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Collins Gavin - - 2006
Low-temperature or psychrophilic (<20 degrees C) anaerobic biological treatment of simple industrial wastewaters has recently been proven feasible as an alternative to more expensive mesophilic (ca. 37 degrees C) technology. We implemented novel expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB)-based bioreactor designs for 27 psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) trials for the treatment ...
Jin P K - - 2006
A dispersed-ozone flotation (DOF) separator was devised for a pilot study of tertiary wastewater treatment for re-use purposes. As a compact device combining coagulation, ozonation and flotation in an integrated unit, the DOF separator achieved a very high removal of SS, TOC, UV254 and colour, as well as effective inactivation ...
Xie Z M - - 2006
Sludge liquor from the sludge dewatering process has a high ammonia content. In the present study, a lab-scale electrochemical (EC) system with a pair of Ti electrode plates was used for treating the sludge centrate liquor of digested wastewater sludge with a NH4(+) - N content of around 500 mg/L. ...
Xu G R - - 2006
Dried sludge as additive for making ceramsite is a new effective approach for disposal of sludge. In this study sewage sludge, water glass and clay were chosen as the components, the optimal ratio of the components and the most appropriate conditions were obtained. The functions of primary components in the ...
Durmusoglu Ertan - - 2006
Trace concentrations of a variety of chemicals remain in solid residues following combustion even in properly designed and operated incinerators. In the present study, the adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels of the solid residues, i.e., bottom ash, fly ash, and filter cake, were investigated during a 82-day of continuous operation ...
Souza C L - - 2006
There are few studies in the literature that have aimed at characterizing the physical, chemical, and microbial aspects of scum produced in UASB reactors. In addition, there is little information on the influence of operational conditions of UASB reactors on scum formation, and the present work addresses these issues. Three ...
Jeoh Tina - - 2006
Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that govern synergism is important for the rational engineering of cellulase mixtures. Our goal was to observe how varying the loading molar ratio of cellulases in a binary mixture and the recalcitrance of the cellulose to enzymatic degradation influenced the degree of synergistic effect (DSE) and ...
Kalfas H - - 2006
The management of the wastewater originating from olive oil producing industries poses a serious environmental problem. Recently, two-phase production of olive oil has been developed, leading to almost complete elimination of the bulk of the generated wastewater and, is thus regarded as an environmentally friendly technology. However, the main waste ...
Yukselen Mehmet Ali - - 2006
The effect of ozone on the formation, breakup and re-formation of flocs generated using ferric sulphate has been investigated using conventional jar test procedure and by continuous optical monitoring using raw water. Using a range of different dosage of coagulant, the breakage of flocs was followed at a high stirring ...
Nakhla George - - 2006
This study tested the applicability of a submerged vacuum ultrafiltration membrane technology in combination with the biological treatment system to achieve dry-ditch criteria stipulated as follows: BOD5, TSS, NH3-N, and total phosphorous (TP) concentration not exceeding 10, 10, 1, and 0.5 mg/L respectively for the treatment of high strength food-processing ...
Lakshmikantha H - - 2006
The present work aims at identifying, locating and quantifying the industrial and domestic waste dump sites located in and around Bangalore urban and rural districts of Karnataka state, India. Bangalore has a population of 6 million and has more than 2000 industries working at various industrial estates and other locations ...
Kim H - - 2006
Due to its efficiency and low capital demands, chlorination has been widely used for disinfection in many wastewater treatment plants. Since the oxidation power of free chlorine is bigger than combined chlorines which are formed from the reaction between chlorine and reducing agents in water (especially, NH4+ and organic nitrogen), ...
Malmqvist P A - - 2006
The use of wastewater sludge on arable land in Sweden has been limited for some years due to the low quality, in some respects, of the sludge and to the reluctance of farmers and the food industry to use it. To improve the quality of the sludge, the ReVAQ project ...
Chang James I - - 2006
A laboratory reactor was designed to study the effects of operating parameters (air suction rate, seeding and agitation) on the composting process of a synthetic food waste made of dog food. Experimental results showed that the synthetic food waste could be composted within 4 days and the final compost passed ...
Komilis Dimitris P - - 2006
The objective of the work was to provide a method to predict CO2 and NH3 yields during composting of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW). The compostable portion of MSW was simulated using three principal biodegradable components, namely mixed paper wastes, yard wastes and food wastes. Twelve laboratory ...
He Pin-Jing - - 2006
Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste (MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved ...
Karagiannidis A - - 2006
This paper presents the results from an analysis of municipal charges in Greece, as the fees paid by municipal waste producers to the municipal authorities are included in these charges and constitute a major part of them. The aim is to determine whether and how some of the demographic characteristics ...
Liu Y - - 2006
Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) supplied with different carbon sources were investigated. The system supplied with glucose gained the best enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), although all of them were seeded from the same sludge. With the measurement of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) concentration, phosphorus content in sludge and extracellular exopolymers (EPs) ...
Pehlivanoglu-Mantas Elif - - 2006
The probable human carcinogen nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is produced when wastewater effluent is disinfected with chlorine. In systems where wastewater effluent is used for landscape or crop irrigation, relatively high chlorine doses (i.e., up to 2,000,mg-min/L) are often used to ensure adequate disinfection and to minimize biofouling in the irrigation system. ...
Zhang Guangming - - 2006
Algae bloom in source water causes high chemical consumption and deteriorates water quality in waterworks. This paper studied the ultrasonic removal of Microcystis aeruginosa. The results showed that algae cells could be effectively removed by sonication and gas vesicle collapse was the main mechanism. The ultrasonic algae removal followed the ...
Hatanaka Takeshi - - 2005
Combustion experiments performed in the presence of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor were carried out to elucidate the role of chlorine in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs; together: PCDD/Fs) in various sections of a municipal waste incinerator. We first demonstrated that the homologue ...
Ruttanapornvareesakul Yaowalux - - 2006
To utilize fishery waste products as functional food material, the shrimp head protein hydrolysate (SHPH) was produced from three species of shrimp wastes, Northern pink shrimp, Endeavour shrimp and black tiger shrimp, by enzymatic hydrolysis. The SHPH was used as a natural food preservative by adding to lizardfish myofibrils at ...
Hedman Bj?rn - - 2005
To assess emissions of dioxins (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and PCB from uncontrolled domestic combustion of waste ("backyard burning"), test combustions in barrels and open fires were monitored. The waste fuels used were garden waste, paper, paper and plastic packaging, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), PVC, and electronic scrap. Combustions including PVC ...
Nitschke Marcia - - 2005
Pseudomonas strains are able to biosynthesize rhamnose-containing surfactants also known as rhamnolipids. These surface-active compounds are reviewed with respect to chemical structure, properties, biosynthesis, and physiological role, focusing on their production and the use of low-cost substrates such as wastes from food industries as alternative carbon sources. The use of ...
Marlette Martha A - - 2005
Because plate waste reduces nutritional benefits of school lunches, the objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence waste. Lunches of 743 sixth graders in three middle schools were photographed after students made food selections and after eating. Sample items were purchased to determine initial portion weights. ...
Oh Sang Eun - - 2005
Hydrogen can be produced from fermentation of sugars in wastewaters, but much of the organic matter remains in solution. We demonstrate here that hydrogen production from a food processing wastewater high in sugar can be linked to electricity generation using a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to achieve more effective wastewater ...
Sakka Makiko - - 2005
Recently, we reported that refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets contain a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells and that these bacteria generate heat and hydrogen gas during fermentation under wet conditions. In this study we analyzed bacterial cell numbers of RDF samples manufactured with different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, which ...
Kurian R - - 2005
Although thermophilic treatment systems have recently gained considerable interest, limited information exists on the comparative performances of membrane-coupled bioreactors (MBR) at thermophilic and conventional conditions. In this study aerobic MBRs operating at room temperature (20 degrees C) and at lower thermophilic range (45 degrees C) were investigated for the treatment ...
Katayon S - - 2006
Moringa oleifera is a plant whose seeds have coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. In this study the coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in different storage conditions were studied. The Moringa oleifera seeds were stored at different conditions and durations; open container and closed container at room temperature ...
Acharya C - - 2006
A novel paradigm using pre-denitrification process is presented to optimize an existing system of two-stage MBRs treating high strength pet food wastewater. Successive reduction of organics in the 1st stage and almost complete nitrification in the 2nd stage generated effluent meeting stringent surface discharge criteria i.e. BOD5, TSS and NH4+ ...
Kirubakaran V - - 2005
The waste disposal is becoming a major threat to environmental issues and to sustainable development of mankind. The rapid growth in population and enormous developmental activities are the main causes for the generation of waste in many forms. Hence there is need to redress the concern on environment and efforts ...
Riedel Mark S - - 2005
Mass wasting and channel incision are widespread in the Nemadji River watershed of eastern Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. While much of this is a natural response to glacial rebound, sediment coring and tree ring data suggest that land use has also influenced these erosional processes. We characterized land use, inventoried ...
Urgun-Demirtas Meltem - - 2005
The feasibility of applying bacterial hemoglobin technology to degrade 2-chlorobenzoate (2-CBA) through co-metabolism under hypoxic conditions in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) process has been studied in the laboratory. 2-chlorobenzoate removal and chloride release rates in the MBR system varied from 99 to 78% and 98 to 73%, respectively, depending on ...
Maged A F - - 2005
Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired ...
Qin Gang - - 2005
A flow-through pilot-scale system was tested for removal of Cr(VI) from contaminated groundwater in Glendale, California. The process consisted of the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(lll) using ferrous sulfate followed by coagulation and filtration. Results indicated that the technology could reduce influent Cr(VI) concentrations of 100 microg L(-1) to below ...
Karthikeyan K G - - 2006
Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to ...
Zhong Zhaoping - - 2006
This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is ...
Alvarez-Ayuso E - - 2005
The applicability of calcined and uncalcined hydrotalcite for the purification of industrial effluents has been studied using chromium finishing wastewaters. Using a batch method, the influence of the initial concentration of chromium (10-450mg/l), hydrotalcite (HT) dose (0.5-5g/l) and time (0.5-72h) has been evaluated. The process could be described by the ...
El-Mobaidh Ali M - - 2006
Waste to energy conversion is based on the classification of waste. In-flight catering wastes resulting from Egypt Airlines economy class passengers were classified. The solid waste stream generated contains plastic, paper, left-over waste food and aluminum. The type of meal served varies according to the period of flight and so ...
Wang Yuqiu - - 2005
Enhanced concentrations of phosphorus entering the aquatic systems have been linked with eutrophication and its associated problems. Jar tests were applied to a secondary effluent in order to determine optimal conditions for coagulation. The coagulants studied were ferric sulfate [Fe2(SO4)3], aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3.18H2O] and polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The experiments were ...
Noosorn Narongsak - - 2005
The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing ...
Hrapovic Leila - - 2005
Studies were conducted with columns containing soil and emplaced trichloroethene (TCE) to investigate the potential for TCE source zone remediation with chemical oxidation followed by biologically mediated reductive dehalogenation. Following permanganate flushing of four columns, which resulted in rapid but incomplete removal of TCE DNAPL, no biological activity was observed ...
Deolalikar A V - - 2005
In the present study the change in metal content on vermicomposting of paper mill solid waste was studied. On vermicomposting, quantity of iron, zinc and chromium found to be increased whereas quantity of aluminium, copper, manganese, nickel and lead found comparatively low. The bioaccumulation of any metal was not observed ...
Meunchang Sompong - - 2005
Thailand has nearly 2 million tonnes of filter cake waste containing 1.8% total N from the sugar cane industry to dispose of annually. Compost studies were conducted to determine how rapidly this material can be converted to a stable product that may be useful in crop production, and to characterize ...
Raviv Michael - - 2005
Compost was tested as a medium for organic container-grown crops. Nitrogen (N) loss during composting of separated cow manure (SCM) was minimized using high C/N (wheat straw, WS; grape marc, GM) or a slightly acidic (orange peels, OP) additives. N conservation values in the resultant composts were 82%, 95% and ...
Jokela J P Y - - 2005
Municipal grey waste (i.e. the remaining fraction in municipal waste management systems in which putrescibles (biowaste) and other recyclables (paper, metals, glass) are source-segregated) was manually sorted into six main fractions on the basis of composition and also separated by sieving (100 mm mesh size) into two fractions, oversized and ...
Scheuerell Steven J - - 2005
ABSTRACT Suppression of seedling damping-off disease caused by Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani is a potential benefit of formulating soilless container media with compost. Thirty-six compost samples from Pacific Northwest commercial composting facilities were analyzed for a number of physical, chemical, and biological properties, including suppression of damping-off caused by ...
Cekmecelioglu Deniz - - 2005
An optimum composting recipe was investigated to reduce pathogenic microorganisms in a forced-aerated in-vessel system (55 liters). The feedstocks used for in-vessel composting were food waste, cow manure, and bulking materials (wood shavings and mulch hay). A statistical extreme vertices mixture design method was used to design the composting experiments ...
Obied Hassan K - - 2005
Biophenols have attracted increasing attention during the past few years due to their biological activities and natural abundance and are potential targets for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Olive mill waste (OMW) is rich in biophenols and typically contains 98% of the total phenols in the olive fruit, making value ...
Stabnikova Olena - - 2005
A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% ...
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