materials. Direct or indirect human contact results in potential exposures to monomers as a result of migrations of trace amounts from the polymeric matrix into foods, into the skin or other bodily surfaces. Typically, residual monomer levels in these ...
Piggott J R - - 2001
The flavour of a food or beverage is not perceived in a single event, but rather as a series of events experienced as the food is consumed. Recent methods in flavour research have taken account of this, and techniques have been developed to study flavour release in model systems (release ...
Tsumura Y - - 2001
Plasticizers in duplicate diet samples obtained over 1 week were analysed in order to estimate daily intake. The phthalate esters were as follows: diethyl, dipropyl, dibutyl, dipentyl, dihexyl, butylbenzyl, dicyclohexyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), dioctyl, diisooctyl (mixture of isomers) and diisononyl (mixture). Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate was also determined. Homogenized samples of composite meals were ...
Kaandorp J A - - 2001
In many marine sessile organisms (for example sponges and stony corals) the skeleton is formed by an accretive growth process, where layers of material are secreted on top of each other in a surface normal deposition process. In many of these organisms the growth process exhibits a strong morphological plasticity ...
Hirayama K - - 2001
A survey of plasticizers in cap-sealing resins for bottled foods has been undertaken. During 1997-1999 di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was found in seven out of 21 samples on the Japanese domestic market and in 10 out of 61 imported samples as well as a further two samples which contained di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA). In ...
McWilliams S R - - 2001
Birds during migration must satisfy the high energy and nutrient demands associated with repeated, intensive flight while often experiencing unpredictable variation in food supply and food quality. Solutions to such different challenges may often be physiologically incompatible. For example, increased food intake and gut size are primarily responsible for satisfying ...
D'Antuono A - - 2001
Liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector (LC-ED), using a chemically modified electrode coated with a metalloporphyrin film, is reported for determination of bisphenol A (BPA) migration from polycarbonate baby bottles. The extraction process of the samples was performed according to regulations of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), where certain food-simulating liquids ...
Byard R W RW Forensic Science Centre, Adelaide, Australia. - - 2001
A 74-year-old man who had been institutionalized for severe multiinfarct dementia was found dead in bed. He had a history of compulsive ingestion of food and other materials, including feces. At autopsy, a 65-g bolus of fecal material was impacted within the laryngopharynx, occluding the inlet of the larynx. This ...
Inoue K - - 2001
Migration of 4-nonylphenol (NP) from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films for food packaging into food simulants and foods has been studied in domestic applications such as wrapping of food and reheating in a microwave oven. The migration of NP from the PVC films was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical ...
Nadon C A - - 2001
Biogenic amines are formed in foods as a result of amino acid decarboxylation catalyzed by bacterial enzymes. When consumed in sufficient quantities, these compounds will cause headache, hypertension, fever, and heart failure. Technologies such as vacuum packaging and carbon dioxide-modified atmosphere packaging (CO2-MAP), when combined with low-temperature storage (-1.5 degrees ...
Summerfield W - - 2001
A range of paper and board materials including carton board, corrugated board, napkins and paper towels intended for contact with food have been solvent extracted and substances present at the highest levels identified and quantified by GC/MS. Dibutyl phthalate, and diisopropylnaphthalene (DIPN) were selected to study migration to food and ...
Kao W J - - 2001
Polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are employed extensively in the development of biomaterials; however, the hydroxyl groups in PEG-diols have very limited chemical activity. We developed a synthesis scheme for a library of heterodifunctional PEG (hPEG) with two distinct terminal moieties to improve the reactivity and physicochemical properties of PEG. hPEG were employed ...
Song Y S - - 2000
Because contaminants in recycled paper intended for food packaging could be a risk to public health, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify residues of concern in paper/paperboard. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration is considering development of a guidance document for testing levels of contaminants that might ...
Gill I - - 2000
Since the introduction of sol-gel bioencapsulation and the demonstration that biological function can be incorporated into, and preserved within, polymer matrices, a number of alternative polymers have been used to immobilize proteins. Various enzymes have been trapped in such diverse polymers as epoxy-amine resins, polyvinyl plastics, polyurethane foams and silicone ...
Stout P R - - 2000
The loss of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) from urine specimens stored in polypropylene and polyethylene containers at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C was examined. All specimens were analyzed by GC-MS after sampling at various times over a one-week period. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and fitted with ...
Gilbert J - - 2000
An internet website (http:¿cpf.jrc.it/smt/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on ...
Lund K H - - 2000
A reference material for the determination of overall migration from a plastic coextrudate into the fatty food simulant olive oil was produced and certified in an interlaboratory study. The analyses were carried out according to the ENV 1186 standard from the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) [ 1, 2, 3] ...
Wessling C - - 2000
The retention of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film was investigated when in contact with different food-simulating liquids. Variations of the aqueous food simulants approved by the EU for testing of interactions between packaging materials and food, and an alternative fatty food simulant (95% aqueous ethanol) were used ...
Simal-Gándara J - - 2000
The advent of the functional barrier concept in food packaging has brought with it a requirement for fast tests of permeation through potential barrier materials. In such tests it would be convenient for both foodstuffs and materials below the functional barrier (sub-barrier materials) to be represented by standard simulants. By ...
Lau O W - - 2000
Packaging has become an indispensible element in the food manufacturing process, and different types of additives, such as antioxidants, stabilizers, lubricants, anti-static and anti-blocking agents, have also been developed to improve the performance of polymeric packaging materials. Recently the packaging has been found to represent a source of contamination itself ...
Jeyamkondan S - - 2000
There is growing interest in centralized preparation of retail-ready meat cuts for distribution to widely dispersed retail stores due to the convenience of having high-quality ready-to-go products that are consistently provided to consumers at lower cost. Various centralized packaging techniques are described. Of all packaging techniques, master packaging is the ...
Yap A U - - 2000
The chemical environment is one aspect of the oral environment that could have an appreciable influence on the in vivo degradation of composite resins. The effects of food-simulating liquids on the surface roughness and hardness of composite (Silux Plus, Z100, Spectrum TPH, and P50) and polyacid-modified composite resins (F2000 and ...
Le Magrex-Debar E - - 2000
Plastic materials used for food packaging are clean but not sterile when the food is just packaged. Accidental wet contamination may occur at every moment between packaging and opening by the consumer: on polyethylene (PET), bacteria may adhere strongly and constitute a biofilm in less than 24 h. By rolling ...
Sharpless K E - - 2000
A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the ...
Simal-Gándara J - - 2000
A liquid chromatographic method with evaporative mass detection (EMD) is described for the determination of paraffins in food contact materials that do not contain polyolefin oligomers, or paraffins migrating from these materials into fatty food simulants or certain simple foods. A normal-phase column operating at maximum column efficiency separates nonparaffinic ...
Petersen J H - - 2000
The plasticizers di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) were analysed in 29 total diet samples, in 11 samples of baby food and in 11 samples of infant formulae. In all of the total diet samples the presence of one or more of the plasticizers was demonstrated. Maximum ...
Lawson G - - 2000
The identification of the migrants, into food simulants, from a series of polyurethane adhesives used in the manufacture of plastic film laminates for use in common food packaging is described. Commercial materials, based on four different model adhesive systems, were prepared by an industrial collaborator. The MALDI-MS fingerprint patterns of ...
Regier M - - 2000
To measure mean complex dielectric constants of heterogeneous materials with high dielectric losses (like emulsions or granular materials), partially filled TE011 cavities with a time consuming calibration procedure have been used [Persch, 1997], [Risman, 1971], since no suitable theory could be found in literature. In this work, an analytical solution ...
Gilbert J - - 2000
A strong science base is required to underpin the planning and decision-making process involved in determining future European community legislation on materials and articles in contact with food. Significant progress has been made in the past 5 years in European funded work in this area, with many developments contributing to ...
Grob K - - 1999
The analysis of migrates from the internal coatings of food cans showed that the present regulation is not sufficient to ensure safety of food contact polymers. The migrates often consist of complex mixtures of reaction products and impurities, and their harmlessness cannot be deduced from the use of non-toxic starting ...
Ozdemir M - - 1999
Continued innovations in the polymer industry have made polymer surface modification methods a subject of intense research. The importance and necessity of surface modification of plastics are explained, and the advantages of physical surface treatments over the less-sophisticated chemical methods are outlined. Currently available physical surface modification methods for food ...
Piergiovanni L - - 1999
The apparent diffusion coefficients (D) across a PE-LD film of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) dissolved in isooctane and ethanol, were calculated in different ways and compared. DnBP, a common plasticizer of plastics and printing inks, may be a possible contaminant of flexible packaging and PE-LD is the most common food-contacting polymer. ...
Perou A L - - 1999
Reusing old polymer packages as new food packages necessitates the coextrusion of tri-layer polymers, the old polymer being located between two virgin polymer layers. As it takes some time for the contaminant initially located in the old polymer, the virgin polymer layer acts upon the food pollution as a functional ...
Simoneau C - - 1999
Within the framework of the AIR3-CT94-2360 EU-project, the stability of three plastics additives in three EU aqueous and fatty food simulants and in two alternative simulants was studied under various time-temperature conditions. The additives tested were bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate (Irganox 1076). The various ...
Biles J E - - 1999
Migration of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) to food from can enamels and can pull-top seals is reported. Derivatives of DGEBA are also determined in some foods. Levels of DGEBA in the foods surveyed in this study range from nondetected (<0.3 ppb) to 50 mg/kg as determined by ...
Boccacco Mariani M - - 1999
The results of a study of the potential migration of diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) from recycled paperboard packaging into some types of dry solid foodstuffs are reported. Paperboard diskettes containing different DIPN concentrations were prepared and put into contact with four types of dry solid foodstuffs, having high specific surface areas ...
Tewari G - - 1999
Centralized packaging of retail meat cuts is growing more popular because of its economies and potential to maintain quality, enhance safety, and extend the shelf life of fresh meat. Requirements for optimizing shelf life of centrally prepared retail cuts for periods up to 15 weeks are slightly different from those ...
Jetten J - - 1999
The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by industry and regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical) of reused plastics for food packaging. The study included thermal degradation effects, flavour carry-over caused by flavour and ...
Vergnaud J M - - 1998
When a polymer is in contact with a liquid, generally some matter transfers take place: the liquid enters the polymer, while some additives leave the polymer. This fact is responsible for a reduction in the properties of the polymer and pollution of the liquid food is obtained. However, it is ...
Tulloch L - - 1998
Lori Tulloch caters to the migrating men of the morning who rove from one dumpster to the next searching for bottles, food, whatever. Her Whitehorse, Yukon clinic is deliberately on their route, in a cramped room of an aging downtown hotel, and they stop by for a little snack, warm ...
Summerfield W - - 1998
2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether (BADGE) is used in the manufacture of lacquers for coating the inside of food and beverage cans. In June 1996 the EC Scientific Committee for Food temporarily increased the specific migration limit applying to BADGE to 1 mg/kg pending consideration of additional toxicological data. In order to ...
Nerín C - - 1998
Two multicomponent post-use recycled plastics named as NPP40A3 (formulated with 85% HDPE and 15% of a PP-PS-PVC mixture) and NPP40A6 (formulated with 80% NPP40A3, 10% ABS and 10% HIPS), both of them with 3.1% of plasticizer and 0.6% of stabilizer to obtain a better final product, have been analysed. Plastics ...
Marque D - - 1998
The main concern in safety evaluation of ionized plastic food packaging materials is the possible formation of unsuspected potential migrants. Solvent extracts and migrates of a polypropylene-based multilayer film, beta-irradiated at 80 kGy and widely used for vacuum cooking of packaged meat were studied, using complementary analytical techniques. 1H-NMR and ...
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