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Results 201 - 250 of 603
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Plummer Paul J - - 2007
Molecular diagnostics are becoming widely used as routine diagnostic tests performed by food animal practitioners. This article discusses the variations of several commonly performed molecular assays with regard to their molecular basis and the appropriate interpretation of the results. Applications of these methods are discussed in the context of infectious ...
Novak Matthew Fsx - - 2007
Providing captive or laboratory animals with the best possible living conditions has led to many ideas about how caging environments can be enhanced and the animals' lives can be enriched. This study focused primarily on 2 issues: more efficient use of existing caging and providing animals with a measure of ...
Van Loo Jan - - 2007
Animalia typically have a digestive tract for digestion of food and absorption of water. The intestinal tract is a nutrient-rich environment, as the digestive system of the host often lacks enzymes necessary to degrade certain food components. Other sources of nutrients originate from the high turnover of epithelial cells covering ...
Mathiu, M; ;
The Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) comprise 80% of Kenya land surface and have 50% of the livestock, the sole means of livelihood for the pastoralists who make 25% of the Kenyan population. Key constraints to animal health and production in the ASALs include; recurrent droughts, fragile range ecosystem, inadequate ...
Kasper Claudia - - 2008
In this paper we describe tolerated mouth-to-mouth food transfers in captive adult common marmosets, where an animal approached a conspecific that has recently received a piece of food, opened the other's mouth forcefully, and picked food pieces out of it. Tolerated mouth-to-mouth food transfers occurred between animals of both sexes. ...
Wittschen P - - 2007
An oronasal fistula is described in a 53-year-old captive hippopotamus, the animal having shown a nasal discharge, consisting mainly of food particles, during and after feeding for at least 15 years. Necropsy of the emaciated animal revealed an oronasal fistula, measuring 4.5 x 3.5 cm, adjacent to the third left ...
Hammer Sven - - 2007
Flamingos are filter feeders that only rarely ingest larger food items. Their bill anatomy is adapted to the suction, filtration, and ejection of a fluid medium. This case report documents a rare case of bill impaction in a group of Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) that were kept in a mixed ...
N'dri Aya Lydie - - 2007
Since feed conversion ratio (FCR) is higher in slow-growing "Label Rouge" chickens than in broiler chickens, it is important to work on its improvement in this breed. However, this involves rearing animals in cages (C), an environment very different from that used for selection (in floor pens, S) and production ...
Neues Frank - - 2007
Synchrotron radiation micro-computer tomography (SRmicroCT) offers the possibility to investigate biomineralized structures in high detail. Two animals of adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were analyzed by SRmicroCT with a resolution of 6.55 microm: the wild-type animal was normally developed whereas the second animal showed an idiopathic deformation of the cranial ...
Warnecke Lisa - - 2008
The high energetic cost associated with endothermic rewarming from torpor is widely seen as a major disadvantage of torpor. We tested the hypothesis that small arid zone marsupials, which have limited access to energy in the form of food but ample access to solar radiation, employ basking to facilitate arousal ...
Ellerbroek Lüppo - - 2007
The Regulation (EC) No. 854/2004 refers in particularly to a broad spectrum of official supervision of products of animal origin. The supervision should be based on the most current relevant information which is available. The proposal presented includes forms for implementation of Food Chain Information (FCI) as laid down in ...
Soulsby Lord - - 2007
The concern about transmission of resistant enteric organisms from livestock to humans via the food chain has substantially lessened owing to the banning of the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in young animals. Nevertheless, therapeutic use in animals is high and resistance is increasing in production species and companion ...
Scott N R - - 2007
Nanotechnology, as an enabling technology, has the potential to revolutionize veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine include disease diagnosis and treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular breeding, identity preservation of animal history from birth to a consumer's table, the security of ...
Herberholz Jens - - 2007
Crayfish are known for their innate aggressiveness and willingness to quickly establish dominance relationships among group members. Consequently, the formation of dominance hierarchies and the analysis of behavioral patterns displayed during agonistic encounters have mostly been tested in environments that provide no immediate resources besides space. We tested the hypothesis ...
Esposito Ennio - - 2007
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder which is mostly sporadic, although about 5-10% of the cases are inherited. About 15-20% of patients with familial ALS (FALS) carry mutations in the gene encoding the free radical scavenging enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). In this study, we explored the ...
Del Hoyo P - - 2008
A number of functional and physical properties such as solubility, foam capacity, emulsifying stability and interfacial tension were compared for standard plasma, plasma decationed by ion exchange and plasma deionized by ultrafiltration (UF). The changes in functional properties can determine the use of a protein as an additive to a ...
Lagisz Malgorzata - - 2007
Insects inhabiting contaminated areas show increased susceptibility to other stressors, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether this phenomenon had a genetic basis. We investigated changes in susceptibility to food deprivation and insecticide (dimethoate) treatment of the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus originating from four populations situated along a ...
Laturnus Claudia - - 2007
In this review the application and usefulness of Campylobacter genotypical classification and typing in veterinary medicine will be discussed.While there is a large area of overlapping applications between the veterinary and the medical field, several differences exist, as the spectrum of veterinary pathogens is different from the human and contaminated ...
Ros M M - - 2007
The presence of the anabolic steroid boldenone in animals has become a research topic as its occurrence is proposed to be a marker for illegal hormone administration. However, boldenone can also be formed from beta-sitosterol, a phytosterol present in animal feed, as well as from endogenous sources. The observations in ...
Costa-Neto Eraldo M - - 2007
This article deals with the construction of the "insect" ethnozoological dominium by the inhabitants of Tapera County, which is located in the municipality of São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia State. Data were obtained from March to May 2005 through open-ended interviews carried out with 23 men and 8 women, whose ...
Lütticken D - - 2007
To meet with the increasing demand for food, the scale of world food production is increasing, as is the transport of animals and food products. At the same time, the contact of animals with the environment remains unchanged or, in the case of free-ranging animals, is even increasing. A number ...
Nafikov Rafael A - - 2007
Much research on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in farm animals conducted over the second half of the 20th century has focused primarily on increasing the production efficiency and improving the quality and acceptability of animal-derived foods. Research was also performed with the express interest in greater understanding of biochemistry and ...
Jensen Thomas C - - 2007
Like many invertebrate herbivores, Daphnia frequently face diets with excess carbon (C) relative to elements like phosphorus (P), and with limited ability to store C-rich compounds. To cope with this relative surplus of C they may either regulate the net uptake of C or dispose of excess assimilated C via ...
Volz Trent J - - 2007
Amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH) are members of a collection of phenethylamine psychostimulants that are commonly referred to collectively as "amphetamines." Amphetamines exert their effects, in part, by affecting neuronal dopamine transport. This review thus focuses on the effects of AMPH and METH on the plasmalemmal dopamine transporter and the ...
Coffey Shaun G - - 2007
Knowledge of the function of human and animal genes and their interactions is rapidly increasing as a result of the completion of sequencing efforts for the human, bovine and other genomes. Through transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, we have the capacity to study the health effects of food compounds at the ...
Schmitz John A - - 2007
Nebraska veterinary practitioners were surveyed to collect data about background characteristics and other factors related to veterinarians' decision to include or not include food animals in their practices and to practice in rural versus urban communities. Background characteristics that were significantly (p < or = 0.05) associated with choosing food-animal ...
Galeriu D - - 2007
The radionuclides (14)C and (3)H may both be released from nuclear facilities. These radionuclides are unusual, in that they are isotopes of macro-elements which form the basis of animal tissues, feed and, in the case of (3)H, water. There are few published values describing the transfer of (3)H and (14)C ...
Yang Xiangzhong - - 2007
Research on, and commercialization of, cloned cattle has been conducted for more than 20 years. Early techniques relied on the physical splitting of embryos or using embryo cells for nuclear transfer to generate cloned animals. Milk and meat from these animals entered into the human food market with no evidence ...
van Kuyck K K Laboratory of Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy, Department of Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Leuven Provisorium, - - 2007
Electrical stimulation (ES) in the brain is becoming a new treatment option in patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A possible brain target might be the nucleus accumbens (NACC). This review aims to summarise the behavioural and physiological effects of ES in the NACC in humans and in animals and ...
Canfield Don E - - 2007
Because animals require oxygen, an increase in late-Neoproterozoic oxygen concentrations has been suggested as a stimulus for their evolution. The iron content of deep-sea sediments shows that the deep ocean was anoxic and ferruginous before and during the Gaskiers glaciation 580 million years ago and that it became oxic afterward. ...
Caputa M - - 2006
Various animals must cope with some specific extreme environmental conditions and, as a consequence, they developed extremely efficacious adaptive defence responses. The mechanisms of the specific defences are more clearly visible in some species than in humans. Therefore, animal models of the human defence mechanisms should be selected accordingly. The ...
Burkepile Deron E - - 2006
Microbes are known to affect ecosystems and communities as decomposers, pathogens, and mutualists. However, they also may function as classic consumers and competitors with animals if they chemically deter larger consumers from using rich food-falls such as carrion, fruits, and seeds that can represent critical windfalls to both microbes and ...
Beutin L - - 2006
Shiga toxin (Stx) [Verotoxin (VT)]-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also called enterohaemorrhagic E. coli or VTEC are emerging zoonotic agents and became most important as human pathogens, particularly in the industrialized countries. Production of cytotoxins, also called Stx or VT, is the major pathogenicity determinant of STEC, which can cause life-threatening ...
Chang Andy J - - 2006
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has complex, naturally variable behavioral responses to environmental oxygen, food, and other animals. C. elegans detects oxygen through soluble guanylate cyclase homologs (sGCs) and responds to it differently depending on the activity of the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1: npr-1(lf) and naturally isolated npr-1(215F) animals avoid high oxygen ...
Serratosa J - - 2006
The authors present an overview of the presence of residues from veterinary medicinal products, growth-promoting agents and performance enhancers in food-producing animals, as a result of administering these substances--legally or illegally--on farms. The current situation in the European Union (EU) is represented by an analysis of the 2004 results from ...
- - 2006
Food safety is now universally recognised as a public health priority. It requires a global approach, from production to consumption. This article addresses the first stage of the food chain and the steps farmers can take to optimise the food safety control of products of animal origin. This inevitably means ...
Ammendrup S - - 2006
Traceability is a tool to help countries meet their objectives of controlling, preventing and eradicating animal diseases. This article sets out the required steps in a traceability system. Before designing a system of traceability, one must identify the different characteristics that need to be traced throughout the various steps in ...
Southern K J - - 2006
Many factors contribute to the production of safe foods of animal origin. Initiatives for an integrated approach to food safety recognise the importance of optimising transportation conditions to ensure on-farm interventions are preserved. Physical, microbial, and environmental hazards during the transportation process may adversely affect the safety and quality of ...
Sørensen J T - - 2006
The production of food from animal origin is relatively stable in the industrialised world. However, animal production systems are changing dramatically with respect to location, herd size and specialisation. Increased pressure from a critical public is moving animal-based production towards systems such as organic production and loose-housing systems which allow ...
L Plym Forshell - - 2006
Salmonellosis is the most common food-borne bacterial disease in the world. Salmonella is a significant pathogen for food-producing animals and these animals are the primary source of salmonellosis. It is estimated that herd prevalence varies between 0% and 90%, depending on the animal species and region. The pathogen is spread ...
Gajadhar A A - - 2006
Zoonotic parasites found in food animals include a wide variety of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes. Many of these parasites are emerging or already occur globally due to changes in farming practices and the increased movement of animals, food, and people. Some of the emerging or ubiquitous parasites, including Toxoplasma, ...
Hicks Amy M - - 2006
Glycerophospholipids (GPL) in animal tissues are composed of a large array of molecular species that mainly differ in the fatty acyl composition. In order to further understand the roles of GPL at the molecular level, it is necessary to have comprehensive, accurate accounts of the molecular makeup for these molecules ...
Mounier L - - 2006
Animals are subjected to various events that cause physical exhaustion and psychological stress during transfer to slaughter. This can lead to defective meat quality. Some animals may be better able to withstand the stress of transfer, depending on their previous experience of transport and on their finishing conditions (mixing, farmers' ...
Amass Sandra F - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of using a disinfectant mat filled with a peroxygen compound to prevent mechanical transmission of bacteria via contaminated footwear between the food animal ward and common breezeway of a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN: Observational study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Shoe soles of individuals entering and exiting from ...
Ioannides Costas - - 2006
A number of enzyme systems participate in the metabolism of chemicals, but undoubtedly the most important are the cytochromes P450 (CYP). It is a versatile enzyme system, capable of metabolising structurally diverse chemicals. To achieve this broad substrate specificity it exists as a superfamily of enzymes, each family being characterised ...
Grave Kari - - 2006
Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were phased out in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1998-1999, 1995 and 1986, respectively. The annual usage of therapeutic antimicrobials in animals in Denmark almost doubled during the period when AGPs were phased out (1988-1999) and in the subsequent 2 years. The increase was mainly due ...
Levine Allen S - - 2006
Animal models allow us to investigate the basic mechanisms by which food intake is regulated. There are a host of neuroregulators distributed across a complex central network that control eating behavior. The opioid peptides represent one family of such regulators that have been studied extensively in animals. Using anatomical, biochemical ...
Seidel Björn - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Due to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), specified risk material (SRM) as well as animal meat and bone meal (MBM) are banned from the food and feed chain because of a possible infection with pathogenic prions (PrP(Sc)). Nowadays, prions are widely accepted to be responsible for TSE(transmissible spongiform encephalopathies)-caused ...
Barrenetxe J - - 2006
Research on cancer and other conditions has shown flavonoids and sphingolipids to be food components capable of exerting chemoprotective action. Nevertheless, little is known about their effects on healthy individuals and their potential usefulness as therapeutic agents. The present study examined the possible action of a dietary flavonoid, quercetin, and ...
Mizoguchi Yasumoto - - 2006
The present study was undertaken to elucidate restraint effects of protecting jackets that are used to protect against biting the sites of percutaneous application in pregnant rabbits. Animals wore protecting jackets from gestational Day (GD) 0 to 19 (GD 0 group) or from GD 6 to 19 (GD 6 group). ...
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