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Results 501 - 550 of 748
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Van Hege K - - 2004
The present study encompasses the application of electrolysis as novel treatment technique for the abatement of low-salinity concentrates generated from the filtrative treatment of water and wastewater. Four different materials have been tested as anode for a number of brine samples in a one-compartment electrolytic cell in galvanostatic mode. It ...
Brandt R C - - 2004
Phosphorus-based nutrient management will inevitably be required for land application of biosolids. Water-extractable phosphorus (WEP) in livestock manures is an indicator of phosphorus loss from agricultural watersheds and this study evaluated its use for biosolids. The WEP to total phosphorus percentage (PWEP) in 41 biosolids (representing a variety of wastewater ...
Han Sun-Kee - - 2004
This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of an innovative two-stage process, BIOCELL, that was developed to produce hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) from food waste on the basis of phase separation, reactor rotation mode, and sequential batch technique. The BIOCELL process consisted of four leaching-bed reactors for H2 ...
Zheng Zhan-wang - - 2004
The heterogeneous UV/Fenton process with the appropriate amount of Fe-Mn-Cu-Y as catalyst was developed and various operation conditions for the degradation of phenol were evaluated. The results indicated that by using the heterogeneous UV/Fenton process, the COD(cr) removal rate reached almost 100% for wastewater containing phenol. Compared with the homogeneous ...
Fox Martin - - 2004
Wet oxidation was investigated for its process performance on methane fermentation of newspaper waste. The mechanisms of solubilization of newspaper waste were investigated using the following criteria: destruction of total COD (TCOD), production of soluble COD (SCOD), production of volatile fatty acids, production of soluble carbohydrates, production of soluble lignin ...
Murto M - - 2004
The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial ...
Flieger M - - 2004
Electrocoagulation is an evolving technology that has been effectively applied for wastewater treatment but its applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology are very limited. This method was applied for the preparation of nanoparticles from soluble exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Claviceps viridis in a submerged batch culture. A cathode/anode pair electrode (Al ...
Mulkerrins Donal - - 2004
In Ireland, wastewaters emanating from the food industry typically contain elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus before treatment. Two pilot scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of achieving biological N and P removal on-site at a food ingredients plant. The wastewater treated by the pilot reactors was that ...
Güven Didem - - 2004
Stringent standards for nitrogen discharge necessitate the implementation of new systems for the sustainable removal of ammonium from wastewater. One of such systems is based on the process of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), which is a new powerful tool especially for strong nitrogenous wastewaters. In this study, the Anammox process ...
Ulloa J B - - 2004
In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher amounts produced and, the potential ...
Humenik F J - - 2004
The high nitrogen content of animal waste provides opportunities for processing to marketable byproducts and challenges for proper management to avoid harmful impacts. Technologies are being developed to conserve and utilize nitrogen as well as other valuable constituents in animal waste. Advanced treatment technologies are also being developed for housing/waste ...
Truong Quy Tung - - 2004
Aspergillus oryzae IFO 30113 was used for the treatment of the cassava starch processing (CSP) wastewater. The observations on the fungal morphology showed that, in the shake flasks containing the CSP wastewater with the high concentration of suspended solids, the formation of pellets originated from the adherence of germinated spores ...
Min Kyung-Sok - - 2004
The removal of ammonium from coagulated tannery wastewaters was investigated by an electrochemical method using Ti/IrO2 as an anode. Operating variables including the current density, pH and chloride concentration were considered in order to determine their effect on the ammonium removal efficiency. A maximum ammonium removal rate of 78.9% was ...
Chae S R - - 2004
As the sewerage system is incomplete, sewage in Korea lacks easily biodegradable organics for nutrient removal. In this country, about 11,400 tons of food waste of high organic materials is produced daily. Therefore, the potential of food waste as an external carbon source was examined in a pilot-scale BNR (biological ...
Tanner B D - - 2004
Effective wastewater treatment is critical to public health and well-being. This is especially true in developing countries, where disinfection of wastewater is frequently inadequate. People who live in these areas may benefit from wastewater disinfection using ozone. This study evaluated the ability of a new electrochemical process of ozone generation, ...
Hutchison M L - - 2004
AIMS: To determine the prevalence and levels of zoonotic agents in livestock wastes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A proportionally weighted survey was undertaken and livestock waste samples analysed quantitatively for Escherichia coli O157, pathogenic Listeria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. A significant proportion of wastes contained at least one zoonotic agent. ...
Das Himanish - - 2004
Cellulose, an important cell wall polysaccharide, which is replenished constantly in nature by photosynthesis, goes waste in a lion's share in the form of pre-harvest and post-harvest agricultural losses and wastes of food processing industry. These cellulose wastes have an immense potential to be utilized for the production and recovery ...
Russ Winfried - - 2004
Waste in the food industry is characterized by a high ratio of product-specific waste. Not only does this mean that the generation of this waste is unavoidable, but also that the amount and kind of waste produced, which consists primarily of the organic residue of processed raw materials, can scarcely ...
Seo J Y - - 2004
To evaluate the effect of vermiculite addition on composting food wastes from Korean households, food wastes were composted in three small bins to which different additives were added. The following three bins were employed: in Case I, only recycled compost was composted; in Case II, food wastes with recycled compost; ...
Parkar S G - - 2004
AIMS: To determine the mechanism for both the removal and inactivation of 18-h biofilms of a thermophilic Bacillus species that optimally grows at 55 degrees C on stainless steel. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cleaning strategies tested were based on biofilm biochemistry and physiology, and focused on the chemistry of the ...
Heo Nam Hyo - - 2004
The biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradabilities of food waste (FW), waste activated sludge (WAS), and the mixtures having the ratios of 10:90, 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10 (FW:WAS) on a volatile solid (VS) basis. The carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and the biodegradability of the ...
Lemieux Paul - - 2004
Post-consumer carpet represents a high volume, high energy content waste stream. As a fuel for co-firing in cement kilns, waste carpet, like waste tires, has potential advantages. Technological challenges to be addressed include assessing potential emissions, in particular NO emissions (from nylon fiber carpets), and optimizing the carpet feed system. ...
Torrijos M - - 2004
In France, small goat's cheese dairies using traditional craft methods often have no profitable solution for dealing with the whey byproduct of their cheesemaking activity: it is usually mixed with the cleaning wastewater which, in the absence of other possibilities, is then discharged directly into the environment. The volume of ...
Connors Priscilla L - - 2004
Two visual plate waste studies were conducted in 1-week phases over a 1-year period in an acute care hospital. A total of 383 trays were evaluated in the first phase and 467 in the second. Food items were ranked for consumption from a low (1) to high (6) score, with ...
Shehata S M - - 2004
Rural areas generate a large amount of plant and animal residues that can be recycled and utilized instead of relocation and/or burning. This will lead to increasing the benefits from agricultural sector in rural communities and ensuring a better environment. To increase the economic output and environmental benefits of recycling ...
Ivanov V N - - 2004
AIM: To study the microbiology of intensive, in-vessel biodegradation of a mixture of sewage sludge and vegetable food waste. METHODS AND RESULTS: The biodegradation was performed in a closed reactor with the addition of a starter culture of Bacillus thermoamylovorans SW25 under conditions of controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature ...
Aravindhan Rathinam - - 2004
The presence of chromium in the effluent is a major concern for the tanning industry. Currently, chemical precipitation methods are practiced for the removal of chromium from the effluent, but that leads to the formation of chrome-bearing solid wastes. The other membrane separation and ion exchange methods available are unfeasible ...
Sancho Pilar - - 2004
A description is offered of microbiological characterization of the biodegradable fractions present in food wastes so that those fractions can be transformed in such a way that they will fulfil the specifications involved in their use as raw materials in other production areas. In this way the wastes can be ...
Kobayashi Fumihisa - - 2004
To convert unutilized plant biomass into a useful energy source, methane production from bamboo was investigated using a steam explosion pretreatment. Methane could not be produced from raw bamboo but methane production was enhanced by steam explosion. The maximum amount of methane produced, i.e., about 215 ml, was obtained from ...
Srinivasa Reddy M - - 2003
Alang-Sosiya located on the Western Coast of Gulf of Cambay, is the largest ship recycling yard in the world. Every year on average 365 ships having a mean weight (2.10x10(6)+/-7.82x10(5) LDT) are scrapped. This industry generates a huge quantity of solid waste in the form of broken wood, rubber, insulation ...
Wang Jing-Yuan - - 2003
Anaerobic digestion of food waste can reduce its volume, generate fuel biogas containing methane, and produce solid organic residue that can be used as a soil conditioner or fertiliser. Anaerobic digestion is more promising food waste disposal method than incineration and landfilling. The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, enhanced with ...
Białowiec Andrzej - - 2003
The lysimeter experiment was conducted at the laboratory scale. Different water and leachate dilutions (0%, 25%, 50%, 100% of leachate) were supplied to the lysimeters to achieve the variation in pollutants concentration. The measure of leachate disposal effectiveness was the amount of evaporated leachate solution in evapotranspiration and transpiration. Analysis ...
Kim Hyun-Woo - - 2003
Food waste has been regarded as the main source of various environmental pollution in Korea due to the high volatile solids (VS) and moisture content caused by the features of dietary habits. The feasibility of food waste as a co-substrate in anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was investigated in mesophilic ...
Diggelman Carol - - 2003
Decision makers need sound analyses of economic and environmental impacts of options for managing household food waste. Food waste impacts public health (it rots, smells, and attracts rodents) and costs (it drives collection frequency). A life cycle inventory is used to quantify total materials, energy, costs and environmental flows for ...
Koteja Paweł - - 2003
Under ad libitum conditions, laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) fragment considerable amounts of pelleted food and leave it scattered in their cages. The proportion of food thus wasted (in relation to food eaten) varies remarkably among individuals, from 2% to 40%, but is highly consistent in consecutive trials, even when ...
Ndegwa Pius M - - 2003
Previous studies on solids/liquid (S-L) separation for odor control from swine manure indicated that the practice might not technically be feasible because of the complexity of removing the fine particles, which are usually the major source of the odor problems. This study coupled S-L separation by sedimentation with an aeration ...
Ebert J - - 2003
Thermal treatment of plastics flame retarded with brominated compounds often lead to the formation of PBDD/F, especially if polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used. By the presence of antimony(III) oxide, water and some other metals, the amounts of PBDD/F increase. Even during the production and recycling processes of plastics, PBDD/F can ...
Rostami Hossein - - 2003
The United States generates 110 million t of coal ash annually. Approximately 70 million t of this coal ash is fly ash, of which 27% is recycled and the remaining 73% is landfilled. Disposal of such a huge quantity of ash poses a significant environmental problem. A new cementitious material ...
Lin S H - - 2003
Phenolic wastewater treatment in a new ozone reactor was investigated. The reactor was designed in such a fashion that gas induction was created in the reactor headspace by the high-speed action of an impeller turbine inside a draft tube to maximize the ozone utilization. Another important feature of the present ...
Huang Ying - - 2003
The organic contaminants in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, including chlorinated aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, have high toxicity and a potential negative impact on the environment. An effective and low energy consumption technique to remove the organic contaminants from MSWI fly ash is required urgently. Organic ...
Van Dyke S - - 2003
Aerated lagoons are widely used throughout the state of Iowa, USA by small communities, due to their relatively low costs and maintenance requirements. Although aerated lagoons were not initially designed for ammonia removal many of these facilities have been assigned effluent ammonia limits in recent years Since widespread monitoring began, ...
Hatanaka Takeshi - - 2003
Combustion experiments in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor were conducted to elucidate the effects of copper chloride as a catalyst on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) formation in municipal waste incineration. We used model wastes with and without copper chloride (CuCl(2) x 2H(2)O), both of which contained polyvinyl chloride as a chlorine source. ...
Emery Andrew D - - 2003
Waste is never consistent. Different areas use different materials, which give rise to waste streams that can vary widely in composition. With the increasing pressure on landfill operators and local governments over the amount and type of waste going to landfill, moves have to be taken to reduce, divert and ...
Maes André - - 2003
A sorbent (Organosorb) is used in the wastewater purification from organic contaminants, here simulated by tetradecane. A short hydrodynamic treatment in a rather intense hydrodynamic field (G>10(3)) (called ultraflocculation) is applied to the sorbent suspension to which a flocculant is added. The efficiency of removal of the sorbent is studied. ...
Vinnerås Björn - - 2003
When using toilets where the urine and faeces are collected separately for reuse as nutrients in agriculture, the collected matter should be disinfected. One way to do this is by thermal composting. Composting of different material mixes was investigated in a laboratory-scale experiment. This showed that the best mixture for ...
Körbahti Bahadir K - - 2003
The electrochemical treatment of phenolic wastewater in a continuous tubular reactor, constructed from a stainless steel tube with a cylindrical carbon anode at the centre, was investigated in this study, being first in literature. The effects of residence time on phenol removal was studied at 25 degrees C, 120 g ...
Marshall Brian D - - 2003
Low-temperature calcite and opal record the past seepage of water into open fractures and lithophysal cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a proposed high-level radioactive waste repository. Systematic measurements of calcite and opal coatings in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel at the proposed repository ...
Mangialardi T - - 2003
The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of a combined washing-immobilisation process as a means of optimising the disposal of fly ash resulting from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in cementitious matrices. Two different types of Italian MSWI fly ash and an ordinary Portland cement (ASTM Type ...
Jochelson Karen - - 2003
The NHS needs to explore alternative approaches to food procurement in the interests of good nutrition and waste reduction. Other European countries have interpreted EU regulations on public sector procurement in ways which allow them to buy local produce. Many trusts are unsure about their powers to implement changes in ...
Nakhla George - - 2003
The impact of three process parameters, i.e. ground water velocity, oxygen-to-BTX mass ratio, and benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) concentrations on first-order biodegradation kinetics in a pilot-scale in situ bioremediation system was assessed. Generally, first-order biodegradation coefficients decreased with ground water velocity, and increased with hydrogen peroxide dose and BTX ...
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