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Results 401 - 450 of 777
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Yasuda Kenji - - 2006
Surveys of over 2000 households in Japan were conducted to investigate the characteristics of hazardous household waste (HHW) generation. In Japan, about 2.5 to 4.3 kg of HHW are produced per tonne of the residential waste stream. The percentage of used batteries in HHW was over 50%. Every household using ...
Hall William J - - 2006
The reduction of SO2, HCl, and NO(x) concentrations using calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) as a novel sorbent in a simulated municipal waste incinerator flue gas was investigated. The reduction of individual SO2, HCl, and NO(x) concentrations was tested at 850 degrees C and it was found that CMA could reduce ...
Lesikar B J - - 2006
Food-service establishments that use on-site wastewater treatment systems are experiencing pretreatment system and/or drain field hydraulic and/or organic overloading. This study included characterization of four wastewater parameters (five-day biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]; total suspended solids [TSS]; food, oil, and grease [FOG]; and flow) from 28 restaurants located in Texas during ...
Mao I-Fang - - 2006
The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets ...
Suksabye Parinda - - 2007
Coir pith is a by-product from padding used in mattress factories. It contains a high amount of lignin. Therefore, this study investigated the use of coir pith in the removal of hexavalent chromium from electroplating wastewater by varying the parameters, such as the system pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and ...
Pandey R A - - 2007
Industrial waste gas emissions containing pyridine are generated from pyridine manufacturing industries, and in industrial operations where pyridine is used as a solvent, as an intermediate for synthesis and as a catalyst for a variety of applications. Pyridine has unpleasant fishy odor with an odor index of 2390 and waste ...
Borowski Sebastian - - 2007
The dual digestion process was investigated using sludge samples collected at the WWTP of Tomaszow Mazowiecki (Poland). Mixed sludge was treated in a laboratory setup under batch and semi-continuous conditions. Dual digestion with a 1d SRT aerobic thermophilic pretreatment followed by an anaerobic step with 20 d of SRT turned ...
Songulashvili G - - 2006
Phellinus robustus produced both laccase (700-4,000 U l(-1)) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) (1,000-11,300 U l(-1)) in fermentation of nine food wastes, whereas Ganoderma adspersum produced only laccase (600-34,000 U l(-1)). Glucose provided high laccase and MnP activity of P. robustus but repressed enzyme production by G. adspersum. Ammonium sulphate and ...
Acharya C - - 2006
A two-stage membrane bioreactor was used to treat dissolved-air-flotation pretreated, high-strength pet food wastewater characterized by oil and grease concentrations of 50 000 to 82 000 mg/L and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) concentrations of 100 000 and 80 000 mg/L, respectively, to meet ...
Millán de Kuhn Rosmary - - 2006
ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of ...
Benhammou Abdelaziz - - 2007
Batch adsorption of the chromium(VI) onto Moroccan stevensite pillared by Keggin aluminium hydroxypolycation (Al-stevensite) and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTA-stevensite) was investigated. The results showed that the CTA-stevensite has a higher affinity than that of Al-stevensite for chromium(VI) adsorption. The adsorption capacities for natural stevensite, Al-stevensite and CTA-stevensite calculated according to ...
Liao B Q - - 2006
The effect of solids retention time (SRT) (4-20 d) on sludge floc structure, size distribution and morphology in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors receiving a glucose-based synthetic wastewater was studied using image analysis in a long-term experiment over one year. Floc size distribution (>10 microm) could be characterized by a log-normal ...
Daneshvar N - - 2007
The photooxidative degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) was studied in the UV/H2O2 process. The effects of applied H2O2 dose, initial 4-NP concentration and UV light intensity have been studied. Degradation was complete in 13 min and follows apparent first-order kinetics. The removal efficiency of 4-NP depends on the operational parameters and ...
Cokgor E Ubay - - 2007
This paper evaluates the merit of oxygen uptake rate measurements for the assessment of metal inhibition on activated sludge. For this purpose, experiments are conducted to calculate EC50 levels of nickel and hexavalent chromium using the ISO 8192 procedure, yielding results that are highly variable and difficult to correlate, depending ...
Dhayalan K - - 2007
Leather processing generates huge amounts of both solid and liquid wastes. The management of solid wastes, especially tanned leather waste, is a challenging problem faced by tanners. Hence, studies on biodegradability of leather become imperative. In this present work, biodegradability of untanned, chrome tanned and vegetable tanned leather under anaerobic ...
Hussain Sabir - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was to examine the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) from synthetic wastewater using limestone (LS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) mixture as low cost adsorbent. In batch study, optimum shaking and settling times were 150 and 120 min, respectively. The LS-GAC mixture ratio of ...
Arimoro Francis O - - 2006
The impact of sawmill wood wastes on the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates at the Sapele section of Benin River, Niger Delta, Nigeria, was investigated from March 2005 to August 2005. A total of 434 individuals were collected by kick-sampling method, representing 21 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates. Three stations, 1, 2, ...
Conklin Anne - - 2006
Methanosarcina species with a high maximum specific growth rate (mumax) and high half-saturation coefficient (KS) and Methanosaeta species with a low mumax and low KS are the only known aceticlastic methanogens. Because of Methanosaeta's low KS, the low acetate concentrations in conventional, mesophilic anaerobic digestion yield Methanosaeta dominance. However, Methanosarcina ...
Zhang Ruihong - - 2007
Food waste collected in the City of San Francisco, California, was characterized for its potential for use as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The daily and weekly variations of food waste composition over a two-month period were measured. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas and methane yields of the food ...
Biswas D R - - 2006
In this study, rock phosphate enriched composts (RP-compost) were prepared by mixing four low-grade Indian rock phosphates with rice straw with and without Aspergillus awamori. RP-compost had higher total P, citrate soluble P (CSP), organic P (Org.P), acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, and lower water soluble P (WSP) and microbial ...
Quagliotto Pierluigi - - 2006
Compost humic acid-like (cHAL) polymeric matter (MW = 15610), isolated in 12% yield from food and green waste compost, exhibits very good surfactant properties in aqueous solution: i.e., critical micelle concentration (cmc) = 403 mg/L and surface tension at cmc = 36.1 mN/m. Values of cmc are confirmed also by ...
Xiao G Y - - 2006
The structural features of biomass present in the hybrid MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor) aeration tank were studied in two subsequent periods, which differed in hydraulic and substrate loads. The physical characteristics of attached-growth biomass, such as, biofilm thickness, density, porosity, inner and surface fractal dimensions, and those of suspended-growth ...
Jeganathan Jeganaesan - - 2006
Wastewaters generating from pet food industries contain high concentration of oil and grease (O&G), which is difficult to treat through conventional biological treatment systems. In this study, the hydrolysis of O&G originating from pet food industrial wastewater was evaluated. Candida rugosa lipase was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and applied ...
Wang Zhengjian - - 2006
The research examines the potential for bio-clogging in filter packs containing fine sand of the type typically used in extraction wells for pumping leachates containing fine particulate matter, such as cement kiln dust (CKD). Three filter media with different particle sizes were used: 1.7-4.75, 0.35-1.0, and 0.235-0.45 mm. Each sand ...
Chae S R - - 2007
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of condensate of food waste (CFW) on nutrient removal in a pilot-scale vertical submerged membrane bioreactor (VSMBR) treating municipal wastewater having total-chemical oxygen demand to total-nitrogen ratio (T-COD/T-N) of 5.5. In this reactor, the average removal efficiencies of T-COD, ...
Ait Alla A - - 2006
The aim of this study was to assess aquatic environmental quality of Oued Souss (Agadir, Morocco). This estuary has been subjected for a long time to large amounts of sewage discharges and industrial effluents. Since November 2002, no waste outlets have been discharged in this site due to their connection ...
Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi
Field trials were conducted in Wicklow, New Brunswick, Canada to study the antibiosis ability of aerobic compost tea against foliar and tuber diseases of potatoes. For soil drenching, extracts were prepared using three types of compost organic material including thermal compost, static wood chips and vermi castings. Kelp, humates, rock ...
Gömeç Ciğdem Yangin - - 2006
Anaerobic digestion of the primary sludge with or without scum addition and the role of pH were evaluated in four completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated as batch systems at 35 degrees C (mesophilic). For investigating the scum influence, two CSTRs were only fed with the primary sludge (PS) whereas ...
Collins Gavin - - 2006
Low-temperature or psychrophilic (<20 degrees C) anaerobic biological treatment of simple industrial wastewaters has recently been proven feasible as an alternative to more expensive mesophilic (ca. 37 degrees C) technology. We implemented novel expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB)-based bioreactor designs for 27 psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) trials for the treatment ...
Jin P K - - 2006
A dispersed-ozone flotation (DOF) separator was devised for a pilot study of tertiary wastewater treatment for re-use purposes. As a compact device combining coagulation, ozonation and flotation in an integrated unit, the DOF separator achieved a very high removal of SS, TOC, UV254 and colour, as well as effective inactivation ...
Xie Z M - - 2006
Sludge liquor from the sludge dewatering process has a high ammonia content. In the present study, a lab-scale electrochemical (EC) system with a pair of Ti electrode plates was used for treating the sludge centrate liquor of digested wastewater sludge with a NH4(+) - N content of around 500 mg/L. ...
Xu G R - - 2006
Dried sludge as additive for making ceramsite is a new effective approach for disposal of sludge. In this study sewage sludge, water glass and clay were chosen as the components, the optimal ratio of the components and the most appropriate conditions were obtained. The functions of primary components in the ...
Durmusoglu Ertan - - 2006
Trace concentrations of a variety of chemicals remain in solid residues following combustion even in properly designed and operated incinerators. In the present study, the adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels of the solid residues, i.e., bottom ash, fly ash, and filter cake, were investigated during a 82-day of continuous operation ...
Souza C L - - 2006
There are few studies in the literature that have aimed at characterizing the physical, chemical, and microbial aspects of scum produced in UASB reactors. In addition, there is little information on the influence of operational conditions of UASB reactors on scum formation, and the present work addresses these issues. Three ...
Jeoh Tina - - 2006
Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that govern synergism is important for the rational engineering of cellulase mixtures. Our goal was to observe how varying the loading molar ratio of cellulases in a binary mixture and the recalcitrance of the cellulose to enzymatic degradation influenced the degree of synergistic effect (DSE) and ...
Kalfas H - - 2006
The management of the wastewater originating from olive oil producing industries poses a serious environmental problem. Recently, two-phase production of olive oil has been developed, leading to almost complete elimination of the bulk of the generated wastewater and, is thus regarded as an environmentally friendly technology. However, the main waste ...
Yukselen Mehmet Ali - - 2006
The effect of ozone on the formation, breakup and re-formation of flocs generated using ferric sulphate has been investigated using conventional jar test procedure and by continuous optical monitoring using raw water. Using a range of different dosage of coagulant, the breakage of flocs was followed at a high stirring ...
Nakhla George - - 2006
This study tested the applicability of a submerged vacuum ultrafiltration membrane technology in combination with the biological treatment system to achieve dry-ditch criteria stipulated as follows: BOD5, TSS, NH3-N, and total phosphorous (TP) concentration not exceeding 10, 10, 1, and 0.5 mg/L respectively for the treatment of high strength food-processing ...
Lakshmikantha H - - 2006
The present work aims at identifying, locating and quantifying the industrial and domestic waste dump sites located in and around Bangalore urban and rural districts of Karnataka state, India. Bangalore has a population of 6 million and has more than 2000 industries working at various industrial estates and other locations ...
Kim H - - 2006
Due to its efficiency and low capital demands, chlorination has been widely used for disinfection in many wastewater treatment plants. Since the oxidation power of free chlorine is bigger than combined chlorines which are formed from the reaction between chlorine and reducing agents in water (especially, NH4+ and organic nitrogen), ...
Malmqvist P A - - 2006
The use of wastewater sludge on arable land in Sweden has been limited for some years due to the low quality, in some respects, of the sludge and to the reluctance of farmers and the food industry to use it. To improve the quality of the sludge, the ReVAQ project ...
Chang James I - - 2006
A laboratory reactor was designed to study the effects of operating parameters (air suction rate, seeding and agitation) on the composting process of a synthetic food waste made of dog food. Experimental results showed that the synthetic food waste could be composted within 4 days and the final compost passed ...
Komilis Dimitris P - - 2006
The objective of the work was to provide a method to predict CO2 and NH3 yields during composting of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW). The compostable portion of MSW was simulated using three principal biodegradable components, namely mixed paper wastes, yard wastes and food wastes. Twelve laboratory ...
He Pin-Jing - - 2006
Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste (MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved ...
Karagiannidis A - - 2006
This paper presents the results from an analysis of municipal charges in Greece, as the fees paid by municipal waste producers to the municipal authorities are included in these charges and constitute a major part of them. The aim is to determine whether and how some of the demographic characteristics ...
Liu Y - - 2006
Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) supplied with different carbon sources were investigated. The system supplied with glucose gained the best enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), although all of them were seeded from the same sludge. With the measurement of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) concentration, phosphorus content in sludge and extracellular exopolymers (EPs) ...
Pehlivanoglu-Mantas Elif - - 2006
The probable human carcinogen nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is produced when wastewater effluent is disinfected with chlorine. In systems where wastewater effluent is used for landscape or crop irrigation, relatively high chlorine doses (i.e., up to 2,000,mg-min/L) are often used to ensure adequate disinfection and to minimize biofouling in the irrigation system. ...
Zhang Guangming - - 2006
Algae bloom in source water causes high chemical consumption and deteriorates water quality in waterworks. This paper studied the ultrasonic removal of Microcystis aeruginosa. The results showed that algae cells could be effectively removed by sonication and gas vesicle collapse was the main mechanism. The ultrasonic algae removal followed the ...
Hatanaka Takeshi - - 2005
Combustion experiments performed in the presence of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor were carried out to elucidate the role of chlorine in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs; together: PCDD/Fs) in various sections of a municipal waste incinerator. We first demonstrated that the homologue ...
Ruttanapornvareesakul Yaowalux - - 2006
To utilize fishery waste products as functional food material, the shrimp head protein hydrolysate (SHPH) was produced from three species of shrimp wastes, Northern pink shrimp, Endeavour shrimp and black tiger shrimp, by enzymatic hydrolysis. The SHPH was used as a natural food preservative by adding to lizardfish myofibrils at ...
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