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Results 601 - 650 of 748
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Lao Shan-gen - - 2002
Granular activated carbon (GAC) anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor was applied to treating phenols wastewater. When influent phenol concentration was 1000 mg/L, volume loadings of phenol and CODCr were 0.39 kg/(m3.d) and 0.98 kg/(m3.d), their removal rates were 99.9% and 96.4% respectively. From analyzing above results, the main mechanisms of the process ...
Sigge G O - - 2002
UASB treatment of fruit cannery and winery effluents was shown to be feasible. However, the treated effluents still have residual COD levels well above the legal limit of 75 mg.l(-1) for direct discharge to a water system and a form of post-treatment is necessary to reduce the COD further. Ozone ...
Ukita M - - 2002
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles of food and feed, and the regulation systems for industrial wastewater are studied. The rate of domestic supply of food in Japan is 41% in 1970, 32% in 1990, and 29% in 1998 for N and 33%, 29%, and 28% for P, excluding grass ...
Sawayama S - - 2002
The possibility of 3-chlorobenzoate removal from water using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor without the addition of any extra dechlorinating culture under light conditions has been studied on a laboratory scale. Benzoate removal was observed in the first three months of operation under light conditions, but the 3-chlorobenzoate ...
Noor M J M M - - 2002
A laboratory study was conducted on an Extended Aeration-Microfiltration (EAM) reactor in treating a food industry wastewater. The reactor contained horizontally laid hollow fibre microfiltration (MF) units that were fully submerged. The MF units were connected to a peristaltic pump that was used to extract permeate continuously under suction pressure. ...
Wong Phoeby A L - - 2002
Polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable plastics with the desired physical and chemical properties of conventional synthetic plastics, are extensively investigated. In this study, specific bacterial strains produced specific copolymers from food waste. Copolymers of HB and HV (poly[3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate]) were obtained using various ratios of butyric acid (C4) and valeric acid (C5) as carbon ...
Yu S M - - 2002
The process performance of the two largest activated sludge processes in Hong Kong, the Sha Tin and the Tai Po Sewage Treatment Works (STW), deteriorated in the initial period after the introduction of seawater flushing in 1995 and 1996, respectively. High effluent ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total suspended solids (TSS) ...
Bhat P N - - 2002
The objective of this study was to obtain information on the immobilization of beryllium (Be) in solid waste generated in the extraction process of beryllium from its ore, Beryl. This solid waste, termed red-mud, contains oxides of iron, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and beryllium. The red-mud waste contains beryllium at levels ...
Saitou T - - 2002
Potential for degradation of microcystin by biofilm was examined by some batch experiments using biofilm scraped from practical biological treatment facility combined with conventional treatment processes. The viable cells of Microcystis viridis, which produced microcystin LR, RR and YR were degraded at 6 to 10 days by the addition of ...
Li Y Y - - 2002
This paper presents an experimental study on anaerobic degradation of lipids-rich food wastes by using the high solids co-digestion process. The experiments were conducted under mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) condition, respectively, by using a semi-continuous flow completely mixed reactor. The influent TS level was controlled ...
Murnleitner Ernst - - 2002
The two-stage anaerobic wastewater pre-treatment was modelled and controlled. The biological state of the reactors could be predicted using a fuzzy logic system and based upon this, proper control actions were taken automatically in order to avoid an overload. The system was designed to handle very strong fluctuations in the ...
Suzuki Y - - 2002
A new method for solid-liquid separation for wastewater incorporating simple operation and shortened treatment time is necessary for improvement of sewage systems. In this study, removal of suspended solids from municipal wastewater by coagulation and foam separation using coagulant and milk casein was examined. By adding casein before the foam ...
Wang J Y - - 2002
A hybrid two-phase system, consisting of a solid waste reactor as the acidification reactor and a wastewater reactor, i.e. an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, as the methanogenic reactor, for anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated. After the pre-acidification stage, COD and total VFA removals in the methanogenic ...
Nestle N - - 2001
Cementitious materials are widely used as binders both in construction and in environmental technology (e.g., for stabilization and solidification). When dealing with materials contaminated with organic solvents, it is important to have an idea about the interaction between the solvents and the hydrating cement. Here, we introduce nuclear magnetic resonance ...
Son H K - - 2001
In practice, biofilters are often conceived as entire, single-unit systems. However, the activity of a biofilter varies greatly over its depth. For a given period, each stage of the biofilter dominates ethylbenzene removal. Ethylbenzene was continuously removed in a mixed-medium biofilter. The overall removal efficiency of the ethylbenzene ranged from ...
Chung S S - - 2001
Waste characteristics are essential data for waste disposal facilities planning and waste management policy formulation. However, waste composition studies are rarely carried out in mainland Chinese cities and even when it does, the methodologies used are not stringent. A year-long field survey on the physical components of waste and the ...
Bruder-Hubscher V - - 2001
France incinerates about 40% of its municipal solid waste (MSW), producing 2.7 million tons of bottom ash annually. Utilisation of bottom ash (BA) is encouraged in France but strictly regulated. Only bottom ash meeting specific criteria and produced in accordance with a quality assurance plan can be used in roadbeds ...
Tartakovsky B - - 2001
Degradation of Aroclor 1242 was studied in granular biofilm reactors with limited aeration. An aerobic biphenyl degrader, Rhodococcus sp. M5, was used to supplement a natural bacterial population present in a "bioaugmented" reactor, while the "non-bioaugmented" reactor only contained natural granular sludge. The bioaugmentation, however appeared to have no effect ...
Wu B - - 2001
The sorption of toluene and o-xylene to individual municipal solid waste (MSW) constituents [office paper, newsprint, model food and yard waste, high density polyethylene, and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] was evaluated. Effects of sorbent decomposition and solvent composition on alkylbenzene sorption were studied by evaluating biodegradable sorbents in both fresh and ...
Huang J S - - 2001
Under aerobic conditions, the decay rates of purple nonsulfur bacteria (Rhodobacter sp.) in the light and dark follow first-order kinetics with rate constants of 0.22 and 0.32 day(-1), respectively. The performance of the conventional activated-sludge reactor (CASR) treating anaerobically pretreated piggery wastewater (656-1.110 mg chemical oxygen demand, COD/L) can be ...
Zhang F S - - 2001
Selected chemical characteristics of rare earth elements (REEs) in 89 waste ash samples, including food scrap ashes (FSA), animal waste ashes (AWA), horticulture waste ashes (HWA), sewage sludge ashes (SSA) and incinerator bottom ashes (IBA), were examined in this study. The results showed that Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Dy, ...
Warren-Rhodes K - - 2001
Urban metabolism measures quantitatively a city's load on the natural environment. We update the Newcombe et al. (3) pioneering study of Hong Kong's urban metabolism in 1971, highlighting trends in resource consumption and waste generation. Per capita food, water and materials consumption have surged since the early 1970s by 20%, ...
Gajalakshmi S - - 2001
The viability of vermireactors fed with different proportions of water hyacinth (WH) and cowdung (CD) was assessed over six-month trials. All reactors performed sustainably with a steadily rising vermicast output, worm zoomass, and number of offspring. There was no mortality in any of the reactors. A change in the WH:CD ...
Lu S G - - 2001
A laboratory composting was conducted to determine the effect of the continuously enforced aeration on the composting performance. The mixture of dog food, excess sludge, and woodchip was used as raw composting materials. The temperature changes in the decomposition process, and pH, weight loss, ash, and extract composition from the ...
Shin H S - - 2001
This study was conducted to investigate the performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating leachate from acidogenic fermenter in the two-phase anaerobic digestion of food waste. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was consistently over 96% up to the loading rates of 15.8 g COD/l d. ...
Li W - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Inhalational agents have been widely used for anesthesia in laboratory animals. However, the safe use of inhalational agents in small laboratory animals has been limited by the lack of a suitable and effective scavenging system for the removal of waste anesthetic gases. The aim of the present study is ...
Taha R - - 2001
The impact on the environment of using paint-contaminated grit (PCG) as a partial or full replacement for sand in Portland cement mortar and asphalt concrete mixtures was investigated. The grit waste material originated from abrasive blasting of offshore steel structures. There is a major environmental concern regarding the safe disposal ...
Herrmann A P - - 2001
In a lab-scale two-stage digester (consisting of an acidification and a methane reactor) operated continuously with high-loaded brewers wastewater (psiCOD 9.000 mg1(-1)) as the primary substrate, the cofermentation of two commonly found flavonoids (rutin and hesperidin) was studied. At overall hydraulic retention times of 48-50 h and organic loading rates ...
Thipse S S - - 2001
Synthetic fuel is prepared to imitate municipal solid waste (MSW) in experimental studies of incineration processes. The fuel is composed based on the Environmental Protection Agency reports on the materials contained in MSW. Uniform synthetic fuel pellets are prepared using available and inexpensive components including newsprint, hardwood mulch, low density ...
Dollhopf S L - - 2001
We compared carbon flow under constant low-substrate conditions (below 20 microM glucose in situ) in laboratory-scale glucose-fed methanogenic bioreactors containing two very different microbial communities that removed chemical oxygen demand at similar rates. One community contained approximately equal proportions of spiral and cocci morphologies, while the other community was dominated ...
Kim H J - - 2001
To test the possible use of composted food waste and wastewater sludge as biofilters to treat gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs), batch experiments were conducted with an isolated strain that could degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic conditions. A benzene and trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture was used as the gas-phase pollutant in ...
Park J I - - 2001
The slurry bioreactor system is an effective means for treating highly saline food wastes, which may not be recycled as composts. The effect of aeration rate was investigated in a slurry bioreactor as a major factor affecting the slurry-phase decomposition of food wastes. The aeration rate affected significantly the decomposition ...
Tseng C H - - 2001
The combined removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2, up to 3,000 ppm) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, up to 1,200 ppm) has been investigated in a bench-scale pulsed-corona enhanced wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) with the optional injection of ammonia and/or ozone. The reaction of ammonia with SO2 produces submicron aerosols ...
Kanungo V K - - 2001
Sewage-sullage mixture from Raipur city is spread over a vast area surrounding the city. This mixture has a pH always above neutrality with high turbidity. Transparency was nil with the absence of phenolphthalein alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. Hardness was high with low nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. Human consumable. acquatic macrophytes ...
Plumb J J - - 2001
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 16S and 23S rRNA-targeted probes together with construction of an archaeal 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone library was used to characterize the microbial populations of an anaerobic baffled reactor successfully treating industrial dye waste. Wastewater produced during the manufacture of food dyes containing several ...
He Y - - 2001
The composting of high organic content wastes has been shown to produce nitrous oxide (N2O). This study was initiated to investigate the mechanisms of N2O emissions from aerated composting and to determine the optimal operational conditions that minimize N2O emissions. The results of our experiment in laboratory-scale composters showed that ...
Guo X E - - 2001
Study of the inorganic chlorides in municipal solid waste (MSW) shows that the main source of inorganic chlorides in MSW is food. The main organic source of HCl emission from MSW is plastic. But wood, textiles, and food also produce a large amount of HCl when they are combusted. Each ...
Lu C - - 2001
Biofilter system is a relatively new process that has been proven to be more cost-effective than traditional technologies such as carbon adsorption, liquid scrubbing, condensation, thermal incineration, and catalytic incineration for removing low-strength volatile organic compounds from waste gases. The trickle-bed air biofilter (TBAB) performance for ethylacetate (EA) removal was ...
Goto N - - 2001
Energy consumption in sewage treatment facilities in Japan has increased due to increasing tap water consumption. To reduce the resource/energy consumption in sewage treatment facilities, measures such as the selection of optimum treatment processes and operating conditions should be considered. The objective of this study is to gather information necessary ...
Saravanane R - - 2001
The start-up of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was carried out using a single inoculum (supernatant of anaerobic digester) and later on with multiple inoculum (a mixture of supernatant of anaerobic digester and volatile fatty acid (VFA)) to achieve a faster start-up. Then regular experiments were carried out to study ...
Tuomela M - - 2001
Mineralization of radioactive synthetic lignin (14C-DHP) was studied in a compost environment at 35, 50 and 58 degrees C. Compost samples were successively extracted with water, dioxane and alkali, and the molecular weight distribution of some extracts was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Biodegradation of lignin-containing spruce groundwood (SGW) ...
Jiménez L - - 2001
A central composition design was developed to study the influence of process variables (temperature, pulping time and ethanol concentration) on the properties of the pulp produced (yield and holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents) and the pH of the resulting wastewater, in the ethanol pulping of olive tree trimmings. The proposed ...
Gullick R W - - 2001
A natural shale and four synthetic organoclays were compared as potential sorbent additives to containment barriers at hazardous waste sites. Trimethylphenyl ammonium bentonite (TMPA-bent) was shown in batch experiments to have the greatest sorption capacities for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, and methyl isobutyl ketone, followed by the shale and a commercial organoclay. ...
Itokawa H - - 2001
Effects of influent COD/N ratio on N2O emission from a biological nitrogen removal process with intermittent aeration, supplied with high-strength wastewater, were investigated with laboratory-scale bioreactors. Furthermore, the mechanism of N2O production in the bioreactor supplied with low COD/N ratio wastewater was studied using 15N tracer method, measuring of reduction ...
Shin H S - - 2001
This study was conducted to evaluate the newly devised process, called MUlti-step Sequential batch Two-phase Anaerobic Composting (MUSTAC). The MUSTAC process consisted of several leaching beds for hydrolysis, acidification and post-treatment, and a UASB reactor for methane recovery. This process to treat food waste was developed with a high-rate anaerobic ...
Zandaryaa S - - 2001
An experimental study of the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process was carried out to determine the efficiency of NOx removal and NH3 mass balance, the NOx reducing reagent used. Experimental tests were conducted on a full-scale SNCR system installed in a hospital waste incineration plant. Anhydrous NH3 was injected at ...
Galil N I - - 2001
The use of domestic garbage disposers may reduce the amounts and improve the solid waste composition, by lowering putrid matter and water content and by raising the caloric potential. However, additional loading on the sewerage systems might require increased investments and operation costs of the wastewater treatment facilities. This project ...
Liu J C - - 2001
The pretreatment of wastewater from a large-scale bakery was studied. In the coagulation-flocculation reaction, it was found that both alum and FeCl3 were effective in the jar tests. When at coagulant dosage of 90 to 100 mg/l, 55% of COD and 95 to 100% of SS could be removed. The ...
de Ceballos B S - - 2001
The efficiencies of a natural Typha spp wetland (Wn) formed on a river bed and its effluent treatment in a constructed wetland (Wc, subsurface horizontal flow) were investigated in northeastern Brazil (Paraiba State). The Wc system (12 tanks with stone gravel, 4.13 m2, 0.22 m3, 20 Typha spp rhizomes, m(-2) ...
Lim J S - - 2001
Three kinds of porous ceramic microbe media are fabricated from fly ash, diatomite and a mixture of fly ash and diatomite powders. Water holding capacity, density, porosity, pore size and distribution, compressive strength and micro-structure of each of the fabricated media are measured and compared. The fly ash and diatomite ...
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