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Results 401 - 450 of 620
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Lelley J I - - 1999
According to the stand of the modern applied mycological research the most commonly used term "edible mushroom" does not express all significant aspects large fungi can be used for. Additionally to bioconversion for food and animal feed production there are at least three other fields where large fungi may also ...
MehedinĊ£i R - - 2004
Due to their microphage capacity, two-valve shells have great biologic importance: they clean the environment of harmful microorganisms and decaying organic compounds which result in water purification, water filtering by means of adaptive structures of digestive system and, indirectly, by those of respiratory, circulatory and excretive system is of major ...
Thompson L U - - 1998
Mammalian lignans are produced from plant precursors such as secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) and matairesinol via the action of bacteria in the human or animal colon. While precursors are found in many plant foods, flaxseed is the richest source of SDG and was therefore used as a model to determine the ...
Economides P - - 1998
A control programme directed against Echinococcus granulosus was introduced into the Republic of Cyprus in 1971. In 1974, this was restricted to the areas controlled by the government of the island. The force used in the 'attack' phase included a major dog control programme. This and other measures led to ...
Chamberlain P L - - 1998
Xylazine is commonly used in veterinary medicine as a tranquillizer or adjunct to surgical anaesthesia. Although its use is approved in companion animals and certain species of deer, xylazine remains unapproved for use in food-producing animals in the United States. This paper reviews existing toxicological and residue chemistry information on ...
Agarwal R K - - 1998
Aeromonas spp. possess a number of virulence properties which are considered responsible for intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in human beings and also for a wide variety of infections in animals. The paper discusses current status of colonization and toxic factors of Aeromonas spp., especially in relation to food and biochemical ...
Fung K Y - - 1998
Transgenic mouse assays have provided an unprecedented opportunity to study mutagenesis in diverse rodent tissues. In this article data from MutaMouse mutagenicity assays based on the Escherichia coli gene lacZ were analyzed systematically using liver and bone marrow as potential target tissues. Sources of variation, including plates (within packaging reactions), ...
Godon K A - - 1998
This article presents a brief overview of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) using examples of diseases that provide evidence supporting oral transmission of the agent. Agent theories are described briefly in general terms. Scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), chronic wasting disease, and transmissible mink encephalopathy are discussed to improve disease recognition ...
Headrick M L - - 1998
Microbial pathogens may be transmitted to humans via food animals and food animal products. A quick reference table is presented to provide easy access to food safety information related to the major food animal product areas. Included in the table are the pathogens, mode of transmission, public health impact, and ...
Tollefson L - - 1998
Treatment of food-producing animals with antimicrobial agents that are important in human therapy may present a public health risk by the transfer of resistant zoonotic pathogens from animals to humans. Resistant bacteria can diminish the effectiveness of antibiotics and demand the use of more expensive or less safe alternatives. In ...
Kuiper H A - - 1998
The use of veterinary medicinal products within the European Community is governed by a series of directives and regulations that describe the requirements for safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. Veterinary therapeutic use of beta-agonists has only been approved in the case of clenbuterol for bronchodilatation in horses and ...
Sancho E - - 1998
This study was undertaken to determine the bioconcentration-elimination process of fenitrothion in the liver of the european eel (Anguilla anguilla). The animals were exposed to two sublethal fenitrothion concentrations corresponding to 1/5 and 1/10 of LC50 96-h in a flow-through test system. Uptake kinetics were determined from liver burdens measured ...
Pyza E - - 1997
Hsp70, so-called stress proteins, were studied in the centipede Lithobius mutabilis when exposed in laboratory tests to different concentrations of the insecticide dimethoate (DMT; 0, 0.012, 0.111 mg kg-1 dwt), the detergent linear alkilobenzene sulfonate (LAS; 0, 16, 80, 400, 2000, 10,000 mg kg-1 dwt), and copper (Cu; 0, 56, ...
Rothschild M A - - 1997
During an initial investigation, postmortem scavenging by pets (dogs, cats, etc.), which sometimes occurs, may sometimes lead to the suspicion that a crime has been committed. In most cases however, the death was due to natural causes. The time of the onset of postmortem scavenging by animals can often not ...
Haapapuro E R - - 1997
Foodborne illness remains a common and serious problem, despite efforts to improve slaughterhouse inspection and food preparation practices. A potential contributor to this problem that has heretofore escaped serious public health scrutiny is the feeding of animal excrement to livestock, a common practice in some parts of the United States. ...
Tollefson L - - 1997
Recent statutory changes involving animal drugs are expected to facilitate the therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feeds in the United States of America. The use of antibiotics in animal feeds is controversial due to the potential development of resistant bacterial pathogens in food-producing animals which are exposed to the ...
Ahl A S - - 1997
Food safety related to the consumption of animal-derived protein encompasses a wide variety of production and processing procedures which begins with the farm and inputs to the animals on the farm (e.g. feed and water) and includes the environment in which animals are reared. Hazards may be physical, artificial or ...
Murray S - - 1997
An adult Celebes ape (Macaca nigra) was presented for a routine yearly evaluation. Abdominal radiographs revealed four radiodense metallic foreign objects resembling coins within the gastrointestinal tract. Hematologic abnormalities included a mild nonregenerative anemia and a mild leukocytosis, and the biochemical profile reflected renal dysfunction. Serum zinc levels were elevated. ...
Kirst H A - - 1997
Several 14- and 16-membered-ring macrolide antibiotics have acquired important roles in the modern production of food animals. Macrolide antibiotics exhibit many similar antimicrobial properties whether used in veterinary or human medicine. In addition to their direct inhibitory action on micro-organisms, macrolides exert a variety of subinhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) effects that ...
Raubenheimer D - - 1997
We present and apply to data for insects, chickens and rats a conceptual and experimental framework for studying nutrition as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. The framework enables the unification within a single geometrical model of several nutritionally relevant measures, including: the optimal balance and amounts of nutrients required by an animal ...
Motta P - - 1997
This study tests the hypothesis that preparatory, expansive, compressive and recovery phases of biting behavior known for aquatically feeding anamniotes are conserved among extant elasmobranch fishes. The feeding mechanism of the lemon shark Negaprionbrevirostris is examined by anatomical dissection, electromyography and high-speed video analysis. Three types of feeding events are ...
Givens D I - - 1997
The current application and future potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the evaluation of foods for domesticated animals and humans is enormous. Where used, NIR spectroscopy has revolutionized the analysis and nutritional evaluation of animal feeds and human foods by providing a rapid means of examination. The availability of ...
Schrama J W - - 1996
Conditions (total complex of stressors) during the transport of animals vary strongly between and within transports. Adverse climatic conditions are stressors that animals have to face during transport. The thermoregulation of animals id discussed with respect to threshold values for optimal climatic conditions. These thermal thresholds depend on animal related ...
Loaharanu P - - 1996
A number of emerging pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in food, the wide publicity of outbreaks of foodborne diseases and the increasing number of immuno-compromised population have resulted in a need to develop proper strategies and technologies to protect health of consumers. Regulations in most countries which are promulgated to ensure ...
Sonenshine D E - - 1996
A self-medicating applicator for killing ticks on deer and domestic ungulates by passive transfer of acaricides during feeding is described. The applicator consists of a barrel divided into a food bin (above) and a sealed self-contained acaricide reservoir (below) with a vertical, centrally-located ceramic column that extends from the reservoir ...
Kotrschal K - - 1996
The taste-like system of solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) has almost eluded scientific attention. This is particularly remarkable, since recent surveys have revealed that this system of epidermal cells is widespread and abundant among the anamniotic aquatic vertebrates. In the rocklings (Gadidae, Teleostei), high densities of SCCs occur at a specialized ...
Cenko D D Project Inform, HIV Treatment Hotline, San Francisco, - - 1996
Badiani A - - 1996
Groups of male Wistar rats lived in cages capable of monitoring feeding and drinking continuously at 0.1-s intervals, 24 h per day. Intact animals were subjected to 20 min of restraint stress or to brief handling (Brief Pick-Up), daily or every third day, 6 h after the beginning of the ...
Hernández M - - 1996
Animal foods in general are considered to be foods with high protein qualities, although their qualities are not always similar because of differences in essential amino acids. The purpose of this study was to compare the protein quality of different animal foods and of their mixtures with vegetable foods, mainly ...
Prelusky D B - - 1996
The presence of mycotoxins in grains and feedstuffs causes not only animal health problems, but also a valid concern about the transmission of potentially toxic residues into animal-derived products intended for human consumption. In a series of studies at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, we investigated the biological fate of fumonisin ...
Shore R F - - 1996
In Britain, polecats Mustela putorius hunt around farm buildings, especially in winter, and, as a result, may be secondarily exposed to rodenticides by eating contaminated prey. This paper reports the first survey of second-generation rodenticides in polecats. Twenty-nine adult polecats which had been killed either accidentally on roads (24) and ...
Schaub H - - 1995
Dominant animals often can suppress the competitive behavior of subordinates by overt aggression or by their mere presence. This experiment on pairs of long-tailed macaque females explored whether this effect of dominant animals is influenced by interindividual distance. A dominant and a subordinate, but stronger, animal could compete for food ...
Matsumura H - - 1995
A novel apparatus is described for simultaneous performance of multi-channel infusions/body-fluid collections and multichannel electrical recordings/stimulations in a freely behaving animals. This apparatus consists of a cylindrical cage and other devices described below. Electrical contacts are achieved via a slip-ring commutator. A rotation detector detects the turning of the animal ...
Flanagan E M - - 1995
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune, animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS) in which demyelination and paralysis are evident. Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a neurotoxin and endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist formed from tryptophan. The role of neurotoxins in general and QUIN in particular in EAE or MS is unknown. ...
Wittenberg J B - - 1995
Hydrogen sulfide of geochemical origin, mixing at oceanic hydrothermal vents with oxygen from oceanic seawater, supports dense populations of chemoautrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Those animals, the vestimentiferan worm Riftia pachyptila, certain bivalve molluscs, and the recently discovered Pacific gastropod Alviniconcha hessleri, that interiorize the bacteria as intracellular symbionts dominate the vent ...
Morovat A - - 1995
Thyroid hormones have been implicated in the regulation of nuclear 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3) receptor binding capacity (Bmax) but, despite numerous in vivo and in vitro studies, there is considerable controversy regarding their exact role. Since changes in thyroid status alter energy balance and hence may influence T3 receptor numbers, the effects ...
Valkenburgh B V - - 1995
Community structure, stability and change can be observed in the fossil record over timescales that far exceed what is possible in the present. Recent quantitative studies on ecological structure withion ancient guilds of various vertebrate predators, inlcuding birds, mammals and reptiles, have revealed a common pattern of iterative replacement of ...
Gillis G - - 1995
Despite numerous studies of food transport in terrestrial vertebrates, little is known about this aspect of the feeding repertoire in aquatic vertebrates. Previous work had predicted that the kinematics of aquatic prey capture by suction feeding should be similar to those of prey transport. However, recent analyses of aquatic prey ...
Manteca X - - 1994
This paper shows that the study of animal behaviour is a valuable aid to the improvement of the management of grazing livestock under extensive conditions. The food available to grazing animals in developing countries, and particularly in the dry season in the tropics, is often of very low quality and, ...
- - 1994
The concerns of this paper may be summarised as follows: (a) Animal identification--Much work remains to be done, if a Community system of identification of all food animals, which is both clear and certain, is to be put in place and operated effectively. (b) Certification--The ball is in the Commission's ...
Murray C J - - 1994
This report summarises the range of Salmonella serovars and phage types found in humans in Australia during the years 1987 to 1992 inclusive, and compares them with serovars from food animals and raw meats for the same period. It also compares the major serovars found from different animal sources with ...
Conrad L - - 1994
Wild-animal attacks are almost an anachronism in our day and age. They remind us that humans can still be food or prey. Cougar attacks, though rare, produce significant trauma. Characteristic patterns of injury and wound infection should be appropriately identified and treated. As we protect wild-animal species and acknowledge their ...
Ekman T - - 1994
A questionnaire concerning the diagnosis and treatment of bovine mastitis was sent to all 350 Swedish food animal practitioners. 287 (82%) of the questionnaires were returned. One of the main aims was to establish if Swedish food animal practitioners used a common therapeutic regime that could be used as a ...
Wheeler R M - - 1994
The article in this issue by Gitelson and Okladnikov provides a valuable summary of some of the work conducted at the Bios-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia. As the title suggests, the focus is on humans and their role in a CELSS biosphere. I am aware of several translated reports and ...
Boyadjiev N - - 1994
In order to study the effect of long-term use of specific food formulas with different compositions on the aerobic adaptation of body to submaximal exercise 16 white Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. Group A animals were fed a mixture of 76% of standard food and 24% ...
Hove K - - 1993
A summary is given of the range and effectiveness of different available countermeasures which can reduce the radiation dose arising from the radioactive contamination of food products from animals. The choice of which countermeasure is suitable for each particular situation will depend on many factors. Consideration should be given not ...
Jones B E - - 1993
Examples are given of general management methods that will reduce the contamination of domestic food producing animals. Such methods will decrease the radiation exposure of the animal which could be of importance for its health and long-term production of food but more importantly in the short term they will decrease ...
Jezierski T - - 1993
Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits by feeding them a 2% cholesterol diet (CHOL) during a 5-week period. Twelve rabbits were fed with increasing amounts of CHOL food until the ad libitum level was reached, whereas in 24 other rabbits the food was limited to the amount eaten by the lowest ...
Chiel H J - - 1993
Freely behaving Aplysia californica can learn that food is inedible. Animals were given access to seaweed tied into canvas and attached to a force transducer. Animals repeatedly found the stimulus, attempted to ingest it, and failed. The force transducer provided an objective record of the number of attempts made by ...
Huston K - - 1993
The heritability and diagnosis of congenital abnormalities in food animals have been reviewed from the viewpoint of practitioners, clinicians, and researchers. At least 632 putative mutant genes have been cataloged and listed according to the principal body system affected and mode of inheritance (see Tables 1 and 2). Implications of ...
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