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More Snehal V - - 2002
Tannery effluents are highly polluting and contain chromium and high COD and BOD. Alkalotolerant/alkalophilic actinomycetes NCIM 5080 and NCIM 5109 have been shown earlier to tolerate and accumulate chromium during growth also produce alkaline protease in presence of chromium ions. These properties of the isolates are suitable for treatment of ...
Coulibaly Lacina - - 2002
Sewers are typically a means of transporting wastewater to a treatment facility, with little biotransformation of the soluble polymeric organic matter by suspended biomass. In the interest of providing an effective pretreatment of wastewater in a sewer network, it is necessary to design an accurate tool simulating sewer conditions and ...
Panni Moeen K - - 2002
Numerous studies have suggested that chronic exposure to trace levels of anesthetic gas is harmful to operating room (OR) personnel. In the delivery of pediatric general anesthesia, an uncuffed endotracheal tube (ETT) is normally used which can result in considerable volatile anesthetic and nitrous oxide contamination of the OR. In ...
Broman Emil - - 2002
In the 1980s, people in Sweden frequently responded to moose (Alces alces) found dead or in poor physical condition. The number of moose submitted for routine investigations to the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) increased tenfold and the hunters in Alvsborg County were especially concerned. Later, a complex wasting syndrome was ...
Logan Bruce E - - 2002
The biological degradation of perchlorate was examined using a laboratory-scale, autotrophic, packed-bed biofilm reactor. The reactor was operated in unsaturated-flow mode and continuously fed water containing perchlorate (ClO4-) (as an electron acceptor), and a gas mixture of hydrogen (5%) and carbon dioxide at a retention time of 1.5 min. In ...
Park Jong Ik - - 2002
A pilot scale slurry bioreactor was used for the treatment of food wastes. Food wastes were continuously added (750 g wet weight per day) into the reactor and successfully decomposed to inorganic carbon without intermittent removal of suspended solids. During operation for 90 days, 91% reduction of food wastes was ...
Hogue Mark G - - 2002
Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of 46 pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The ...
Sharma R - - 2002
In continuation of their studies on Biodegradation of cellulosic waste materials, the authors have presented their experimental data on biodegradation on waste paper pulp. Greater efficiency in the cow dung and M3 culture experimental setups have been pointed out and discussed. Necessity of detailed data evaluation of temperature, pH, dry ...
Bae Byung-Uk - - 2002
Ion exchange technology is currently the best for removing nitrate from drinking water. However, problems related to the disposal of spent brine from regeneration of exhausted resins must be overcome so that ion exchange can be applied more widely and economically, especially in small communities. For this purpose, a novel ...
Roxburgh Lizanne - - 2002
Most aquatic vertebrates are ammonotelic, whereas terrestrial vertebrates are typically uricotelic or ureotelic. However, the principal form of nitrogenous waste product in the urine of an animal may vary, depending on environmental conditions. Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna) was found to switch from uricotely at high ambient temperature (T(a)) to ammonotely ...
Zhu J Y - - 2002
This study experimentally quantified the formation of organic sulfur compounds in a commercial SuperBatch kraft pulping process using a laboratory pilot-scale digester. The results indicate that wood chips not only can adsorb HS- but also methyl mercaptan (MM) in the black liquor used for pretreatment during the two pretreatment stages. ...
Nakasaki Kiyohiko - - 2002
Using dog food as a model of the organic waste that comprises composting raw material, the degradation pattern of organic materials was examined by continuously measuring the quantity of CO2 evolved during the composting process in both batch and fed-batch operations. A simple numerical model was made on the basis ...
Kim Yongjin - - 2002
From previous studies, we, the authors collected and arranged the octanol-water partition coefficients (K(ow)), water solubility (S0), and dissolved humic matter (DHM)-water partition coefficients (K(oc)) for 95 organic compounds, and presented the correlations between each physical property. The K(oc) and K(ow) of dioxins estimated were significantly increased while S0 was ...
Fang Herbert H P - - 2002
This study demonstrated that hydrogen-producing acidogenic sludge could agglutinate into granules in a well-mixed reactor treating a synthetic sucrose-containing wastewater at 26 degrees C, pH 5.5, with 6 h of hydraulic retention. A typical matured granule is 1.6 mm in diameter, 1.038 g/mL in density, 11% in ash content, and ...
Cheng Hai-Peng - - 2002
Acetobacter xylinum for bacterial cellulose production was cultivated in a modified airlift reactor. Better results were obtained from the modified reactor than from a conventional bubble column. After 72 h of cultivation, the final concentration of bacterial cellulose was 7.72 g/l and the productivity was 0.107 g/l per h in ...
Seagren Eric A - - 2002
Experiments were conducted to quantify nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) pool dissolution and its enhancement by in situ biodegradation. The experiments were performed using square cross-section, glass-bead packed column reactors with a small pool of a toluene-in-dodecane mixture (toluene mole fraction, X(tol) approximately 0.02 or 0.09). Experimental quasi-steady-state toluene dissolution fluxes ...
Xu Pei - - 2002
Wastewater disinfection by ozone was investigated at pilot scale on different wastewater effluents. Variations in operating conditions showed that a very low hydraulic retention time (2 min) was sufficient for efficient fecal coliform inactivation, provided a sufficient ozone dose was transferred to the effluent. Therefore, the transferred ozone dose appeared ...
Dho Nam Yung - - 2002
Kimpo metropolitan landfill has received various kinds of wastes since January 1992. The leachate level was measured to be 10.3 m in May 1995 and the level increased to 12.2 m in August 1996. Therefore, to prove the reason for the increasing leachate level, we calibrated hydraulic conductivity of each ...
Díez M A - - 2002
Tars produced at semi-industrial scale in a coke oven of 6 x 10(3) kg capacity were used to investigate the effect of using polyethylene waste as an additive in the carbonization process with coal. The polyethylene wastes used were low-density polyethylene from the agriculture greenhouses and high-density polyethylene from domestic ...
Ma Jun - - 2002
Jar tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of potassium ferrate preoxidation on algae removal by coagulation. Laboratory studies demonstrated that pretreatment with potassium ferrate obviously enhanced the algae removal by coagulation with alum [Al2(SO4)3 . 18H2O]. Algae removal efficiency increased remarkably when the water was pretreated with ferrate. A ...
Imai Akio - - 2002
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in effluents from sewage and human-wastes treatment plants (STPEs and HWTPEs) was fractionated using resin adsorbents into six classes: aquatic humic substances (AHS), hydrophobic bases (HoB), hydrophobic neutrals (HoN), hydrophilic acids (HiA), hydrophilic bases (HiB), and hydrophilic neutrals (HiN). DOM-fraction distribution varied substantially depending on the ...
Jahren Sigrun J - - 2002
The continuously operated laboratory scale Kaldnes moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used for thermophilic (55 degrees C) aerobic treatment of TMP whitewater. In the MBBR, the biomass is grown on carrier elements that move along with the water in the reactor. Inoculation with mesophilic activated sludge gave 60-65% SCOD ...
Makkar R S - - 2002
Biosurfactants are valuable microbial amphiphilic molecules with effective surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Microbes synthesize them, especially during growth on water-immiscible substrates, providing an alternative to chemically prepared conventional surfactants. Because of their structural diversity (i.e., glycolipids, lipopeptides, fatty acids, etc.), low toxicity, and biodegradability, ...
Wang Yili - - 2002
Factors of pretreatment coagulation/flocculation units were studied using raw water of low temperature and low turbidity. Aluminum sulfate (AS) and selected polyaluminium chlorides (PACls) were all effective in the DAF process when used under favorable conditions of coagulant addition, coagulation, flocculation and flotation units. Compared with the AS coagulant, PACls, ...
Yoshie S - - 2002
The metallurgic wastewater generated from the processes of recovering precious metals from industrial wastes contains high concentrations of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitric acid and of salts such as sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Biological nitrogen removal from this wastewater was attempted by a circulating bioreactor system equipped ...
van Groenestijn J W - - 2002
Tanning, in particular chrome leather production, is still characterised by an inefficient use of raw material and the production of highly polluted wastewater and solid wastes. A part of the emissions can be prevented by introducing clean tanning technologies, the remaining emissions can be treated. Clean production technologies and waste ...
Lao Shan-gen - - 2002
Granular activated carbon (GAC) anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor was applied to treating phenols wastewater. When influent phenol concentration was 1000 mg/L, volume loadings of phenol and CODCr were 0.39 kg/(m3.d) and 0.98 kg/(m3.d), their removal rates were 99.9% and 96.4% respectively. From analyzing above results, the main mechanisms of the process ...
Sigge G O - - 2002
UASB treatment of fruit cannery and winery effluents was shown to be feasible. However, the treated effluents still have residual COD levels well above the legal limit of 75 mg.l(-1) for direct discharge to a water system and a form of post-treatment is necessary to reduce the COD further. Ozone ...
Ukita M - - 2002
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles of food and feed, and the regulation systems for industrial wastewater are studied. The rate of domestic supply of food in Japan is 41% in 1970, 32% in 1990, and 29% in 1998 for N and 33%, 29%, and 28% for P, excluding grass ...
Sawayama S - - 2002
The possibility of 3-chlorobenzoate removal from water using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor without the addition of any extra dechlorinating culture under light conditions has been studied on a laboratory scale. Benzoate removal was observed in the first three months of operation under light conditions, but the 3-chlorobenzoate ...
Noor M J M M - - 2002
A laboratory study was conducted on an Extended Aeration-Microfiltration (EAM) reactor in treating a food industry wastewater. The reactor contained horizontally laid hollow fibre microfiltration (MF) units that were fully submerged. The MF units were connected to a peristaltic pump that was used to extract permeate continuously under suction pressure. ...
Wong Phoeby A L - - 2002
Polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable plastics with the desired physical and chemical properties of conventional synthetic plastics, are extensively investigated. In this study, specific bacterial strains produced specific copolymers from food waste. Copolymers of HB and HV (poly[3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate]) were obtained using various ratios of butyric acid (C4) and valeric acid (C5) as carbon ...
Yu S M - - 2002
The process performance of the two largest activated sludge processes in Hong Kong, the Sha Tin and the Tai Po Sewage Treatment Works (STW), deteriorated in the initial period after the introduction of seawater flushing in 1995 and 1996, respectively. High effluent ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total suspended solids (TSS) ...
Bhat P N - - 2002
The objective of this study was to obtain information on the immobilization of beryllium (Be) in solid waste generated in the extraction process of beryllium from its ore, Beryl. This solid waste, termed red-mud, contains oxides of iron, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and beryllium. The red-mud waste contains beryllium at levels ...
Saitou T - - 2002
Potential for degradation of microcystin by biofilm was examined by some batch experiments using biofilm scraped from practical biological treatment facility combined with conventional treatment processes. The viable cells of Microcystis viridis, which produced microcystin LR, RR and YR were degraded at 6 to 10 days by the addition of ...
Li Y Y - - 2002
This paper presents an experimental study on anaerobic degradation of lipids-rich food wastes by using the high solids co-digestion process. The experiments were conducted under mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) condition, respectively, by using a semi-continuous flow completely mixed reactor. The influent TS level was controlled ...
Murnleitner Ernst - - 2002
The two-stage anaerobic wastewater pre-treatment was modelled and controlled. The biological state of the reactors could be predicted using a fuzzy logic system and based upon this, proper control actions were taken automatically in order to avoid an overload. The system was designed to handle very strong fluctuations in the ...
Suzuki Y - - 2002
A new method for solid-liquid separation for wastewater incorporating simple operation and shortened treatment time is necessary for improvement of sewage systems. In this study, removal of suspended solids from municipal wastewater by coagulation and foam separation using coagulant and milk casein was examined. By adding casein before the foam ...
Wang J Y - - 2002
A hybrid two-phase system, consisting of a solid waste reactor as the acidification reactor and a wastewater reactor, i.e. an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, as the methanogenic reactor, for anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated. After the pre-acidification stage, COD and total VFA removals in the methanogenic ...
Nestle N - - 2001
Cementitious materials are widely used as binders both in construction and in environmental technology (e.g., for stabilization and solidification). When dealing with materials contaminated with organic solvents, it is important to have an idea about the interaction between the solvents and the hydrating cement. Here, we introduce nuclear magnetic resonance ...
Son H K - - 2001
In practice, biofilters are often conceived as entire, single-unit systems. However, the activity of a biofilter varies greatly over its depth. For a given period, each stage of the biofilter dominates ethylbenzene removal. Ethylbenzene was continuously removed in a mixed-medium biofilter. The overall removal efficiency of the ethylbenzene ranged from ...
Chung S S - - 2001
Waste characteristics are essential data for waste disposal facilities planning and waste management policy formulation. However, waste composition studies are rarely carried out in mainland Chinese cities and even when it does, the methodologies used are not stringent. A year-long field survey on the physical components of waste and the ...
Bruder-Hubscher V - - 2001
France incinerates about 40% of its municipal solid waste (MSW), producing 2.7 million tons of bottom ash annually. Utilisation of bottom ash (BA) is encouraged in France but strictly regulated. Only bottom ash meeting specific criteria and produced in accordance with a quality assurance plan can be used in roadbeds ...
Tartakovsky B - - 2001
Degradation of Aroclor 1242 was studied in granular biofilm reactors with limited aeration. An aerobic biphenyl degrader, Rhodococcus sp. M5, was used to supplement a natural bacterial population present in a "bioaugmented" reactor, while the "non-bioaugmented" reactor only contained natural granular sludge. The bioaugmentation, however appeared to have no effect ...
Wu B - - 2001
The sorption of toluene and o-xylene to individual municipal solid waste (MSW) constituents [office paper, newsprint, model food and yard waste, high density polyethylene, and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] was evaluated. Effects of sorbent decomposition and solvent composition on alkylbenzene sorption were studied by evaluating biodegradable sorbents in both fresh and ...
Huang J S - - 2001
Under aerobic conditions, the decay rates of purple nonsulfur bacteria (Rhodobacter sp.) in the light and dark follow first-order kinetics with rate constants of 0.22 and 0.32 day(-1), respectively. The performance of the conventional activated-sludge reactor (CASR) treating anaerobically pretreated piggery wastewater (656-1.110 mg chemical oxygen demand, COD/L) can be ...
Zhang F S - - 2001
Selected chemical characteristics of rare earth elements (REEs) in 89 waste ash samples, including food scrap ashes (FSA), animal waste ashes (AWA), horticulture waste ashes (HWA), sewage sludge ashes (SSA) and incinerator bottom ashes (IBA), were examined in this study. The results showed that Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Dy, ...
Warren-Rhodes K - - 2001
Urban metabolism measures quantitatively a city's load on the natural environment. We update the Newcombe et al. (3) pioneering study of Hong Kong's urban metabolism in 1971, highlighting trends in resource consumption and waste generation. Per capita food, water and materials consumption have surged since the early 1970s by 20%, ...
Gajalakshmi S - - 2001
The viability of vermireactors fed with different proportions of water hyacinth (WH) and cowdung (CD) was assessed over six-month trials. All reactors performed sustainably with a steadily rising vermicast output, worm zoomass, and number of offspring. There was no mortality in any of the reactors. A change in the WH:CD ...
Lu S G - - 2001
A laboratory composting was conducted to determine the effect of the continuously enforced aeration on the composting performance. The mixture of dog food, excess sludge, and woodchip was used as raw composting materials. The temperature changes in the decomposition process, and pH, weight loss, ash, and extract composition from the ...
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