Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 603
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Willis Lauren M - - 2009
Aging results in the development of cognitive and motor deficits in humans and animals that are evident by midlife. These deficits are thought to stem from neuronal damage and dysfunction as a result of a variety of stressors, including increased oxidative stress and modifications in brain lipid composition. Recent clinical ...
Tenter Astrid M - - 2009
Food-borne toxoplasmosis in humans may result from exposure to different stages of Toxoplasma gondii, in particular from the ingestion of tissue cysts or tachyzoites contained in meat, primary offal (viscera) or meat-derived products of many different animals, or the ingestion of sporulated oocysts that are contained in the environment and ...
Leibler Jessica H - - 2009
Many emerging infectious diseases in human populations are associated with zoonotic origins. Attention has often focused on wild animal reservoirs, but most zoonotic pathogens of recent concern to human health either originate in, or are transferred to, human populations from domesticated animals raised for human consumption. Thus, the ecological context ...
Sheppard Samuel K SK Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford. OX1 3SY, United - - 2009
A nationwide multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) survey was implemented to analyze patterns of host association among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from clinical disease in Scotland (July 2005-September 2006), food animals (chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs and turkey), non-food animals (wild birds) and the environment. Sequence types (STs) were determined ...
Holm-Nielsen J B - - 2009
One of the common tendencies of animal production activities in Europe and in developed countries in general is to intensify the animal production and to increase the size of the animal production units. High livestock density is always accompanied by production of a surplus of animal manure, representing a considerable ...
Suzuki Michiyo - - 2009
Locomotory behavior (motility) and mechanosensation are of vital importance in animals. We examined the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on locomotory behavior and mechanosensation using a model organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Bacterial mechanosensation in C. elegans induces the dopamine-mediated slowing of locomotion in the presence of bacteria (food), known ...
Akhtar Aysha Z - - 2009
What we eat is rapidly becoming an issue of global concern. With food shortages, the rise in chronic disease, and global warming, the impact of our dietary choices seems more relevant today than ever. Globally, a transition is taking place toward greater consumption of foods of animal origin, in lieu ...
Last Kim S - - 2009
The burrow emergence activity of the wild caught ragworm Nereis virens Sars associated with food prospecting was investigated under various photoperiodic (LD) and simulated tidal cycles (STC) using a laboratory based actograph. Just over half (57%) of the animals under LD with STC displayed significant tidal (approximately 12.4 h) and/or ...
Feierl Gebhard - - 2009
Campylobacter species are among the most commonly identified causative agents of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In Austria, campylobacteriosis has been a notifiable disease since 1996 and its incidence has increased continuously over the past years. Improvement of notification has led to an important increase in knowledge of the ...
Ben Arous Juliette - - 2009
Most animals display multiple behavioral states and control the time allocation to each of their activity phases depending on their environment. Here we develop a new quantitative method to analyze Caenorhabditis elegans behavioral states. We show that the dwelling and roaming two-state behavior of C. elegans is tightly controlled by ...
Chen Bao-Ji - - 2009
This paper discussed the threats from farm animals to food and human security. In response to these threats, a radical reform plan was adapted by several countries and the plan includes restructure of the organization of governing agencies, implementation of a traceability system from the farm sector to end users, ...
Butler Jennifer E F - - 2009
Animal cloning is "complex process that lets one exactly copy the genetic, or inherited, traits of an animal." In 1997, Dolly the sheep was the first animal cloned and since then "scientists have used animal cloning to breed dairy cows, beef cattle, poultry, hogs and other species of livestock." Cloned ...
Wheeler M B - - 2009
Assessment of general risk posed from transgenic (T) animals is important to their future contributions to society. Identification of potentially harmful properties of transgenic livestock is the initial step in a risk assessment. Direct and indirect impacts of potential harmful properties of T livestock need to be evaluated at 3 ...
Jammoul Firas - - 2009
Although vigabatrin irreversibly constricts the visual field, it remains a potent therapy for infantile spasms and a third-line drug for refractory epilepsies. In albino animals, this drug induces a reduction in retinal cell function, retinal disorganization, and cone photoreceptor damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the light ...
Reed Danielle R - - 2008
Food intake of humans is governed by the food's nutritional value and pleasing taste, but also by other factors such as food cost and availability, cultural imperatives, and social status. The biological determinants of human food intake are not easily parsed from these other factors, making them hard to study ...
Asakura Hitoshi - - 2008
The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is not fully understood. The interaction between intestinal environmental factors of food and intestinal microbes and the immunological system of hosts seems to be an important aspect. We have reviewed the relationship of the daily consumption of dietary animal meat ...
Mulatti Claudio - - 2008
People who are asked to classify whether words presented visually belong to the category of animals respond to nonwords derived from animal names more slowly than they do to nonwords derived from nonanimal names. This is known as the turple effect (Forster, 2006; Forster & Hector, 2002). In the present ...
Dreschel Nancy A - - 2009
Salivary cortisol has been increasingly used as a measure of stress response in studies of welfare, reaction to stress and human-animal interactions in dogs and other species. While it can be a very useful measure, there are a number of saliva collection issues made evident through studies in the human ...
Seimenis Aristarhos M - - 2008
For trade purposes, ever increasing quantities of food animals and animal products that are transported more rapidly than ever before are contributing to the spread of zoonoses and are creating threats on a permanent basis. Most countries in south-eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East are increasing imports of ...
Dixon Brent R - - 2008
The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was determined for ringed and bearded seals harvested for food in the Nunavik region in northern Quebec, Canada. Flow cytometric results demonstrated that G. duodenalis was present in the intestinal contents of 80% of the ringed seals and 75% of the bearded ...
Aarestrup Frank M - - 2008
Bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms for the efficient evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Modern food production facilitates the emergence and spread of resistance through the intensive use of antimicrobial agents and international trade of both animals and food products. The main route of transmission between food animals and humans ...
Jelinski Murray D - - 2008
The classes of 2007 from the Atlantic Veterinary College, Ontario Veterinary College, and Western College of Veterinary Medicine were surveyed to determine what factors influenced the respondents' career path choices. Seventy percent (166/237) of those contacted participated in the survey of which 89.1% were female, 62.7% had an urban upbringing, ...
Falugi Carla - - 2008
Echinoderm early developmental stages might supply a good tool for toxicity testing in different fields, ranging from environment to food contamination, and in full respect of the 3Rs objectives (reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal experiments) that will eventually lead to the replacement of high vertebrate animal testing in toxicology. ...
Brindani F - - 2008
After an introduction concerning the structure of Italian and European Veterinary Offices, the authors outline the features of food production in the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, particularly concerning the role of veterinary hygienists and of the other professionals operating along the food chain. The authors underline that veterinarians ...
Zhao Dapeng - - 2008
Although there are some reports that have described primates eating animals, it is unknown whether predation on vertebrates exists in herbivorous leaf-eating primates. We have witnessed firsthand wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) preying on and consuming Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus meruld) in the Qinling Mountains of China. This event suggests ...
da Silva Rodrigo Costa - - 2008
Armadillos are primitive mammals used as food, mostly in rural areas. These animals may be sources of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis infection for humans, but there is little information about their potential risk as reservoirs. In order to determine the prevalence of armadillos infected by Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp., serum ...
Swoap Steven J - - 2008
The ability to enter a hypometabolic state upon restriction of caloric intake is pivotal for animal survival: balancing the energy budget in endotherms can be a real struggle when food is not available and/or the demand for heat production to maintain homeothermy becomes excessive. Bouts of torpor, characterized by metabolic ...
Anadón A - - 2009
Pyrethrin and pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in veterinary medicine for agricultural and domestic purposes. Although pyrethrins and pyrethroids are generally regarded as safe to animals, there have been reports of systemic poisoning in veterinary species. This review summarises the use of pyrethrins and pyrethroids in companion and food producing ...
Pozio E - - 2008
In the 27 Member States of the European Union, zoonotic parasites transmitted by food are circulating with different prevalence according to the country, the environmental conditions, the human behaviour, and the socio-economic level. Foodborne parasites can be divided in two main groups according to the way of transmission to humans. ...
Larson R L - - 2008
It is important for food animal veterinarians to understand the interaction among animals, pathogens, and the environment, in order to implement herd-specific biosecurity plans. Animal factors such as the number of immunologically protected individuals influence the number of individuals that a potential pathogen is able to infect, as well as ...
Biro Peter A - - 2008
Animal personality traits such as boldness, activity and aggressiveness have been described for many animal species. However, why some individuals are consistently bolder or more active than others, for example, is currently obscure. Given that life-history tradeoffs are common and known to promote inter-individual differences in behavior, we suggest that ...
Mgbenka, BO; ;
No Abstract. <i> Animal Research International </i> Vol. 2 (1) 2005 pp. 212-218
Graham Jay P - - 2008
Understanding interactions between animals and humans is critical in preventing outbreaks of zoonotic disease. This is particularly important for avian influenza. Food animal production has been transformed since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Poultry and swine production have changed from small-scale methods to industrial-scale operations. There is substantial evidence of pathogen ...
Koneswaran Gowri - - 2008
The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. We analyzed the scientific ...
Subasinghe R P - - 2008
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world and it is expected to produce significant quantities of fish in the coming years to meet the growing global demand for aquatic animal products. The expansion and diversification of the sector, along with globalisation and trade liberalisation have resulted ...
Sugiura Katsuaki - - 2008
Since 1966, approximately 1 000 veterinarians graduate each year from 16 veterinary schools in Japan. According to reports submitted by veterinarians to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in January 2007, there were over 35 818 veterinarians in Japan at the end of 2006. Of this total, 13 202 ...
Fàbrega Anna - - 2008
Antimicrobials are used in pet animals and in animal husbandry for prophylactic and therapeutic reasons and also as growth promoters, causing selective pressure on bacteria of animal origin. The impact of quinolones or quinolone-resistant bacteria on the management of human infections may be associated with three different scenarios. (i) Quinolone-resistant ...
Napolitano F - - 2008
This study aimed to verify whether consumers confirm their willingness to pay extra costs for higher animal welfare standards in a situation where a potential purchase performed by consumers, such as the Vickrey auction, is used. A 104-member consumer panel was asked to rate its willingness to pay (WTP) for ...
Atkins Peter - - 2008
Animal diseases can be spread to humans through the food supply. The article investigates this zoonotic hazard in an historical context and reflects on the nature of public reactions to such risk. It concludes that food scares have been with us for at least 150 years and that consumer responses ...
Swanson J C - - 2008
Polls and surveys conducted within the United States show general agreement that there is public support for the protection of farm livestock and poultry. Concurrent with the growing public sentiment is the recent adoption of socially responsible corporate policies by major food retailers relative to animal welfare. The animal welfare ...
Davis S L - - 2008
Numerous animal rights and animal liberation theorists have concluded that nonhuman animals have moral standing and noninterference rights. Therefore, they say that humans are morally obligated to stop using animals for food, fiber, labor, and research. I disagree with that conclusion for at least 2 reasons. First, it has been ...
Hena Anand
It is well known that acridids are an attractive and important natural source of food for many kinds of vertebrate animals, including birds, lizards, snakes, amphibians, fish and other mammals. Despite that they drew very few research attentions as feed for domesticated animals, particularly poultry, swine and freshwater fish. In ...
Rule Ana M - - 2008
Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of ...
Blancou Jean - - 2008
Since Roman Antiquity, domestic and wild animals have been transported over long distances for purposes as different as improvement of livestock production, food supply, scientific interest, public entertainment, war and numerous other purposes. This long distance transportation was originally limited to the Mediterranean area but, during the Middle Ages extended ...
Ribò Oriol - - 2008
The authors review the work of the previous Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare and the current European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in providing scientific advice on the welfare aspects of animal transport and the impact of this advice on the European Union (EU) regulatory framework. Through its ...
Perrett Tye - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of florfenicol with that of tulathromycin for treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing UF that receive metaphylactic tulathromycin on arrival at the feedlot. Calves that received therapeutic florfenicol had lower overall mortality ...
Pham Linh N - - 2008
Vertebrates are colonized at birth by complex and dynamic communities of microorganisms that can contribute significantly to host health and disease. The ability to raise animals in the absence of microorganisms has been a powerful tool for elucidating the relationships between animal hosts and their microbial residents. The optical transparency ...
Oryan Ahmad - - 2008
This study explored the hypothesis that local administration of a polysulphated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG) in the early phase of healing of a standard collagenase-induced tendon injury in the superficial digital flexor tendon of the rabbit would reduce the degenerative effects of inflammatory mediators and proteases and preserve normal tendon morphology, composition, ...
Forbes J Michael - - 2007
Voluntary food intake and the selection between foods are important subjects especially in ruminants in view of the economic importance of this class of animal and the complex digestive system with its attendant metabolic peculiarities. There is evidence that intake is limited by the capacity of the rumen as well ...
Hammerum Anette M - - 2007
Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >