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Results 201 - 250 of 776
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Khabarova Yulia - - 2011
Milk is an important source of nutrients. The consumption of milk, however, may cause abdominal complaints in lactose intolerant individuals. The frequency of -13910C/C genotype is known to be high among Northern Russians, exceeding the prevalence in northern Europe. In our study we tested two hypotheses: 1) subjects with lactase ...
Sofianou-Katsoulis Aikaterini - - 2011
Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are essential tools to investigate the relationship between peanut consumption and the development of peanut allergy. The aim was to validate a 50-item FFQ for use in peanut protein sensitization studies. There were 38 mother-child pairs visiting a pediatric clinic of a London hospital included. Mothers ...
Rangan Anna M AM Cluster for Public Health Nutrition, Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic - - 2011
Summary: Objective: To examine the consumption patterns of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods among Australian children and to determine any changes in consumption since the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (1995 NNS).Methods: 'Extra' food consumption was analysed by age group and gender using 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children's ...
Valent Francesca F Institute of Hygiene and Clinical Epidemiology, University Hospital of Udine, Udine, Italy. - - 2011
Low selenium (Se) status is associated with several diseases. International organizations have proposed intakes of Se for general populations, including infants. Studies of the association of Se concentration in breast milk and maternal diet have yielded inconsistent results. We evaluated the relation between the intake of food items during pregnancy ...
Nicolas G G - - 2010
To compare the in vitro activity of mutacins D-123.1 and F-59.1 against different bacteria including antibiotic-resistant strains, in order to evaluate their application potential. The antibacterial activity spectrum of purified F-59.1 and the MIC and MBC of F-59.1 and D-123.1 against target bacteria were determined. Most bacteria were inhibited by ...
Alvarez Pedro M - - 2011
This paper reports on the application of a simultaneous combination of ozone and a granular activated carbon (O(3)/GAC) as a tertiary treatment of a wastewater generated from the activity of various food-processing industries. Prior to the O(3)/GAC treatment, the wastewater was subjected to conventional primary and secondary treatments in a ...
Bundschuh Mirco - - 2011
Climate change scenarios predict lower flow rates during summer that may lead to higher proportions of wastewater in small and medium sized streams. Moreover, micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals and other contaminants) continuously enter aquatic environments via treated wastewater. However, there is a paucity of knowledge, whether extended exposure to secondary treated ...
Parfitt Julian - - 2010
Food waste in the global food supply chain is reviewed in relation to the prospects for feeding a population of nine billion by 2050. Different definitions of food waste with respect to the complexities of food supply chains (FSCs)are discussed. An international literature review found a dearth of data on ...
Cho Young Min - - 2011
The impact of food waste content on the municipal solid waste (MSW) friction angle was studied. Using reconstituted fresh MSW specimens with different food waste content (0%, 40%, 58%, and 80%), 48 small-scale (100-mm-diameter) direct shear tests and 12 large-scale (430 mm × 430 mm) direct shear tests were performed. ...
Bassett M N - - 2010
Adequate intake of folate reduced the risk of abnormalities in early embryonic brain development such as the risk of malformations of the embryonic brain/spinal cord, collectively referred to as neural tube defects (NTDs). Folate is extremely sensitive to destruction by heat, oxidation and UV light. The purpose of this study ...
Cuéllar Amanda D - - 2010
This work estimates the energy embedded in wasted food annually in the United States. We calculated the energy intensity of food production from agriculture, transportation, processing, food sales, storage, and preparation for 2007 as 8080 +/- 760 trillion BTU. In 1995 approximately 27% of edible food was wasted. Synthesizing these ...
Banks Charles J - - 2011
An anaerobic digester receiving food waste collected mainly from domestic kitchens was monitored over a period of 426 days. During this time information was gathered on the waste input material, the biogas production, and the digestate characteristics. A mass balance accounted for over 90% of the material entering the plant ...
Feng Xin Mei - - 2010
Laboratory-scale reactors treating food industry waste were used to investigate the effects of additions of cobalt (Co), nickel/molybdenum/boron (Ni/Mo/B) and selenium/tungsten (Se/W) on the biogas process and the associated microbial community. The highest methane production (predicted value: 860 mL g(-1) VS) was linked to high Se/W concentrations in combination with ...
De la Cruz Florentino B - - 2010
The current methane generation model used by the U.S. EPA (Landfill Gas Emissions Model) treats municipal solid waste (MSW) as a homogeneous waste with one decay rate. However, component-specific decay rates are required to evaluate the effects of changes in waste composition on methane generation. Laboratory-scale rate constants, k(lab), for ...
Graham Jay P - - 2010
Confined food-animal operations in the United States produce more than 40 times the amount of waste than human biosolids generated from US wastewater treatment plants. Unlike biosolids, which must meet regulatory standards for pathogen levels, vector attraction reduction and metal content, no treatment is required of waste from animal agriculture. ...
van Oosterhout Joep J - - 2010
Food insecurity is considered to be an important contributor to HIV associated wasting in sub-Saharan Africa. Low body mass index (BMI) is a strong risk factor for early mortality during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Nutritional supplementation has become standard of care in wasted patients starting ART in many countries in the ...
Kim Mi-Hyung - - 2010
This study evaluated feed manufacturing including dry feeding and wet feeding, composting, and landfilling for food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery. The method of the expanded system boundaries was employed in order to compare different by-products. The whole stages of disposal involved in ...
Ke Guang-Ruei - - 2010
The ability of the thermo-tolerant lipolytic actinomycete, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris A31, to efficiently decompose food waste into mature compost was studied. Using a range of chemical parameters (pH, total organic carbon content (TOC), total nitrogen content, C/N ratio), CO(2) evolution, enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, polyphenol oxidase, urease) and germination assays, the composition, ...
Neset Tina-Simone Schmid - - 2010
This paper explores the potential of combining substance-flow modelling with water and wastewater sampling to trace consumption-related substances emitted through the urban wastewater. The method is exemplified on sucralose. Sucralose is a chemical sweetener that is 600 times sweeter than sucrose and has been on the European market since 2004. ...
Nayono Satoto E - - 2010
Co-digestion of press water from organic municipal wastes and of homogenized food residues with defibered kitchen wastes (food waste) as the main substrate was examined to improve biogas production. Although the biowaste digester was operated already at high organic loading (OLR) of 12.3 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) during the week, addition of ...
Cercado-Quezada Bibiana - - 2010
Three food-industry wastes: fermented apple juice (FAJ), wine lees and yogurt waste (YW) were evaluated in combination with two sources of inoculum, anaerobic sludge and garden compost, to produce electricity in microbial fuel cells. Preliminary potentiostatic studies suggested that YW was the best candidate, able to provide up to 250 ...
Moslehi-Jenabian Saloomeh - - 2010
Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of ...
Hong Chen - - 2010
Central-composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the parameters of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from food wastes and dewatered excess sludge in a semi-continuous process. The effects of four variables (food wastes composition in the co-substrate of food wastes and excess sludge, hydraulic retention ...
Zhang Huijun - - 2010
The mass and element balance in municipal solid waste composting facilities that handle food waste was studied. Material samples from the facilities were analyzed for moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and the oxygen consumption of compost and bulking material was determined. Three different processes were used in the food waste composting ...
Behera Shishir Kumar - - 2010
Due to the prohibition of food waste landfilling in Korea from 2005 and the subsequent ban on the marine disposal of organic sludge, including leachate generated from food waste recycling facilities from 2012, it is urgent to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy that is eco-friendly, yet economically beneficial. ...
Spiess Bruce D - - 2010
Decompression illness (DCI) is an occasional occurrence in sport, professional, and military diving as well as a potential catastrophe in high-altitude flight, space exploration, mining, and caisson bridge construction. DCI theoretically could be a success-limiting problem in escape from a disabled submarine (DISSUB). Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFCs) have previously been investigated ...
Sharp Veronica - - 2010
This paper presents one strand of the findings from a comprehensive synthesis review of policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention. Understanding what is achievable in terms of local household waste prevention intervention campaigns enables policy makers, local authorities and practitioners to identify optimum approaches to deliver effective behaviour change. The ...
Farrell M - - 2010
We successfully co-composted catering waste with green waste and shredded paper to yield two high-nitrogen composts for use in horticulture. Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in various mixtures of the compost and a commercially available peat-based compost to assess the efficacy of catering waste-based composts for peat replacement. Height, ...
Levis J W - - 2010
Currently in the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills. There is nonetheless interest in strategies to divert this waste from landfills as evidenced by a number of programs and policies at the local and state levels, including collection programs for source separated organic ...
Jolanun Banjarata - - 2010
New granular material from clay residue was investigated as a bulking agent for food waste composting. Five mixing ratios of granule were conducted in a laboratory scale reactor at the desired low rate of air (0.05 l min(-1)). The evolution of temperature and the accumulative CO(2) emissions were monitored. Physical ...
El-Mashad Hamed M - - 2010
The effect of manure-screening on the biogas yield of dairy manure was evaluated in batch digesters under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Moreover, the study determined the biogas production potential of different mixtures of unscreened dairy manure and food waste and compared them with the yield from manure or food ...
Ike Michihiko - - 2010
The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the ...
Gonzales Hazel B - - 2010
The biological solubilization and mineralization system (BSMS) was compared to the composting system (CS) in terms of the rate of waste mineralization and accumulation under aerobic condition. A 25-L stainless steel reactor equipped with an impeller that mixed the contents every 30 min for 3 min at a rate of ...
Kumar Mathava - - 2010
In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture ...
Huang Susana Tzy-Ying - - 2010
The modern food system has evolved into one with highly inefficient activities, producing waste at each step of the food pathway from growing to consumption and disposal. The present challenge is to improve recyclability in the food system as a fundamental need for food and health security. This paper develops ...
Lagrone L - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Typical treatment of moderate acute malnutrition, simple wasting, in sub-Saharan Africa consists of dietary counselling and/or general or targeted distribution of corn/soy-blended flour (CSB). A randomised clinical effectiveness trial in 2007 showed CSB to be less effective than ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF). AIM: To determine the operational effectiveness of ...
Freedman Marjorie R - - 2010
As portion size (PS) increases, so does food intake. The effect of decreasing PS on food intake in a nonlaboratory setting is unknown. This 5-week study sought to determine whether decreasing PS resulted in decreased intake of the same food, and if so, at what point further PS reductions might ...
Inaba Rokuta - - 2010
In this study, we conducted a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate reductions in CO(2) emissions by food waste biogasification of household food wastes in Japan. Two alternative scenarios were examined. In one alternative (Ref), all combustible municipal solid wastes (MSWs), including food waste, are incinerated. In the other (Bio), ...
Selvam Ammaiyappan - - 2010
The neutralization effects of 0.1M NaHCO(3), KPO(4)-buffer (pH 7.0) and sodium acetate (NaOAc) solutions (500 ml/kg food waste/day) on controlling the pH and leachate quality in an acidogenic reactor of food waste anaerobic digestion was investigated. pH of leachate from the reactor was low and ranged from 3.24 to 4.15. ...
Khoo Hsien H - - 2010
Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste is one of the challenges faced by Singapore. Semakau island - the only offshore landfill of the nation - only accepts inert, inorganic solid waste and therefore a large bulk of food waste is directed to incinerators. A remaining small ...
Kosseva Maria R - - 2009
Food processing industry operations need to comply with increasingly more stringent environmental regulations related to the disposal or utilisation of by-products and wastes. These include growing restrictions on land spraying with agro-industrial wastes, and on disposal within landfill operations, and the requirements to produce end products that are stabilised and ...
Komemoto K - - 2009
The effectiveness of methane fermentation treatment used in food waste processing is currently limited by solubilization and acidogenesis. In efforts to improve the treatment process, this study examined the effects of temperature on solubilization and acidogenesis. The solubilization rate of food waste, which was based on suspended solid removal, was ...
Sugiura Katsuaki - - 2009
Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for ...
Liu Guangqing - - 2009
Biogas and methane yields of food and green wastes and their mixture were determined using batch anaerobic digesters at mesophilic (35+/-2 degrees C) and thermophilic (50+/-2 degrees C) temperatures. The mixture was composed of 50% food waste and 50% green waste, based on the volatile solids (VS) initially added to ...
Gómez X - - 2010
Organic matter contained in food waste was degraded by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions at two hydraulic retention times. Evolution of the digestion process was followed by thermogravimetry analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. All analytical methods suggested that longer retention times might be required for ...
Diener Stefan - - 2009
Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste ...
De La Rosa D D a Environmental Analysis Laboratory , Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas , Havana , - - 2009
This paper provides an estimate of the weekly intake of total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) from consumption of fish from the Sagua la Grande River, Villa Clara, Cuba, by determining the THg levels in different fish species. The levels varied between 0.143 and 0.484 μ g g(-1) on ...
Langley Joseph - - 2010
Recent media attention has amply demonstrated the need for changes in our society regarding waste. The cost of waste is rising, European legislation is driving forward waste reduction policies and industry is being made responsible for the waste that all products make. This legislation is also driving a reduction in ...
Langley Joseph - - 2009
Food waste going to landfill is a significant environmental issue with 33% of all food we buy simply being thrown away. Not only is this extremely wasteful but rotting food produces gases that are harmful to the environment and contributes to global warming. The UK government is committed to reducing ...
Niwagaba C - - 2009
The composting of a faeces/ash mixture and food waste in relative proportions of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:3 was studied in three successive experiments conducted in Kampala, Uganda in 216 L reactors insulated with 75 mm styrofoam or not insulated. The faeces/ash mixture alone exceeded 50 degrees C for < or ...
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