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Results 301 - 350 of 603
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Murphy Helen M - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory animal model of human shift work. Two methods of monitoring circadian rhythms in rats were employed: an activity wheel cage, where number of wheel revolutions (WR) were counted, and an internal radio transmitter, which recorded gross motor activity (GMA) and ...
Zafra Maria A - - 2003
The vagus nerve has been related to the short-term control of food intake. This involvement has previously been explored by examining the food intake of animals after recovery from a vagotomy or immediately after the intervention, among other methods. In the present work, a study was conducted on the impact ...
Brismar Bo Harald - - 2003
We quantitatively evaluated the morphological and biochemical effects of body mass and physical activity on spontaneously developing guinea pig osteoarthrosis (OA). 6-month-old male guinea pigs were allocated to 3 groups: controls (C) living under standard laboratory conditions with food ad libitum; mobilized animals (M) allowed unrestricted motion in large rooms ...
Spitze A R - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine the taurine content in a variety of animal feeds. There is very little information on the taurine content of ingredients used in home-prepared diets for dogs and cats, and foods fed to wild animals in captivity. This study reports the taurine content ...
Kauffman Alexander S - - 2003
Rodents living in the cold employ both behavioral and physiological mechanisms to achieve thermoregulation. We examined the impact of fur loss on behavioral thermoregulation in cold-challenged Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Intact female hamsters exposed to an ambient temperature (T(a)) of 5 degrees C increased their general locomotor activity by 50% ...
Matsui Kumi - - 2003
The previous study showed that the red coloration of the ventral skin of the Japanese newt Cynops pyrrhogaster was associated with the number of carotenoid vesicles and the content of carotenoid in the pigment cell of the skin. To elucidate the mechanism for the red coloration of the skin of ...
Manesh C - - 2003
Two naturally occurring isothiocyanates, Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) were investigated for their antioxidant and anti-tumour peroperties. Both AITC and PITC showed antioxidant and tumour reducing activities when administered intraperitoneally at a dosage of 25 microg/dose/animal for 5 consecutive days. The inhibition of PMA induced superoxide generation by ...
Kivaria F M - - 2003
The presence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Tanzania is a major obstacle to the development of the national livestock industry because of its adverse effects on livestock production and on trade of animals and animal products into lucrative export markets. FMD is endemic in Tanzania, the affected area is extensive ...
Joshi Durga Datt - - 2003
Meat is an important source of protein and a valuable commodity in resource-poor communities. In many developing countries, lack of appropriate slaughtering facilities and unsatisfactory slaughtering techniques are causing unnecessary losses of meat as well as invaluable by-products from animal carcasses. Slaughtering places are frequently contaminated and may not be ...
Chapman Mary Ann - - 2003
This study examined the effects of cued vs non-cued food delivery/consumption on extracellular glutamate and dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of food-deprived rats. Animals that always received a food pellet following a series of auditory tones showed a significant decrease in extracellular glutamate following food consumption, whereas animals that had ...
Clough H E - - 2003
Pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter spp. have been implicated in outbreaks of food poisoning in the UK and elsewhere. Domestic animals and wildlife are important reservoirs for both of these agents, and cross-contamination from faeces is believed to be responsible for many human outbreaks. Appropriate parameterisation of ...
Bügel Susanne - - 2003
Micronutrient deficiencies are a major problem throughout the world and hundreds of millions of the world's population are affected by micronutrient deficiency disorders. In Europe the prevalence of clinical micronutrient deficiency disorders is less than that in the Third World. However, marginal deficiency of some of the micronutrients might be ...
Fries R - - 2003
Pathogen prions are widely recognized as the causative agent in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, more research on the possible transmission mutes of this agent once it has reached the host is needed. There is evidence based on the anatomy and physiology of the autonomous ...
Sellier P - - 2003
The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and the discovery of the central role played by meat-and-bone meal (MBM) as the vehicle of infection resulted, from the late 1980s onwards, in the implementation of new regulations on the incorporation of animal proteins, and then of most fats of animal origin, ...
Badiola J J - - 2003
The finding of brain tissue fragments in blood and lungs of cattle stunned in slaughterhouses has raised concerns about food safety in the context of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic. In the present study, the possible occurrence of brain tissue emboli in animals killed in traditional Spanish bullfighting was investigated. ...
Duffy G - - 2003
Animal wastes and effluents from farming operations, including manures and slurries, are frequently applied as fertilizer to land used for crop or silage production and cattle grazing. It is well documented that potentially harmful pathogens including verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are shed in animal faeces and there is growing concern ...
Attias Joseph - - 2003
This study aimed to explore the effects of increased Mg2+ intake on the activity of the outer hair cells as manifested in Click and Distortion Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (CEOAEs; DPOAEs) in 25 animals. Thirteen animals were fed with high Mg2+ intake (39 mmol Mg2+/l in drinking water) and 12 without ...
Bicudo J R - - 2003
There has been an increasing concern about the effects of pathogens that are present in animal manure on humanand animal health. In recent years, outbreaks of food-borne diseases associated with the consumption of animal products havereceived much attention from the media in North America and Europe, leading to increased consumer ...
Graham H - - 2003
The global livestock population is estimated to be close to 4 billion animals, and to produce around 500 million tons of manure annually (Baidoo, 2003). This is expected to increase in the future with the projected greater demand for meat for human consumption. The problem of manure disposal is exacerbated ...
Faber D C - - 2003
Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of ...
Schulz Angela - - 2002
An elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a risk factor for the development of chronic nephropathy and for cardiovascular mortality. The Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rat represents a genetic model that develops spontaneously mild hypertension and a 142-fold increased UAE compared with normal Lewis rats at 14 wk of age. ...
Dillinger S C G - - 2002
Female Ixodes ricinus (ticks) are able to consume several times as much as their own weight in food. The body volume increases without the animal moulting. Special structural and material characteristics of the cuticular exoskeleton render this phenomenon possible. Only the alloscutum, which has a very pronounced lamellar structure, extends. ...
Mahdi N K - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among groups at risk (animal handlers) and among domestic animals. DESIGN: Comparative study with zoonotic aspect. METHOD: Stool samples were collected from 60 animal handlers, 175 non-animal handlers and 198 domestic animals (60 cows, 45 sheep, 45 goats, 25 horses and 23 camels). ...
Stefano George B - - 2002
The beneficial effect of plant foods on human health is unmistakable. Time and time again, studies have found foods of plant origin to reduce the risk of most major chronic illnesses suffered by the human population. Possible mechanisms for the preventative effects of these foods are discussed. Each of the ...
Crump John A - - 2002
Animal feed is at the beginning of the food safety chain in the "farm-to-fork" model. The emergence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has raised awareness of the importance of contaminated animal feed, but less attention has been paid to the role of bacterial contamination of animal feed in human foodborne illness. ...
Milgram N W - - 2002
Advanced age is accompanied by cognitive decline indicative of central nervous system dysfunction. One possibly critical causal factor is oxidative stress. Accordingly, we studied the effects of dietary antioxidants and age in a canine model of aging that parallels the key features of cognitive decline and neuropathology in humans. Old ...
Solomons N W - - 2002
The growth, development and health conditions for children living under deprived conditions in developing countries are so adverse that immediate public health measures to reduce morbidity and improve nutrition are urgently needed. Preventing and shortening the course of diarrhoeal episodes, eliminating protozoal colonization, and balancing intestinal microflora would all contribute ...
Lathers Claire M - - 2002
Risk assessment is the method of systematically identifying and assessing factors that influence the probability and consequences of a negative event occurring. One responsibility of veterinary medicine is to protect animal and human health. Food animal production uses antibiotics to enhance production. Regulators evaluate new production technology to ensure animal ...
Scherkenbeck Jurgen - - 2002
Parasitic nematodes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in man and also cause widespread loss of food production by infection of livestock. A milestone in the chemotherapy of nematode infections, especially in animals, was the discovery of the avermectins and milbemycins during the 1970s. Since the discovery of ...
Colby Michelle M - - 2002
Although geographic information systems (GIS) have been used in many disciplines, the available technology in planning and decision support has only recently begun to be used in intensive animal production, in areas such as confined animal feeding operations. GIS-based planning and decision support systems have the potential to enhance many ...
Yearsley Jonathan - - 2002
Food intake carries many potential risks which may impair an animal's reproductive success not only in the current breeding cycle, but also for the rest of its lifetime. We examine the lifetime trade-off between the costs and benefits of food intake by presenting a simple animal foraging model, where each ...
Stahl Christine E - - 2002
We investigated in the present study whether systemic injections of prepro-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone 178-199 (PPTRH 178-199) in postnatal 3-days old rat pups can provide ameliorative effects in a model of anxiety-separation disorder. The pups were individually separated from their mother and placed in a novel environment. PPTRH 178-199-treated animals started exploring the ...
Eljarrat E - - 2002
As result of a study to control feedstuff, analyses were carried out to evaluate the contamination caused by PCDDs and PCDFs in different animal feed ingredients. Thirty two samples were selected, including ingredients of animal and mineral origin. For samples of mineral origin, some additives widely employed as binder and ...
Berschneider Helen M - - 2002
As pet owners become more conscious of their own diets and the impact it has on their health, they naturally become more interested in what their animal companions are eating and how that might be affecting their pet's health. Many are exploring alternatives to standard commercial pet foods, and some ...
Moreno-López J - - 2002
Outbreaks of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and food borne microbial infections, dioxin contaminated animal products, the presence of veterinary drug residues, microbial resistance to antibiotics, mycotoxins, agricultural and industrial chemicals, etc. are serious concerns for the food industry in many countries. Since the direct links between feed safety and safety ...
Raul Francis - - 2002
Food irradiation is acknowledged as a safe process to improve food quality by reducing microbial contamination. Information on the toxicological potential of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), radiolytic derivatives of triglycerides found exclusively in irradiated food, is scarce. Wistar rats received daily a solution of highly pure 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB) or 2-(tetradec-5-enyl)-cyclobutanone (2-tDeCB) at ...
Okulewicz A - - 2002
The biology of the ascarid nematodes has been discussed in the context of their important economic role in farm animals, pet animals and zoo animals with special attention to carnivores and primates. In farm animals, infection with the most common roundworm of horses (Parascaris equorum) and swine (Ascaris suum) depend ...
Logan Cheryl A - - 2002
In the nineteenth century, scientific materials in experimental physiology changed dramatically. In this context, phenomena that had been widely accepted were lost, sometimes to be reintroduced later as "discoveries." I describe the loss of the phenomenon of classical conditioning, later rediscovered by Ivan Pavlov. In 1896, Austrian physiologist Alois Kreidl ...
Brambilla Gianfranco - - 2002
In pigs, the genetic selection for lean, large muscle blocks and fast growth has been linked to an increased prevalence of metabolic diseases such as porcine stress syndrome and mulberry heart disease. These diseases are associated with cardiovascular inadequacy, which may lead to oxidative stress. In the present study, reactive ...
Kowal MaƂgorzata - - 2002
Food consumption was measured during the day (lights on) and the night (lights off) and compared between one outbred and 9 inbred strains of mice (CBA/Kw, C3H, DBA2, KP, BALB/c, C57BL, B10.Amst, B10.BR, B10.BR Y-del) in age groups 30-60, 60-90, 90-120, and more than 120 days. Outbred mice and animals ...
Kraus-Epley Kimberly E - - 2002
Numerous animals use chemical cues within their environments to execute various behaviors. One of these behaviors is orientation to an odor source. Crayfish, in particular, can orient to food sources under a number of different conditions. It has not been determined, however, what kind of search strategy these animals employ ...
Tollefson Linda - - 2002
Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents is of growing concern to public health officials worldwide. The concern includes infections acquired in hospitals, community infections acquired in outpatient care settings, and resistant foodborne disease associated with drug use in food-producing animals. In the United States, a significant source of antimicrobial-resistant foodborne infections ...
Franklin A - - 2001
A guideline on the harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance programmes in animals and animal-derived foods has been developed by the Ad hoc Group of experts on antimicrobial resistance of the Office International des Epizooties. The objective of the guideline is to allow the generation of comparable data ...
Pozio E - - 2001
From 1998 to 2000, 184 animals (82 wolves, 29 red foxes, 55 mustelids, 5 raccoon dogs, and 13 domestic dogs), mainly shot by hunters in the Tvier and Smoliensk regions of northwest European Russia, were tested for Trichinella larvae; 98 animals (53.3%) were found to be positive. The highest prevalence ...
Hashimoto K - - 2001
Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant in urban areas. To clarify the effects of DE on the exacerbation of asthma, guinea pigs were exposed 12 h daily to 3 mg/m(3) DE or air for 8 wk with or without sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA). In the DE-exposed sensitized animals, ...
Blecha F - - 2001
The goal of immunomodulation in food-producing animals is to regulate immunity for the benefit of the animal and production efficiency. Immunomodulators are substances that exert this control and include cytokines, pharmaceuticals, microbial products, nutraceuticals, and traditional medicinal plants. Although treatment and prevention of infectious diseases are the most common reasons ...
Boyce S W - - 2001
Behavior patterns exhibited by the domestic ferret, although similar to its wild cousins, are distinctly domestic in nature. Domestic ferrets use many different types of behaviors, including body posturing, animations, vocalizations, and scent markings. These behaviors may differ somewhat from ferret to ferret. The domestic ferret is best understood by ...
Pettitt R G - - 2001
Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact ...
Cooper J J - - 2001
Addressing the behavioral priorities of captive animals and the development of practical, objective measures of the value of environmental resources is a principal objective of animal welfare science. In theory, consumer demand approaches derived from human microeconomics should provide valid measures of the value of environmental resources. In practice, however, ...
Caporale V - - 2001
Traceability of animals and animal products has become a priority for governments of the developed countries, due to consumer demand for comprehensive and integrated food safety policies. In addition to analysing the differences between traceback and traceability systems, the authors describe some applications of animal traceback systems and the principal ...
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