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Results 501 - 550 of 790
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Paglia Donald E - - 2005
Eight humans were isolated for 2 years in Biosphere 2, a sealed airtight habitat with recycled air, food, water, and wastes. A combination of conditions led to selective decline of oxygen (O2) in the internal atmosphere from 21% to 14%, inducing symptoms of high-altitude sickness but with little or no ...
Han S K - - 2005
This study was performed to optimize both acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis, and then to develop a pilot-scale two-stage process producing not only CH4 but also H2. Firstly, acidogenic hydrogenesis of food waste was examined in pilot-scale leaching-bed reactors using dilution rate (D) as a tool to improve the environmental conditions. ...
Kao C M - - 2005
AIMS: The ability of Azotobacter vinelandii, a N(2)-fixing bacterium, to biodegrade tetracyanonickelate (TCN) was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The amounts of TCN were measured spectrophotometrically. Ammonia was determined colorimetrically by the indophenol method. The produced methane from TCN conversion by A. vinelandii was detected by gas chromatography. Results showed that ...
Shin D - - 2005
After performing a series of batch type experiments using a lab-scale combustor, consideration was given to the use of an internally cycloned circulating fluidized bed combustor (ICCFBC) for a paper mill sludge. Operation parameters including water content, feeding mass of the sludge, and secondary air injection ratio were varied to ...
Kim H J - - 2005
Food waste can be a valuable carbon source in biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems because of the high C/N and C/P ratio. However, pretreatment is necessary to promote hydrolysis of food waste because of the high concentration of volatile solids associated with organic matter. The influence of the enzymatic pretreatment ...
Vejsada J - - 2005
Sorption is an important process for the transport of radionuclides through backfill materials in a radioactive waste underground repository. Within this study, sorption of Cs on selected Czech clay materials and their mixtures with sand was investigated by batch tests. The experiments were performed under oxic conditions at 25 degrees ...
Rao Achanta Ramakrishna - - 2005
Aeration experiments were conducted in two rectangular surface aeration tanks of L/B ratios 1.5 and 2 along with a square tank (L/B=1) to study their relative performance due to shape on oxygen transfer process while re-aerating the same volume of water such that the cross-sectional area of all the three ...
Wang J Y - - 2005
A hybrid anaerobic solid - liquid (HASL) system was developed to enhance food waste bioconversion in comparison with the conventional two-phase anaerobic digester. The advantages of the HASL system were the higher efficiency of methane production and smaller volume of effluent from the system. The biogas, which was generated from ...
Manukovsky N S - - 2005
Bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) with different coefficients of closure are considered. The 66.2% coefficient of closure achieved in "BIOS-3" facility experiments has been taken as a base value. The increase in coefficient of closure up to 72.6-93.0% is planned due to use of soil-like substrate (SLS) and concentrating of ...
Ramos M S - - 2005
Treatment of wastewater containing high phenol concentrations (up to 4,000 mg/l, 1,600 kg/ha.d) in laboratory-scale stabilisation ponds enriched with activated sludge was studied. Phenol was biodegraded efficiently, even when fed as the sole carbon source. At influent concentrations of 1,000, 1,300, 1,600, 1,900, 2,500, 3,000 and 4,000 mg/l of phenol ...
Tanner C C - - 2005
The treatment performance of a maturation pond (MP), the typical final polishing stage of an Advanced Pond System (APS), is compared with that of a surface-flow constructed wetland (CW) over 19 months. Both received approximately 67 mm d-1 of wastewater after passage through upstream stages of the APS. The MP, ...
Mohaibes Mohammed - - 2004
The review discusses the aerobic treatments for farm slurry and food wastes and concentrates in particular on the thermophilic aerobic treatments. Methods are discussed under the heading of chemical, physical and other treatments. From those methods considered, the most suitable physical-microbiological treatment are aerobic thermophilic treatments. The main problem faced ...
Ramsburg C Andrew - - 2004
A pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) was conducted in July 2000 at the Bachman Road site located in Oscoda, MI. The Bachman aquifer is a shallow, relatively homogeneous, unconfined aquifer formation composed primarily of sandy glacial outwash with relatively low organic carbon content (0.02 wt %). A 6 ...
Altun Gurcan - - 2004
Hunger strike is described as voluntary refusal of food and/or fluids. Prolonged starvation may produce many adverse events including even death in rare circumstances. Here, we present three fatal cases (all males, 25-38 years) died from hunger strike. In all corpses, obvious muscle wasting with reduced subcutaneous and internal fat ...
Suzuki Takeshi - - 2004
Swollen chips made from trees felled during clear-cutting were composted with various organic and inorganic materials in an aerobic composting reactor for 5 months and then piled for 5 months. The organic materials included chicken feces, urea, nitrogenous lime (calcium cyanamide, manure), and material rapidly composted from food garbage in ...
Smolders R - - 2004
Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of ...
Albright William H - - 2004
Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into underlying waste. Conventional covers employing resistive barriers as ...
Formisano Vittorio - - 2004
We report a detection of methane in the martian atmosphere by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard the Mars Express spacecraft. The global average methane mixing ratio is found to be 10 +/- 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). However, the mixing ratio varies between 0 and 30 ppbv over ...
Addink R - - 2004
Ash from the secondary combustor/boiler of a rotary kiln burning hazardous chemical waste was tested in the laboratory for its potential to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The ash contained only a small quantity of "native" PCDD/F, i.e., formed on the ash in the facility. However, it produced a ...
Liu Tse-Ying - - 2004
In this investigation, calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) nanocrystals with needle-like geometry were synthesized and incorporated with Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, to form CDHA-PMMA nanocomposites. Rheological behaviors of the PMMA-CDHA melting suspensions were systematically investigated in terms of solid loading and aspect ratio of the CDHA nanoparticles. The maximum solid loadings of nano-CDHA ...
Ugoji E O - - 2004
The assessment of the effluents from two textile industries in Ilupeju in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria showed that they were high in conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and contained traces of heavy metals like Ca, Zn but high concentrations of Cr and Pb. ...
Rabah Fahid K J - - 2004
Two laboratory-scale high performance fluidized bed biofilm reactors (FBBR) with sand as the biofilm carrier were used to investigate the denitrification of high-strength nitrate wastewater with specific emphasis on the effect the nitrogen loading rate and the superficial velocity (V(s)). The results demonstrated that the FBBR system is capable of ...
Hatanaka Takeshi - - 2004
Combustion experiments in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor were performed to elucidate the role of copper chloride in formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during model waste incineration. The amounts of PCDDs and PCDFs formed, the homologue profiles, and the isomer distributions were measured in the flue gas from ...
Rajkumar D - - 2004
This paper presents the results of the treatment of phenolic compounds containing wastewater generated from phenol-formaldehyde resin manufacturing, oil refinery and bulk drug manufacturing industries by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at a fixed current density of 5.4 A/dm2 using Ti/TiO2-RuO2-IrO2 electrode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages ...
Gönen N - - 2004
In this study, the effects of pH, time and temperature in regeneration of cyanide in the leaching waste solution of gold production from disseminated gold ore by cyanidation process were investigated and the optimum conditions, consumptions and cyanide recovery values were determined. The sample of waste solution containing 156 mg/l ...
Yu Ruey-Fang - - 2004
In this study, a simple automatic pH-ORP titration device was developed for identifying the various ammonia concentrations and chlorine dose requirements for wastewater chlorination by identifying the peaks in the ORP-slope profiles and knees/valleys in the pH profiles. In addition, breakpoint chlorination experiments have shown that the ORP values at ...
Kargi Fikret - - 2004
Biological treatment of landfill leachate usually results in low COD removals because of high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high ammonium-N content and presence of toxic compounds. Coagulation-flocculation with lime addition and air stripping of ammonia were used as pre-treatment in this study in order to improve biological treatability of the ...
Absi A - - 2004
The estuary of the Odiel River has been affected by both direct discharges of phosphogypsum (radium enriched industrial waste) and dissolution and weathering of the exposed piles where this radium enriched waste was stored. In 1998 the waste management policy for industries changed. The direct discharges stopped and the new ...
Hoogenboom Ron - - 2004
During the last six years several incidents have occurred with dioxins in feed, stressing the need for rapid screening methods for these compounds. The most recent incident was the contamination of bakery waste used for animal feed due to the use of waste wood for drying of the material. In ...
Nakasaki Kiyohiko - - 2004
The degradation of fats during thermophilic composting was investigated by adding lard of four different mixing ratios (0, 33.3, 42.9 and 50% on a dry weight basis) to dog food used as a model substrate for organic waste. The lard added at the mixing ratio of 33.3% did not inhibit ...
Gajalakshmi S - - 2004
The performance of four species of earthworm--Eudrilus eugeniae, Kinberg, Drawida willsi Michaelsen, Lampito mauritii, Kinberg and Perionyx excavatus, Perrier--born and grown in vermireactors fed with paper waste was studied over six months, in terms of vermicast output per unit feed, production of offspring, and increase in worm zoomass. These were ...
Vavilin V A - - 2004
The hydrolysis rate coefficients of sorted municipal waste were evaluated from the biochemical methane potential tests using non-linear regression. A distributed mathematical model of anaerobic digestion of rich (food) and lean (non-food) solid wastes with greatly different rates of polymer hydrolysis/acidogenesis was developed to describe the balance between the rates ...
Vizzini Salvatrice - - 2004
Isotopic examination (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of organic matter sources and consumers was used to assess the impact and trace the dispersal of wastewater from a land-based fish farm in western Mediterranean. The results provide evidence of the non-negligible effect of aquaculture facilities on the natural stable isotopic composition of organisms. ...
Chen Ye - - 2004
Paper constitutes about 38% of municipal solid waste, much of which is disposed of in landfills. Sorption to such lignocellulosic materials may limit the bioavailability of organic contaminants in landfills. The objective of this study was to identify the effect of individual biopolymers in paper on toluene sorption and bioavailability ...
Christensen John N - - 2004
In the mid-1990s, a groundwater plume of uranium (U) was detected in monitoring wells in the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area at the Hanford Site in Washington. This area has been used since the late 1940s to store high-level radioactive waste and other products of U fuel-rod processing. Using multiple-collector ICP ...
Lissens Geert - - 2004
Anaerobic digestion of solid biowaste generally results in relatively low methane yields of 50-60% of the theoretical maximum. Increased methane recovery from organic waste would lead to reduced handling of digested solids, lower methane emissions to the environment, and higher green energy profits. The objective of this research was to ...
Ramasamy E V - - 2004
The feasibility of using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors for the treatment of dairy wastewaters was explored. Two types of UASBs were used--one operating on anaerobic sludge granules developed by us from digested cowdung slurry (DCDS) and the other on the granules obtained from the reactors of M/s EID ...
Lefebvre O - - 2004
Hypersaline effluents are produced by various industrial activities. Such wastewater, rich in both organic matter and salt (> 35 g l(-1)), is difficult to treat by conventional wastewater treatment processes. It is necessary to use halophilic bacteria. In this study, a bench-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with halophilic ...
Travieso L - - 2004
Piggery wastes tertiary treatment in laboratory and full-scale microalgal ponds was evaluated. COD, BOD, inorganic nitrogen and orthophosphate removals of up to 57%, 69%, 79% and 74%, respectively, were obtained. The effect of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on removal efficiencies followed an exponential relationship. COD, BOD and orthophosphate removal ...
Xu H - - 2004
The effects of application of zero valence Fe (Fe(0)) on the anaerobic digestion of sewage was investigated using two laboratory scale UASB reactors. One reactor had Fe(0) addition in a container found midway along the recycling loop. The other one was a control reactor. In a test run period of ...
Akhtar N - - 2004
The biosorption process for the removal of nickel(II) by loofa sponge-immobilized biomass of Chlorella sorokiniana (LIBCS), a newly developed immobilized biosorbent, was characterized. Effects of environmental factors on metal uptake capacity of LIBCS were studied and compared with free biomass of C. sorokiniana (FBCS). Nickel(II) removal by LIBCS was found ...
Van Hege K - - 2004
The present study encompasses the application of electrolysis as novel treatment technique for the abatement of low-salinity concentrates generated from the filtrative treatment of water and wastewater. Four different materials have been tested as anode for a number of brine samples in a one-compartment electrolytic cell in galvanostatic mode. It ...
Brandt R C - - 2004
Phosphorus-based nutrient management will inevitably be required for land application of biosolids. Water-extractable phosphorus (WEP) in livestock manures is an indicator of phosphorus loss from agricultural watersheds and this study evaluated its use for biosolids. The WEP to total phosphorus percentage (PWEP) in 41 biosolids (representing a variety of wastewater ...
Han Sun-Kee - - 2004
This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of an innovative two-stage process, BIOCELL, that was developed to produce hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) from food waste on the basis of phase separation, reactor rotation mode, and sequential batch technique. The BIOCELL process consisted of four leaching-bed reactors for H2 ...
Zheng Zhan-wang - - 2004
The heterogeneous UV/Fenton process with the appropriate amount of Fe-Mn-Cu-Y as catalyst was developed and various operation conditions for the degradation of phenol were evaluated. The results indicated that by using the heterogeneous UV/Fenton process, the COD(cr) removal rate reached almost 100% for wastewater containing phenol. Compared with the homogeneous ...
Fox Martin - - 2004
Wet oxidation was investigated for its process performance on methane fermentation of newspaper waste. The mechanisms of solubilization of newspaper waste were investigated using the following criteria: destruction of total COD (TCOD), production of soluble COD (SCOD), production of volatile fatty acids, production of soluble carbohydrates, production of soluble lignin ...
Murto M - - 2004
The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial ...
Flieger M - - 2004
Electrocoagulation is an evolving technology that has been effectively applied for wastewater treatment but its applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology are very limited. This method was applied for the preparation of nanoparticles from soluble exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Claviceps viridis in a submerged batch culture. A cathode/anode pair electrode (Al ...
Mulkerrins Donal - - 2004
In Ireland, wastewaters emanating from the food industry typically contain elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus before treatment. Two pilot scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of achieving biological N and P removal on-site at a food ingredients plant. The wastewater treated by the pilot reactors was that ...
Güven Didem - - 2004
Stringent standards for nitrogen discharge necessitate the implementation of new systems for the sustainable removal of ammonium from wastewater. One of such systems is based on the process of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), which is a new powerful tool especially for strong nitrogenous wastewaters. In this study, the Anammox process ...
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