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Eljarrat E - - 2002
As result of a study to control feedstuff, analyses were carried out to evaluate the contamination caused by PCDDs and PCDFs in different animal feed ingredients. Thirty two samples were selected, including ingredients of animal and mineral origin. For samples of mineral origin, some additives widely employed as binder and ...
Berschneider Helen M - - 2002
As pet owners become more conscious of their own diets and the impact it has on their health, they naturally become more interested in what their animal companions are eating and how that might be affecting their pet's health. Many are exploring alternatives to standard commercial pet foods, and some ...
Moreno-López J - - 2002
Outbreaks of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and food borne microbial infections, dioxin contaminated animal products, the presence of veterinary drug residues, microbial resistance to antibiotics, mycotoxins, agricultural and industrial chemicals, etc. are serious concerns for the food industry in many countries. Since the direct links between feed safety and safety ...
Raul Francis - - 2002
Food irradiation is acknowledged as a safe process to improve food quality by reducing microbial contamination. Information on the toxicological potential of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), radiolytic derivatives of triglycerides found exclusively in irradiated food, is scarce. Wistar rats received daily a solution of highly pure 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB) or 2-(tetradec-5-enyl)-cyclobutanone (2-tDeCB) at ...
Okulewicz A - - 2002
The biology of the ascarid nematodes has been discussed in the context of their important economic role in farm animals, pet animals and zoo animals with special attention to carnivores and primates. In farm animals, infection with the most common roundworm of horses (Parascaris equorum) and swine (Ascaris suum) depend ...
Logan Cheryl A - - 2002
In the nineteenth century, scientific materials in experimental physiology changed dramatically. In this context, phenomena that had been widely accepted were lost, sometimes to be reintroduced later as "discoveries." I describe the loss of the phenomenon of classical conditioning, later rediscovered by Ivan Pavlov. In 1896, Austrian physiologist Alois Kreidl ...
Brambilla Gianfranco - - 2002
In pigs, the genetic selection for lean, large muscle blocks and fast growth has been linked to an increased prevalence of metabolic diseases such as porcine stress syndrome and mulberry heart disease. These diseases are associated with cardiovascular inadequacy, which may lead to oxidative stress. In the present study, reactive ...
Kowal MaƂgorzata - - 2002
Food consumption was measured during the day (lights on) and the night (lights off) and compared between one outbred and 9 inbred strains of mice (CBA/Kw, C3H, DBA2, KP, BALB/c, C57BL, B10.Amst, B10.BR, B10.BR Y-del) in age groups 30-60, 60-90, 90-120, and more than 120 days. Outbred mice and animals ...
Kraus-Epley Kimberly E - - 2002
Numerous animals use chemical cues within their environments to execute various behaviors. One of these behaviors is orientation to an odor source. Crayfish, in particular, can orient to food sources under a number of different conditions. It has not been determined, however, what kind of search strategy these animals employ ...
Tollefson Linda - - 2002
Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents is of growing concern to public health officials worldwide. The concern includes infections acquired in hospitals, community infections acquired in outpatient care settings, and resistant foodborne disease associated with drug use in food-producing animals. In the United States, a significant source of antimicrobial-resistant foodborne infections ...
Franklin A - - 2001
A guideline on the harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance programmes in animals and animal-derived foods has been developed by the Ad hoc Group of experts on antimicrobial resistance of the Office International des Epizooties. The objective of the guideline is to allow the generation of comparable data ...
Pozio E - - 2001
From 1998 to 2000, 184 animals (82 wolves, 29 red foxes, 55 mustelids, 5 raccoon dogs, and 13 domestic dogs), mainly shot by hunters in the Tvier and Smoliensk regions of northwest European Russia, were tested for Trichinella larvae; 98 animals (53.3%) were found to be positive. The highest prevalence ...
Hashimoto K - - 2001
Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant in urban areas. To clarify the effects of DE on the exacerbation of asthma, guinea pigs were exposed 12 h daily to 3 mg/m(3) DE or air for 8 wk with or without sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA). In the DE-exposed sensitized animals, ...
Blecha F - - 2001
The goal of immunomodulation in food-producing animals is to regulate immunity for the benefit of the animal and production efficiency. Immunomodulators are substances that exert this control and include cytokines, pharmaceuticals, microbial products, nutraceuticals, and traditional medicinal plants. Although treatment and prevention of infectious diseases are the most common reasons ...
Boyce S W - - 2001
Behavior patterns exhibited by the domestic ferret, although similar to its wild cousins, are distinctly domestic in nature. Domestic ferrets use many different types of behaviors, including body posturing, animations, vocalizations, and scent markings. These behaviors may differ somewhat from ferret to ferret. The domestic ferret is best understood by ...
Pettitt R G - - 2001
Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact ...
Cooper J J - - 2001
Addressing the behavioral priorities of captive animals and the development of practical, objective measures of the value of environmental resources is a principal objective of animal welfare science. In theory, consumer demand approaches derived from human microeconomics should provide valid measures of the value of environmental resources. In practice, however, ...
Caporale V - - 2001
Traceability of animals and animal products has become a priority for governments of the developed countries, due to consumer demand for comprehensive and integrated food safety policies. In addition to analysing the differences between traceback and traceability systems, the authors describe some applications of animal traceback systems and the principal ...
Webster A J - - 2001
This review addresses the scientific, ethical and economic factors that impact on the welfare of farm animals. Respect for animals within the food chain is considered within the context of an ethical matrix that affords respect according to the principles of wellbeing, autonomy and justice to consumers, farm animals, farmers ...
Anderson R C - - 2001
Approximately 80 head of yearling cattle grazing on 680 acres exhibited signs of Leucaena leucocephala toxicosis, which was confirmed in 3 animals by detection of 3-hydroxy-4 (IH)-pyridone, the metabolite of the poisonous principle mimosine, in their urine. The animals had grazed leucaena almost exclusively due to lack of alternative forage ...
Duan J - - 2001
An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect ciprofloxacin (CPFX) in food animal edible tissues. CPFX was converted by an active ester method into conjugates CPFX-bovine serum albumin (CPFX-BSA) and CPFX-human serum albumin (CPFX-HSA), which both allowed production of CPFX-specific rabbit antisera. In the ELISA, CPFX-HSA was ...
Roberts R M - - 2001
Reproductive studies on farm animals have been part of the underpinnings that have led to the ready availability of low cost, safe, and nutritious food in the developed world. They have also made a significant contribution to reproductive medicine. Yet at a time when world demand for food is increasing ...
Harris L D - - 2001
The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals states that both structural and social environments should be considered when addressing the husbandry needs of laboratory animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental enrichment strategies that could potentially enhance the well-being of rabbits. Male and female ...
Haney J - - 2001
Aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea was operantly conditioned so that the animals perform aerial respiration significantly less often. Using the standard training procedure (pond water made hypoxic by bubbling N2 through it) both food-deprived and fed animals learned and exhibited long-term memory (LTM). However, food-deprived animals exhibited neither learning nor ...
Lewin R A RA Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0202, USA. - - 2001
Whereas food has always received much attention in conversation, commerce, and the literature, the subject of feces has been comparatively neglected. To fill this lacuna, a small book on comparative coprology was recently published (Lewin 1999). The present article aims to supplement this book with a review of overlooked or ...
Post L O - - 2000
The availability of antidotes in veterinary medicine has been an issue for more than a decade. Antidotes are available for food animals through extralabel use, regulatory discretion, and compounding. There is little economic incentive for pharmaceutical companies to pursue approval of antidotes and other drug products that have a small ...
Frassetto L A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture, a major health problem in elderly persons, varies in incidence among the populations of different countries and is directly related to animal protein intake, a finding that suggests that bone integrity is compromised by endogenous acid production consequent to the metabolism of animal proteins. If that is ...
Horváth G - - 2000
The effects of alterations in regrouping, feeding and drinking practices were examined on a pig farm to improve animal welfare and productivity. Weaned at 35 days of age, 720 piglets were randomly assigned to 24 groups of 30 piglets in a factorial design with three factors. During the next 55 ...
Bisson A - - 2000
Only limited epidemiological information is available on the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, goats are important to the local economy and are also popular food animals. A high incidence of T. gondii infection in goats would have implications both for animal production and ...
Chan T T - - 2000
The objectives of this study were to determine 1) the time required for food and water consumption of late-gestation pregnant sheep to stabilize after a 6- to 7-h shipment by truck and 2) whether the duration of laboratory acclimation altered food and/or water consumption of pregnant sheep after fetal and ...
Kennedy D G - - 2000
The occurrence of violative residues of veterinary medicines and other, unauthorised, drugs in food of animal origin is an issue of popular concern within the European Union. Violations can occur as a result of improper use of a licensed product or through the illegal use of an unlicensed substance. However, ...
Kerscher R - - 2000
12-Methyltridecanal (MT) smelling tallowy, beef-like was formed from plasmalogens when beef was boiled. To clarify the origin of MT, its concentration was determined by a stable isotope dilution assay in bacteria and protozoa isolated from the rumen of bovine animals as well as in the plasma, erythrocytes, and other physiological ...
Sawin E R - - 2000
Caenorhabditis elegans modulates its locomotory rate in response to its food, bacteria, in two ways. First, well-fed wild-type animals move more slowly in the presence of bacteria than in the absence of bacteria. This basal slowing response is mediated by a dopamine-containing neural circuit that senses a mechanical attribute of ...
Stapley J - - 2000
We studied factors affecting the ability of common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) to regulate their intake of a dietary toxin, jensenone, extracted from Eucalyptus leaves. Increasing concentrations of jensenone in the diet led to a dose-dependent decrease in food intake best described as an exponential decay. Animals that had not ...
Carefoot T H - - 2000
We investigated the interaction of diet and accumulation of UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in body tissues and spawn of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela to determine if MAA accumulation reflects type and level of dietary intake. Food sources were the red algae Acanthophora spicifera, Centroceras clavulatum, and Laurencia sp., ...
Kimura K - - 2000
Male rhesus monkeys unfamiliar with each other were paired in a cage, and blood samples were collected before and a few hours after pair formation. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels in each blood sample were measured. Dominant-subordinate status was ascertained through two rank tests, the food competition test and ...
Howery LD - - 2000
We tested the hypothesis that cattle aided by visual cues would be more efficient than uncued animals in locating and consuming foods placed in either fixed or variable locations within a 0.64-ha experimental pasture. Eight yearling steers were randomly selected and trained to associate traffic barricades and traffic cones with ...
Tollefson L - - 2000
Resistance to antimicrobial drugs has compromised control of many bacterial pathogens. For foodborne pathogens, the most likely source of resistance is use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals. To control the human health impact from use of antimicrobials in animals, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently announced plans to ...
Hinton M H - - 2000
Animal feed or forage may be the source of a limited number of infections for farm animals that could lead to human illness. Likely organisms include Salmonella enterica, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spiralis and possibly the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The risk to human health from other infectious agents which ...
Johnston A M - - 2000
Foods of animal origin have an important role in a balanced diet and must be safe for human consumption. Equally important is the need for the food to be perceived as safe by the consumer. Safe food of animal origin must be free from animal pathogens that infect man and ...
Clement, Cinda;
King-Smith, Dick. Godhanger. Illustrated by Andrew Davidson. Crown, 1998. ISBN 0-514-80035-7. $18.99. 154 pp. A 4-6 FI Reviewed by Cinda Clement From three hundred yards above, Loftus the Raven introduces Godhanger Wood. As he circles to return to his cliff nest above the sea, Loftus hears a magpie’s warning call, ...
Speer B L - - 1999
Poultry species--chickens, ducks, geese--are becoming increasingly popular as pets. As such, requests for accurate diagnoses and treatment are being received by the veterinary community from the public. Unlike the food animal and production-oriented aspects of poultry medicine, success with these pet birds is contingent on preserving the human-pet bird bond, ...
Post L O - - 1999
Lack of commercially available antidotes for animals is an issue of significant concern to the American Board of Veterinary Toxicology. A few antidotes are available for food animals through extra-label use, regulatory discretion and compounding. However, regulatory restrictions arising from human food, safety concerns have limited the availability of food ...
Pedersen K B - - 1999
The international recognition of the 'stable to table' approach to food safety emphasises the need for appropriate and safe use of antibiotics in animal production. An appropriate use of antibiotics for food animals will preserve the long-term efficacy of existing antibiotics, support animal health and welfare and limit the risk ...
Harper D N DN School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 1999
Using a procedure to assess behavioral resistance to change, the effects of two drugs (haloperidol and clozapine) were compared to each other and to the effect of response-independent food delivered between multiple-schedule components. Using rats as subjects, responding in one component was maintained on a variable-interval 30-s schedule, whereas responding ...
Langley R - - 1999
Animal handlers may be harmed on the job due to injuries inflicted by animals; dangers related to the facility, work activities, and equipment; and weather extremes. Traumatic or venomous attacks by animals can result in fatality. Potentially hazardous features of the work environment include fumigation chambers, cage washers, slippery walking ...
Chen H - - 1999
The ultrastructure of the parathyroid gland in golden hamsters after long-term treatment with ethanol was studied. Male hamsters of experimental groups were given ethanol at the concentration of 7% for 3 and 5 months with food and water freely available. In the ethanol-treated hamsters, the Golgi complexes associated with many ...
Leighton J K - - 1999
Steroidal sex hormones and synthetic derivatives are used in the US to enhance growth in food-producing animals. The European Economic Community has banned use of these same substances, reportedly on the grounds of food safety. The US maintains that this ban was and is a disguised restriction on trade. The ...
Boczek-Funcke A - - 1999
Co-ordinate movements around the shoulder are essential during reaching movements. We performed a quantitative kinematic analysis of movements of the shoulder girdle: three-dimensional X-ray frames (time resolution 20 ms) were recorded during the target-reaching and food-taking paradigm in five cats either sitting (n = 4) or standing (n = 1) ...
Sischo W M - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To report the results of 3 surveys evaluating the extent that the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) is used by veterinarians, the profession's perception of the need for the program, barriers that prevent veterinarians from fully using the service, and the perceptions that animal production industry groups have ...
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