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Burkepile Deron E - - 2006
Microbes are known to affect ecosystems and communities as decomposers, pathogens, and mutualists. However, they also may function as classic consumers and competitors with animals if they chemically deter larger consumers from using rich food-falls such as carrion, fruits, and seeds that can represent critical windfalls to both microbes and ...
Beutin L - - 2006
Shiga toxin (Stx) [Verotoxin (VT)]-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also called enterohaemorrhagic E. coli or VTEC are emerging zoonotic agents and became most important as human pathogens, particularly in the industrialized countries. Production of cytotoxins, also called Stx or VT, is the major pathogenicity determinant of STEC, which can cause life-threatening ...
Chang Andy J - - 2006
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has complex, naturally variable behavioral responses to environmental oxygen, food, and other animals. C. elegans detects oxygen through soluble guanylate cyclase homologs (sGCs) and responds to it differently depending on the activity of the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1: npr-1(lf) and naturally isolated npr-1(215F) animals avoid high oxygen ...
Serratosa J - - 2006
The authors present an overview of the presence of residues from veterinary medicinal products, growth-promoting agents and performance enhancers in food-producing animals, as a result of administering these substances--legally or illegally--on farms. The current situation in the European Union (EU) is represented by an analysis of the 2004 results from ...
- - 2006
Food safety is now universally recognised as a public health priority. It requires a global approach, from production to consumption. This article addresses the first stage of the food chain and the steps farmers can take to optimise the food safety control of products of animal origin. This inevitably means ...
Ammendrup S - - 2006
Traceability is a tool to help countries meet their objectives of controlling, preventing and eradicating animal diseases. This article sets out the required steps in a traceability system. Before designing a system of traceability, one must identify the different characteristics that need to be traced throughout the various steps in ...
Southern K J - - 2006
Many factors contribute to the production of safe foods of animal origin. Initiatives for an integrated approach to food safety recognise the importance of optimising transportation conditions to ensure on-farm interventions are preserved. Physical, microbial, and environmental hazards during the transportation process may adversely affect the safety and quality of ...
Sørensen J T - - 2006
The production of food from animal origin is relatively stable in the industrialised world. However, animal production systems are changing dramatically with respect to location, herd size and specialisation. Increased pressure from a critical public is moving animal-based production towards systems such as organic production and loose-housing systems which allow ...
L Plym Forshell - - 2006
Salmonellosis is the most common food-borne bacterial disease in the world. Salmonella is a significant pathogen for food-producing animals and these animals are the primary source of salmonellosis. It is estimated that herd prevalence varies between 0% and 90%, depending on the animal species and region. The pathogen is spread ...
Gajadhar A A - - 2006
Zoonotic parasites found in food animals include a wide variety of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes. Many of these parasites are emerging or already occur globally due to changes in farming practices and the increased movement of animals, food, and people. Some of the emerging or ubiquitous parasites, including Toxoplasma, ...
Hicks Amy M - - 2006
Glycerophospholipids (GPL) in animal tissues are composed of a large array of molecular species that mainly differ in the fatty acyl composition. In order to further understand the roles of GPL at the molecular level, it is necessary to have comprehensive, accurate accounts of the molecular makeup for these molecules ...
Mounier L - - 2006
Animals are subjected to various events that cause physical exhaustion and psychological stress during transfer to slaughter. This can lead to defective meat quality. Some animals may be better able to withstand the stress of transfer, depending on their previous experience of transport and on their finishing conditions (mixing, farmers' ...
Amass Sandra F - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of using a disinfectant mat filled with a peroxygen compound to prevent mechanical transmission of bacteria via contaminated footwear between the food animal ward and common breezeway of a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN: Observational study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Shoe soles of individuals entering and exiting from ...
Ioannides Costas - - 2006
A number of enzyme systems participate in the metabolism of chemicals, but undoubtedly the most important are the cytochromes P450 (CYP). It is a versatile enzyme system, capable of metabolising structurally diverse chemicals. To achieve this broad substrate specificity it exists as a superfamily of enzymes, each family being characterised ...
Grave Kari - - 2006
Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were phased out in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1998-1999, 1995 and 1986, respectively. The annual usage of therapeutic antimicrobials in animals in Denmark almost doubled during the period when AGPs were phased out (1988-1999) and in the subsequent 2 years. The increase was mainly due ...
Levine Allen S - - 2006
Animal models allow us to investigate the basic mechanisms by which food intake is regulated. There are a host of neuroregulators distributed across a complex central network that control eating behavior. The opioid peptides represent one family of such regulators that have been studied extensively in animals. Using anatomical, biochemical ...
Seidel Björn - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Due to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), specified risk material (SRM) as well as animal meat and bone meal (MBM) are banned from the food and feed chain because of a possible infection with pathogenic prions (PrP(Sc)). Nowadays, prions are widely accepted to be responsible for TSE(transmissible spongiform encephalopathies)-caused ...
Barrenetxe J - - 2006
Research on cancer and other conditions has shown flavonoids and sphingolipids to be food components capable of exerting chemoprotective action. Nevertheless, little is known about their effects on healthy individuals and their potential usefulness as therapeutic agents. The present study examined the possible action of a dietary flavonoid, quercetin, and ...
Mizoguchi Yasumoto - - 2006
The present study was undertaken to elucidate restraint effects of protecting jackets that are used to protect against biting the sites of percutaneous application in pregnant rabbits. Animals wore protecting jackets from gestational Day (GD) 0 to 19 (GD 0 group) or from GD 6 to 19 (GD 6 group). ...
Andrus David M - - 2006
This study examines the responses of 1,047 human-resources personnel who recruit veterinarians for positions in their organizations. Work conditions in the organization, lifestyle and time-management issues, job benefits, job expectations, supervisor relations, and the physical demands of veterinary work are studied. Comparisons are made between four different occupational areas: food ...
Morishita Teresa Y - - 2006
Concepts presented here were derived from breakout sessions constituted by the 90 attendees of the Veterinary Medical Education for Modern Food Systems symposium, held in Kansas City, Missouri, USA, in October 2005. The attendees were food-animal educators, veterinary faculty, college deans and administrators, and veterinarians employed in government, industry, and ...
Goodman Miriam B MB Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, School of Medicine-Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5345, USA. - - 2006
Wild C. elegans and other nematodes live in dirt and eat bacteria, relying on mechanoreceptor neurons (MRNs) to detect collisions with soil particles and other animals as well as forces generated by their own movement. MRNs may also help animals detect bacterial food sources. Hermaphrodites and males have 22 putative ...
Yan Ze-Yi - - 2006
Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a high-yielding, drought-resistant legume consumed as a food in Northern India and neighboring countries as well as in Ethiopia. Its development into an important food legume, however, has been hindered by the presence of the neurotoxin - beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in seeds which, if consumed ...
Martins Yolanda - - 2006
Previous research has demonstrated that individuals' beliefs about the disgusting properties of foods play a central role in predicting willingness to eat novel foods of either animal or non-animal origin (Martins & Pliner, in press). The present study aimed to identify what characteristics of foods make individuals perceive them as ...
DeVincent Stephen J - - 2006
The total quantity of use in companion animals is generally believed to be relatively small in comparison with antimicrobial use in food animals. Use in companion animals is principally for treatment, whereas the greater proportion of use in food animals is for prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion. Therefore, it is ...
Burkgren Thomas - - 2006
Food animal veterinarians practice in a variety of settings with considerable differences between the settings. Due to variability, aggregate data from surveillance of antimicrobial use is not very useful to practitioners unless correlated information is provided, such as the relative disease status, ages of animals, and purpose of use. Of ...
Bourhy H - - 2005
Rabies is still present in Europe in 2005. Its incidence in humans remains limited (fewer than 5 human cases per year) through the application of strict prophylactic measures (anti-rabies treatment) and by means of veterinary rabies control measures in the domesticated and wild animal populations. The main indigenous animal reservoirs ...
Martins Y - - 2005
Two studies, aimed at increasing our knowledge of the factors that contribute to acceptance of novel foods were conducted. In Study 1, male and female participants were presented with familiar and novel animal and nonanimal foods and were asked to rate these foods on a variety of measures including: beliefs ...
Willens Scott - - 2005
Anurans are important animal models for studying the effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination of the environment. Two-compartment Teflon flow-through diffusion cells can be used to study percutaneous absorption of xenobiotics across harvested skin. However, such an approach currently necessitates that skin be harvested just before experimentation, a requirement that calls ...
Givens D I - - 2005
Foods derived from animals are an important source of nutrients in the diet; for example, milk and meat together provide about 60 and 55% of the dietary intake of Ca and protein respectively in the UK. However, certain aspects of some animal-derived foods, particularly their fat and saturated fatty acid ...
Pompa G - - 2005
The risk related to the presence of residues in food of animal origin has to be carefully evaluated and it is important to distinguish between the residues of veterinary drugs and environmental contaminants. The first are easily monitored and only difficulty and occasionally exceed MRL concentrations, whereas the second ones ...
Brown K H - - 2005
In order to achieve real change, there must be a motivating force and all the stakeholders need to be involved. This is the premise of the animal welfare programme developed for the food retail, wholesale and chain restaurant industries in the United States of America (USA) by the Food Marketing ...
Hoogland Carolien T - - 2005
Current patterns of meat consumption are considered to be unsustainable. Sustainable development may require that consumers choose to eat smaller quantities of meat as well as meat that is produced in a more sensible way. A policy tool directed at consumer behaviour is that of enhancing consumer-oriented transparency of the ...
de Passillé A M - - 2005
Food safety, protection of the environment and animal welfare are three concerns consumers have about modern food production systems. Standards dealing with these three issues can be in conflict, and finding ways to reduce this conflict is essential as international standards governing animal welfare develop. These conflicts can be reduced ...
Kaneko Kazuyuki - - 2005
In order to clarify the breeding capability of male raccoons in Japan, the testes of raccoons, a nuisance animal, collected in Kanagawa Prefecture and Hokkaido were histologically inspected. Furthermore, testosterone concentrations in their blood were measured. The testosterone concentrations increased in winter and the diameter of seminiferous tubules and the ...
Kvasnicka Frantisek - - 2005
Food authenticity is a term which simply refers to whether the food purchased by the consumer matches its description. False description can occur in many forms, from the undeclared addition of water or other cheaper materials, or the wrong declaration of the amount of a particular ingredient in the product, ...
Tampieri M P - - 2005
In order to assess the parasitological status in imported pheasants, 51 birds (Phasianus colchicus) coming from Poland and Rumania and used in Italy in repopulation interventions for hunting purposes were examined. From each animal the trachea, oesophagus, crop and intestine were collected and examined for the presence of nematodes. The ...
Cleveland M A - - 2005
Genetic diversity in the U.S. Hereford population was characterized by examining the level and rate of inbreeding and effective population size. Pedigree records for 20,624,418 animals were obtained from the American Hereford Association, of which 96.1% had both parents identified. Inbreeding coefficients were computed and mean inbreeding (Fx) calculated by ...
Segato E N - - 2005
The investigation of the influence of sweetened food on feeding behavior targeted to non-sucrose nutrients as well as the sensitivity to painful stimuli in isolated and grouped animals is the aim of the present work. The tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (a spinal reflex) were measured before and ...
Cobelji? M - - 2005
Faecal samples of 2660 domestic animals from 116 farms and 956 samples of food were examined for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). STEC was recovered from 126 (15.3%) cattle, 135 (11.3%) pigs, 135 (66.8%) sheep, 31 (73.8%) goats, 4 (1%) chicken, and 15 (1.6%) food samples. Of ...
Stevens Jeroen M G - - 2005
It has been suggested that peering behavior in bonobos is a formal signal acknowledging social dominance status. We investigated whether peering meets the published criteria for a formal signal of subordination in five captive groups of bonobos. The degree of linearity in the set of peering relationships was significantly high ...
Fecteau Gilles - - 2005
Peritonitis commonly is included in a list of differential diagnoses in food animal practice. Understanding the physiology of the ruminant peritoneal cavity and its response to injury is important to institute an adequate therapeutic plan. Ancillary procedures are used often and are necessary to confirm the diagnosis and should be ...
Lievaart J J - - 2005
Quality management on dairy farms becomes more and more important regarding the different areas of animal health, animal welfare and food safety. Monitoring animals, farm conditions and farm records can be extended with risk identification and risk management. The hazard analysis critical control point's system is useful as an on ...
Anson R Michael - - 2005
It has been known since the early 1900s that restriction of dietary intake relative to the ad libitum (AL) level increases stress resistance, cancer resistance, and longevity in many species. Studies investigating these phenomena have used three paradigms for dietary restriction. In the first, the AL intake of a control ...
Iason Glenn - - 2005
Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) have many ecological functions, but have long been considered as defences against pathogens or herbivores (vertebrate or invertebrate), reducing the likelihood and extent of attack. However, mammalian herbivores ingest many foods containing PSM and use both behavioural methods and physiological strategies to limit their negative effects. ...
Mohri Akiko - - 2005
Animals modify behavioral outputs in response to environmental changes. C. elegans exhibits thermotaxis, where well-fed animals show attraction to their cultivation temperature on a thermal gradient without food. We show here that feeding-state-dependent modulation of thermotaxis is a powerful behavioral paradigm for elucidating the mechanism underlying neural plasticity, learning, and ...
Mallapur Avanti - - 2005
Captive nonhuman animals use enclosure space differentially. Enclosure features strongly influence this. This study recorded both the enclosure space used by 47 captive lion-tailed macaques housed in 13 zoos across India and the behavior of the macaques. The exhibition of abnormal behaviors, food-related behaviors, and social interactions correlated significantly with ...
Kelly Alan M - - 2005
The veterinary profession is presently challenged with developing and maintaining on-farm biosecurity protocols to protect the nation's food supply from acts of bioterrorism, from the growing threat of foreign animal diseases, and from multidrug resistance among pathogenic organisms. This challenge comes at a time when the supply of food animal ...
Otranto Domenico - - 2005
In order to estimate the presence and the seroprevalence of hypodermosis in Albania, 625 head of cattle were bled during two sampling seasons (i.e. from February to March 2003 and from November to December 2003). The cattle came from three collection sites in Northern (site A), Central (site B) and ...
Zafra María A - - 2004
Previous studies have shown that the perivagal administration of capsaicin induces greater food intake vs. controls at 24 h after the surgery but a similar intake to that of controls at 48 h. The present study aimed to determine whether the nutritive effect observed after perivagal capsaicin administration is due ...
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