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Results 201 - 250 of 748
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Sharp Veronica - - 2010
This paper presents one strand of the findings from a comprehensive synthesis review of policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention. Understanding what is achievable in terms of local household waste prevention intervention campaigns enables policy makers, local authorities and practitioners to identify optimum approaches to deliver effective behaviour change. The ...
Farrell M - - 2010
We successfully co-composted catering waste with green waste and shredded paper to yield two high-nitrogen composts for use in horticulture. Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in various mixtures of the compost and a commercially available peat-based compost to assess the efficacy of catering waste-based composts for peat replacement. Height, ...
Levis J W - - 2010
Currently in the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills. There is nonetheless interest in strategies to divert this waste from landfills as evidenced by a number of programs and policies at the local and state levels, including collection programs for source separated organic ...
Jolanun Banjarata - - 2010
New granular material from clay residue was investigated as a bulking agent for food waste composting. Five mixing ratios of granule were conducted in a laboratory scale reactor at the desired low rate of air (0.05 l min(-1)). The evolution of temperature and the accumulative CO(2) emissions were monitored. Physical ...
El-Mashad Hamed M - - 2010
The effect of manure-screening on the biogas yield of dairy manure was evaluated in batch digesters under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Moreover, the study determined the biogas production potential of different mixtures of unscreened dairy manure and food waste and compared them with the yield from manure or food ...
Ike Michihiko - - 2010
The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the ...
Gonzales Hazel B - - 2010
The biological solubilization and mineralization system (BSMS) was compared to the composting system (CS) in terms of the rate of waste mineralization and accumulation under aerobic condition. A 25-L stainless steel reactor equipped with an impeller that mixed the contents every 30 min for 3 min at a rate of ...
Kumar Mathava - - 2010
In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture ...
Huang Susana Tzy-Ying - - 2010
The modern food system has evolved into one with highly inefficient activities, producing waste at each step of the food pathway from growing to consumption and disposal. The present challenge is to improve recyclability in the food system as a fundamental need for food and health security. This paper develops ...
Lagrone L - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Typical treatment of moderate acute malnutrition, simple wasting, in sub-Saharan Africa consists of dietary counselling and/or general or targeted distribution of corn/soy-blended flour (CSB). A randomised clinical effectiveness trial in 2007 showed CSB to be less effective than ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF). AIM: To determine the operational effectiveness of ...
Freedman Marjorie R - - 2010
As portion size (PS) increases, so does food intake. The effect of decreasing PS on food intake in a nonlaboratory setting is unknown. This 5-week study sought to determine whether decreasing PS resulted in decreased intake of the same food, and if so, at what point further PS reductions might ...
Inaba Rokuta - - 2010
In this study, we conducted a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate reductions in CO(2) emissions by food waste biogasification of household food wastes in Japan. Two alternative scenarios were examined. In one alternative (Ref), all combustible municipal solid wastes (MSWs), including food waste, are incinerated. In the other (Bio), ...
Selvam Ammaiyappan - - 2010
The neutralization effects of 0.1M NaHCO(3), KPO(4)-buffer (pH 7.0) and sodium acetate (NaOAc) solutions (500 ml/kg food waste/day) on controlling the pH and leachate quality in an acidogenic reactor of food waste anaerobic digestion was investigated. pH of leachate from the reactor was low and ranged from 3.24 to 4.15. ...
Khoo Hsien H - - 2010
Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste is one of the challenges faced by Singapore. Semakau island - the only offshore landfill of the nation - only accepts inert, inorganic solid waste and therefore a large bulk of food waste is directed to incinerators. A remaining small ...
Kosseva Maria R - - 2009
Food processing industry operations need to comply with increasingly more stringent environmental regulations related to the disposal or utilisation of by-products and wastes. These include growing restrictions on land spraying with agro-industrial wastes, and on disposal within landfill operations, and the requirements to produce end products that are stabilised and ...
Komemoto K - - 2009
The effectiveness of methane fermentation treatment used in food waste processing is currently limited by solubilization and acidogenesis. In efforts to improve the treatment process, this study examined the effects of temperature on solubilization and acidogenesis. The solubilization rate of food waste, which was based on suspended solid removal, was ...
Sugiura Katsuaki - - 2009
Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for ...
Liu Guangqing - - 2009
Biogas and methane yields of food and green wastes and their mixture were determined using batch anaerobic digesters at mesophilic (35+/-2 degrees C) and thermophilic (50+/-2 degrees C) temperatures. The mixture was composed of 50% food waste and 50% green waste, based on the volatile solids (VS) initially added to ...
Gómez X - - 2010
Organic matter contained in food waste was degraded by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions at two hydraulic retention times. Evolution of the digestion process was followed by thermogravimetry analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. All analytical methods suggested that longer retention times might be required for ...
Diener Stefan - - 2009
Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste ...
Langley Joseph - - 2010
Recent media attention has amply demonstrated the need for changes in our society regarding waste. The cost of waste is rising, European legislation is driving forward waste reduction policies and industry is being made responsible for the waste that all products make. This legislation is also driving a reduction in ...
Langley Joseph - - 2009
Food waste going to landfill is a significant environmental issue with 33% of all food we buy simply being thrown away. Not only is this extremely wasteful but rotting food produces gases that are harmful to the environment and contributes to global warming. The UK government is committed to reducing ...
Niwagaba C - - 2009
The composting of a faeces/ash mixture and food waste in relative proportions of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:3 was studied in three successive experiments conducted in Kampala, Uganda in 216 L reactors insulated with 75 mm styrofoam or not insulated. The faeces/ash mixture alone exceeded 50 degrees C for < or ...
Wong Jonathan W-C - - 2009
To evaluate the use of coal fly ash (CFA) on the decomposition efficiency of food waste, synthetic food waste was mixed with lime at 1.5% and 3% (equivalent to 0.94% and 1.88% CaCO(3), respectively), CFA at 5%, 10% and 15% with lime so as to achieve CaCO(3) equivalent of 1.88% ...
Li Rongping - - 2010
Co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system was conducted in laboratory scale. Four influents of R0, R1, R2, and R3 were tested, which were made by mixing food waste with dairy manure at different ratios of 0:1, 1:1, 3:1, and 6:1, respectively. For each influent, ...
Qamaruz-Zaman, N.
Research was carried out to optimize the use of digested sewage sludge (DSS) as a seed for batch tests of food waste anaerobic biodegradability. Digested sewage sludge was used as the seed because of its abundant supply and previous use as a seed. A seed volume of 1:1 g VS ...
Martins Mónica - - 2009
Biological treatment with dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria has been considered the most promising alternative for decontamination of sulphate rich effluents. These wastewaters are usually deficient in electron donors and require their external addition to achieve complete sulphate reduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of using ...
Kosseva Maria R - - 2009
Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of ...
Zhang Suai - - 2009
Kidney failure is a common disease with high frequency. Food-grade recombinant bacteria that can effectively remove urea has great potential for treatment of renal failure. A nonpathogenic strain, L. lactis MG1363, was transformed with plasmid pMG36eure, which carries urease gene. The expression of transgene urease in genetically modified L. lactis ...
Lin Angela Yu-Chen - - 2009
Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute ...
Zhang Xueqing - - 2009
In recent years there has been great progress the application of nanomaterials in biosensors. The importance of these to the fundamental development of biosensors has been recognized. In particular, nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots have been being actively investigated for their applications in ...
Hall Kevin D - - 2009
Food waste contributes to excess consumption of freshwater and fossil fuels which, along with methane and CO(2) emissions from decomposing food, impacts global climate change. Here, we calculate the energy content of nationwide food waste from the difference between the US food supply and the food consumed by the population. ...
Long Yu-Yang - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine the releasing behavior of copper in municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfill with respect to refuse and leachate as an inseparable system. Two simulated bioreactor landfills, one with leachate recirculation and the other without, were operated in room temperature for 320 days. ...
Rodríguez Eva - - 2008
The sequential use of low-cost adsorbent bentonites and solar photocatalysis to treat winery wastewater has been studied. Three commercial sodium-bentonites (MB-M, MB-G, and MB-P) and one calcium-bentonite (Bengel) were characterized and used in this study. These clay materials were useful to totally remove turbidity (90-100%) and, to a lesser extent, ...
Gao Dawen - - 2009
The study aimed at solving the instability of shortcut nitrification-denitrification through real-time control strategies. The results showed that excess aeration (aeration was still on after nitrosation) had an adverse impact on the stabilization of shortcut nitrification-denitrification, with nitrosation ratio (NO(2)(-)-N/NO(x)(-)-N) decreasing from 96% to 29% after excess aeration for 13 ...
Virkutyte Jurate - - 2009
A number of methods for denitrification were studied including Electro-Fenton method, hydrogenotrophic as well as innovative Fe(2+) mediated denitrification and their technical feasibility in terms of changes in TOC and nitrate concentrations, effect of different Fenton's reagent dosage, current and the effect of the pH was investigated. This study was ...
Shi Tian - - 2009
The concentrations of three currently used non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and tetrabromobisphenol A bis (2,3-dibromopropyl ether) (TBBPA-DBPE), were examined in environmental and biota samples collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and an electronic waste (e-waste) area in southern China. We ...
Ko Gwangpyo - - 2008
Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, ...
Yu Hui - - 2009
A low level of microbial activity due to the production of organic acids is a recognized problem during the initial phase of food waste composting. Increasing such activity levels by adjusting the pH values during the initial composting phase was the primary concern to be investigated. In this study, sodium ...
Neves L - - 2009
Pulses of oil were added to completely mixed reactors fed with dairy cow manure and food waste, after achieving a stable performance at an organic loading rate of 4.6+/-0.1gCOD/(l(reactor) day), an oily waste effluent from a canned fish processing industry was fed in the form of pulses. The oil concentration ...
Itayama Tomoaki - - 2008
A pilot scale fluidized bed bioreactor to control the cyanobacterium, Microcystis, was tested in an outdoor experimental pond system (28 m3) over a 57 day period. The pond system was inoculated with a wild bloom of Microcystis, and the bioreactor was preinoculated with an oligochaete, Aeolosoma hemprichi, which is known ...
Sang Nguyen Nhu - - 2008
This study investigated microbial population dynamics and performance in lab-scale conventional, anaerobic, and aerobic landfill bioreactors specialized for high-organic wastes. Each reactor (2.35 l) was loaded with 1.5 kg of organic solid waste made of sludge cake, dry dog food, and wood chips. The conventional reactor was operated without leachate ...
Brown Trevor J - - 2009
Maintenance of appropriate chemical pretreatment is a critical component of ensuring proper filtration performance. Pilot-scale in-line filtration studies were performed to investigate the relative impacts of chitosan, alum, and FeCl(3) coagulation on the removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and oocyst-sized polystyrene microspheres by granular media filtration. Similar removals of oocysts ...
Forrez Ilse - - 2009
Flow-through reactors with manganese oxides were examined for their capacity to remove 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at microg L(-1) and ng L(-1) range from synthetic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. The mineral MnO(2) reactors removed 93% at a volumetric loading rate (B(V)) of 5 microg EE2 L(-1) d(-1) and from a ...
Barton John W - - 2008
We report measurements of solubility limits for benzene, toluene, and TCE in systems that contain varying levels of biomass up to 0.13 g mL(-1) for TCE and 0.25 g mL(-1) for benzene and toluene. The solubility limit increased from 21 to 48 mM when biomass (in the form of yeast) ...
Zhu Baoning - - 2009
This study was conducted to determine the characteristics and biogas production potential of organic materials separated from municipal solid wastes using a rotary drum reactor (RDR) process. Four different types of wastes were first pretreated with a commercial RDR system at different retention times (1, 2 and 3 d) and ...
Ruzante Juliana M - - 2008
The objective of this study was to determine if viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was present in waste milk delivered and fed to calves on California calf ranches. Four calf-raising facilities in the Central Valley of California that fed pasteurized waste milk to calves were enrolled. Pre- and post-pasteurization ...
Campos J L - - 2009
In this work, several alternatives related to the application of ozone in different streams of a seafood industry WWTP were evaluated to minimize the production of waste sludge. The WWTP was composed of two coagulation-flocculation units and a biological unit and generated around of 6550 kg/d of sludge. Ozone was ...
Al-Jabi L F - - 2008
An experiment was conducted to quantify ammonia (NH3) losses during food waste composting and to evaluate the effectiveness of mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost and phillipsite/chabazite zeolite in reducing NH3 losses during composting. Food waste amended with chopped barley straw was composted for a period of 68 days in ...
El Agha Ayman - - 2008
The exploitation of food residuals can be a major contribution in reducing the polluting load of food industry waste and in developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bioorganic molecules, and thus they may have potential uses ...
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