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Results 451 - 500 of 687
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Cutter Catherine Nettles - - 2002
Since early man first used a variety of natural containers to store and eat foods, significant developments in food packaging materials have provided the means to suppress microbial growth as well as protect foods from external microbial contamination. Throughout this progression, packaging materials have been developed specifically to prevent the ...
Franke I - - 2002
The paper reports the influence of an ethanol emitter (Ethicap) on the microbiological condition and the shelf life extension of a bakery product. Pre-baked buns, with a water activity of 0.95, were packaged with different amounts of Ethicap and stored at room temperature. Yeasts and moulds remained largely absent from ...
Quintaes K D - - 2002
Steatite or soapstone, is a soft metamorphic rock composed mainly of talc, dolomite and actinolite, which is abundantly found and used for the manufacture of cookware in south-east Brazil. The study estimates its usage for cookware among dwellers of Ouro Preto, and assesses the possible toxicological or nutritional impact on ...
Papilloud S - - 2002
Ultraviolet (UV) inks are an alternative formulation system to the more usual paste or liquid inks (oils or solvents based) that dry mainly by evaporation or penetration into the printed substrate. Based on acrylic acid chemistry, UV inks dry (the exact term is 'curing') by the chemical process of photopolymerization. ...
Koseki Shigenobu - - 2002
Nitrogen (N2) gas packaging for fresh-cut vegetables (lettuce and cabbage) has been examined as a means of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for extending the shelf life of cut vegetables. Gas composition in enclosed packages that contained cut vegetables and were filled with 100% N2 had an oxygen (O2) concentration of ...
Sörgel Fritz - - 2002
We have developed a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to determine acrylamide in various body fluids. The assay also allows the reliable quantitation of acrylamide in food. In a total of 11 healthy male and female subjects, we were able to show that acrylamide from food given to humans is ...
Vermeiren L - - 2002
A new type of active packaging is the combination of food-packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods. For both migrating and non-migrating antimicrobial materials, intensive contact between the food product and packaging material is required and therefore potential food applications include especially vacuum or skin-packaged ...
Grob K - - 2002
The premise is put forward that present European regulation of food-packaging materials does not provide the assessment for safety corresponding to the opinion of toxicologists that migrants ingested in amounts exceeding a threshold of 1.5 microg day(-1) should be identified and toxicologically evaluated. Many substances that migrate (the large majority ...
Jetten J - - 2002
The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the investigations into potential adulteration effects ...
Begley T H - - 2002
To evaluate the feasibility of recycling all PET bottles into food packaging, realistic estimates of the maximum concentration of contaminants that might be expected in the polymer are needed. To estimate the maximum concentration of a contaminant that might be in PET from the storage of non-food substances, sorption experiments ...
Weber C J - - 2002
Materials based on renewable resources are being developed at an increasing rate. Today, the only biobased food-packaging materials used commercially on a major scale are based on cellulose. However, materials based on proteins, starch, polylactate and other renewable resources may be the food-packaging materials of tomorrow. The paper presents some ...
Hernández-Muñoz P - - 2002
Knowledge of the extent of food/packaging interactions is essential to provide assurance of food quality and shelf life, especially in migration and sorption processes that commonly reach equilibrium during the lifetime of a commercial packaged foodstuff. The limits of sorption and migration must be measured in the presence of the ...
Bayer Forrest L - - 2002
Studies were undertaken to determine the composition of five different types of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) feedstreams to ascertain the relative amounts of food containers and non-food containers. Deposit post-consumer PET feedstreams contained approximately 100% food containers, whereas curbside feedstreams contained from 0.04 to 6% non-food containers. Analysis of the ...
Wu Yi - - 2002
Combining the advantages of polysaccharides, proteins and/or lipids offers multicomponent edible films and coatings good mass transfer barrier properties. Multicomponent edible films and coatings could be beneficial to the food industry by leading to innovative applications. The barrier properties of these systems strongly depend upon their structure and chemistry, the ...
de Kruijf N N - - 2002
Changes in the way foods are produced, distributed, stored and retailed, reflecting the continuing increase in consumer demands for improved quality and extended shelf-life for packaged foods, are placing ever-greater demands on the performance of food packaging. Consumers want to be assured that the packaging is fulfilling its function of ...
Reynier A - - 2002
The principle of a computing program describing precisely the migration of additives from a polymer into a food simulant is presented. As six parameters are used to fit the simulnnt sorption and additive extraction kinetics, the parameters have been determined by independent experiments. Owing to the complicated coupling between the ...
Huber M - - 2002
Off-flavours in packed food are causes for consumer complaints. Often, they are related to packaging materials. For food companies, this represents not only costs related to production, but also a possible loss of brand confidence and market share. The origin of packaging-related off-odours are many sided. Odours derive from the ...
Franz R - - 2002
Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other ...
Munro C - - 2002
Risk assessment of packaging materials provides a unique challenge. Human exposure to packaging materials and/or their components occurs from migration into foods. There are various methods for determining migration into foods. Unlike most food additives, these exposures typically are very small. Because of this, and since complete toxicological data sets ...
Howe S R - - 2001
The potential exposure to p-nonylphenol from the use of tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite (TNPP) in food-contact materials was calculated. The calculation was made on the basis of migration data from moulded plaques prepared from linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), films prepared from LLDPE and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films. The data were obtained using the ...
Garde J A - - 2001
The migration (diffusion and equilibrium) processes of antioxidants (AOs) from polypropylene (PP) films of different thicknesses into n-heptane and 95% ethanol as fatty food simulants were analysed at 20, 37 and 60 degrees C. Heptane fully extracted the AOs from the polymer while a partition equilibrium described the migration to ...
Foarde K K - - 2001
Recent experiments confirm field experience that duct cleaning alone may not provide adequate protection from regrowth of fungal contamination on fiberglass duct liner (FGDL). Current recommendations for remediation of fungally contaminated fiberglass duct materials specify complete removal of the materials. But removal of contaminated materials can be extremely expensive. Therefore, ...
Munguia-Lopez E M - - 2001
Effects of heat processing and storage time (up to 70 days) on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from can coatings into an aqueous food simulant were determined. Distilled water was canned in two types of Mexican cans: for tuna and for jalapeño peppers. Results showed ...
Ahearn W H - - 2001
An ABAC comparison of two treatment packages for food refusal, physical guidance and nonremoval of the spoon, was conducted with two children with limited food acceptance. Both of these treatment packages included prevention of escape from presented food. Subsequent to baseline, one of the two treatment packages was implemented for ...
Adamczewsk A M - - 2001
The terrestrial crab Gecarcoidea natalis is endemic to the forests of Christmas Island but must migrate each year to the coast to breed. During 1993 and 1995, radio-tracking, mark and recapture, and counting methods were used to establish the routes, walking speeds, direction of travel, and destinations of migrating crabs, ...
Leber A P - - 2001
Many consumer products are composed completely, or in part, of polymeric materials. Direct or indirect human contact results in potential exposures to monomers as a result of migrations of trace amounts from the polymeric matrix into foods, into the skin or other bodily surfaces. Typically, residual monomer levels in these ...
Piggott J R - - 2001
The flavour of a food or beverage is not perceived in a single event, but rather as a series of events experienced as the food is consumed. Recent methods in flavour research have taken account of this, and techniques have been developed to study flavour release in model systems (release ...
Tsumura Y - - 2001
Plasticizers in duplicate diet samples obtained over 1 week were analysed in order to estimate daily intake. The phthalate esters were as follows: diethyl, dipropyl, dibutyl, dipentyl, dihexyl, butylbenzyl, dicyclohexyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), dioctyl, diisooctyl (mixture of isomers) and diisononyl (mixture). Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate was also determined. Homogenized samples of composite meals were ...
Kaandorp J A - - 2001
In many marine sessile organisms (for example sponges and stony corals) the skeleton is formed by an accretive growth process, where layers of material are secreted on top of each other in a surface normal deposition process. In many of these organisms the growth process exhibits a strong morphological plasticity ...
Hirayama K - - 2001
A survey of plasticizers in cap-sealing resins for bottled foods has been undertaken. During 1997-1999 di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was found in seven out of 21 samples on the Japanese domestic market and in 10 out of 61 imported samples as well as a further two samples which contained di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA). In ...
McWilliams S R - - 2001
Birds during migration must satisfy the high energy and nutrient demands associated with repeated, intensive flight while often experiencing unpredictable variation in food supply and food quality. Solutions to such different challenges may often be physiologically incompatible. For example, increased food intake and gut size are primarily responsible for satisfying ...
D'Antuono A - - 2001
Liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector (LC-ED), using a chemically modified electrode coated with a metalloporphyrin film, is reported for determination of bisphenol A (BPA) migration from polycarbonate baby bottles. The extraction process of the samples was performed according to regulations of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), where certain food-simulating liquids ...
Byard R W RW Forensic Science Centre, Adelaide, Australia. - - 2001
A 74-year-old man who had been institutionalized for severe multiinfarct dementia was found dead in bed. He had a history of compulsive ingestion of food and other materials, including feces. At autopsy, a 65-g bolus of fecal material was impacted within the laryngopharynx, occluding the inlet of the larynx. This ...
Inoue K - - 2001
Migration of 4-nonylphenol (NP) from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films for food packaging into food simulants and foods has been studied in domestic applications such as wrapping of food and reheating in a microwave oven. The migration of NP from the PVC films was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical ...
Nadon C A - - 2001
Biogenic amines are formed in foods as a result of amino acid decarboxylation catalyzed by bacterial enzymes. When consumed in sufficient quantities, these compounds will cause headache, hypertension, fever, and heart failure. Technologies such as vacuum packaging and carbon dioxide-modified atmosphere packaging (CO2-MAP), when combined with low-temperature storage (-1.5 degrees ...
Summerfield W - - 2001
A range of paper and board materials including carton board, corrugated board, napkins and paper towels intended for contact with food have been solvent extracted and substances present at the highest levels identified and quantified by GC/MS. Dibutyl phthalate, and diisopropylnaphthalene (DIPN) were selected to study migration to food and ...
Kao W J - - 2001
Polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are employed extensively in the development of biomaterials; however, the hydroxyl groups in PEG-diols have very limited chemical activity. We developed a synthesis scheme for a library of heterodifunctional PEG (hPEG) with two distinct terminal moieties to improve the reactivity and physicochemical properties of PEG. hPEG were employed ...
Song Y S - - 2000
Because contaminants in recycled paper intended for food packaging could be a risk to public health, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify residues of concern in paper/paperboard. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration is considering development of a guidance document for testing levels of contaminants that might ...
Gill I - - 2000
Since the introduction of sol-gel bioencapsulation and the demonstration that biological function can be incorporated into, and preserved within, polymer matrices, a number of alternative polymers have been used to immobilize proteins. Various enzymes have been trapped in such diverse polymers as epoxy-amine resins, polyvinyl plastics, polyurethane foams and silicone ...
Stout P R - - 2000
The loss of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) from urine specimens stored in polypropylene and polyethylene containers at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C was examined. All specimens were analyzed by GC-MS after sampling at various times over a one-week period. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and fitted with ...
Gilbert J - - 2000
An internet website (http:¿cpf.jrc.it/smt/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on ...
Lund K H - - 2000
A reference material for the determination of overall migration from a plastic coextrudate into the fatty food simulant olive oil was produced and certified in an interlaboratory study. The analyses were carried out according to the ENV 1186 standard from the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) [ 1, 2, 3] ...
Wessling C - - 2000
The retention of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film was investigated when in contact with different food-simulating liquids. Variations of the aqueous food simulants approved by the EU for testing of interactions between packaging materials and food, and an alternative fatty food simulant (95% aqueous ethanol) were used ...
Simal-Gándara J - - 2000
The advent of the functional barrier concept in food packaging has brought with it a requirement for fast tests of permeation through potential barrier materials. In such tests it would be convenient for both foodstuffs and materials below the functional barrier (sub-barrier materials) to be represented by standard simulants. By ...
Lau O W - - 2000
Packaging has become an indispensible element in the food manufacturing process, and different types of additives, such as antioxidants, stabilizers, lubricants, anti-static and anti-blocking agents, have also been developed to improve the performance of polymeric packaging materials. Recently the packaging has been found to represent a source of contamination itself ...
Jeyamkondan S - - 2000
There is growing interest in centralized preparation of retail-ready meat cuts for distribution to widely dispersed retail stores due to the convenience of having high-quality ready-to-go products that are consistently provided to consumers at lower cost. Various centralized packaging techniques are described. Of all packaging techniques, master packaging is the ...
Yap A U - - 2000
The chemical environment is one aspect of the oral environment that could have an appreciable influence on the in vivo degradation of composite resins. The effects of food-simulating liquids on the surface roughness and hardness of composite (Silux Plus, Z100, Spectrum TPH, and P50) and polyacid-modified composite resins (F2000 and ...
Le Magrex-Debar E - - 2000
Plastic materials used for food packaging are clean but not sterile when the food is just packaged. Accidental wet contamination may occur at every moment between packaging and opening by the consumer: on polyethylene (PET), bacteria may adhere strongly and constitute a biofilm in less than 24 h. By rolling ...
Sharpless K E - - 2000
A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the ...
Simal-Gándara J - - 2000
A liquid chromatographic method with evaporative mass detection (EMD) is described for the determination of paraffins in food contact materials that do not contain polyolefin oligomers, or paraffins migrating from these materials into fatty food simulants or certain simple foods. A normal-phase column operating at maximum column efficiency separates nonparaffinic ...
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