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McCarthy S D S - - 2010
We examined how alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity within the bodies and in the materials released by the crustacean Daphnia magna responds to variable algal food phosphorus (P)-content. We found that Daphnia eating P-poor food (C:P approximately 700) had significantly higher AP activity in their bodies on a mass-specific basis compared ...
McCue Marshall D - - 2010
All animals face the possibility of limitations in food resources that could ultimately lead to starvation-induced mortality. The primary goal of this review is to characterize the various physiological strategies that allow different animals to survive starvation. The ancillary goals of this work are to identify areas in which investigations ...
Breunig Esther - - 2010
Appetite, food intake, and energy balance are closely linked to the endocannabinoid system in the central nervous system. Now, endocannabinoid modulation has been discovered in the peripheral olfactory system of larval Xenopus laevis. The endocannabinoid 2-AG has been shown to influence odorant-detection thresholds according to the hunger state of the ...
Yadav B S - - 2010
Resistant starch (RS) content was determined in the conventionally boiled (H1) and pressure-cooked (H2) cereals, legumes and tubers using enzymatic method. Both H1 and H2 legumes contained higher amount of RS as compared to cereals and tubers. H1 and H2 lentils showed highest RS content of 5.0 and 4.9% (dwb), ...
Gonzalez Ronald - - 2010
Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered anorexigen encoded in the precursor peptide, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) in mammals. To date, nesfatin-1 has not been described in any non-mammalian species, although some information is available in the sequenced genomes of several species. Our objective was to characterize nesfatin-1 in fish. In the present study, ...
Matkovi? Kristina - - 2009
The air of animal dwellings can contain great amounts of bioaerosol composed of dust, bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. The composition may depend on animal species, building construction, animal accommodation, and microclimate parameters, to name just a few factors. Pathogens contained may be a serious threat to animal and human health.The ...
- - 2009
Resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins is rapidly increasing in bacteria infecting humans. Although many of these problems are linked to human to human transmission and to use of antimicrobials in human medicine, the potential role of community reservoirs such as food producing animals needs to be scrutinized. Resistance ...
Cocchi Monia - - 2010
Two young dogs belonging to the same kennel placed nearby Treviso (north-eastern Italy) died at the end of 2008 with clinical signs of renal failure. They were subjected to necropsy and were evaluated for histopathological and toxicological changes. Both the animals had same clinical signs and laboratory evidence of uremia. ...
Greger M - - 2010
The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the commercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in transgenic ...
Willems Robert A - - 2009
While investigating certain aspects of animal physiology, neurology or behavior, research scientists sometimes must limit the amount of food or water provided to animals used in a study. Such limitations can negatively impact the health and welfare of laboratory animals by, for example, causing them to experience distress or pain. ...
Wideman Cyrilla H - - 2009
Melatonin levels, metabolic parameters, circadian rhythm activity patterns, and behavior were observed in rats subjected to a 12-h/12-h light/dark cycle (LD) compared to animals exposed to continuous dark (DD) or continuous light (LL). LD and DD animals were similar in melatonin levels, food intake, relative food intake, feed efficiency, water ...
Ratel Jérémy - - 2009
Animal-derived products are particularly vulnerable to contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These lipophilic substances, which are generated by an increasing number of sources, are easily transferred to the atmosphere, water, soil, and plants. They are ingested by livestock and become trapped in the fat fraction of edible animal tissues. ...
Songer J Glenn - - 2010
Clostridia are not normally considered to be zoonotic pathogens, although many species affect both humans and domestic animals. Three cases in which organisms occur, possibly via direct or indirect transmission, in both food animals and humans are considered here. Strains of Clostridium perfringens that produce enterotoxin (CPE) are typically transmitted ...
Collignon Peter - - 2009
The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans through the food supply. Improved management of the use of antimicrobials in food animals, particularly reducing the usage of those that are "critically important" for human medicine, is an important step ...
Campbell William C - - 2009
It is popular in some quarters to say that there is no food crisis; that there is food aplenty; and that the problem is one of distribution or other over-arching technical difficulty. To the starving, however, there is a food crisis; and it neither speaks well nor bodes well for ...
Cox Louis Anthony Tony LA - - 2009
Penicillin and ampicillin drugs are approved for use in food animals in the United States to treat, control, and prevent diseases, and penicillin is approved for use to improve growth rates in pigs and poultry. This article considers the possibility that such uses might increase the incidence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus ...
Jelinski Murray D - - 2009
This second of 2 articles, relating to the veterinary profession in western Canada, explores the factors associated with veterinarians' career path choices. Among other factors, companion animal (small animal and equine) (CA) practitioners were less likely to have been raised in, or near to, a small center (< or = ...
Nurten Asiye - - 2009
Animals treated with scopolamine after fasting develop convulsions after they are allowed to eat ad libitum. This study was aimed at investigating the effect on these convulsions of liquid food intake, feeding by gavage, and placebo. Fasted mice treated with saline or scopolamine were allowed to eat solid food, slurry ...
Sugiura Katsuaki - - 2009
Increased antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that cause infections in humans is a threat to public health. The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals in the form of veterinary medicine and feed additives may lead to the emergence or spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin. In Japan, the ...
Willis Lauren M - - 2009
Aging results in the development of cognitive and motor deficits in humans and animals that are evident by midlife. These deficits are thought to stem from neuronal damage and dysfunction as a result of a variety of stressors, including increased oxidative stress and modifications in brain lipid composition. Recent clinical ...
Tenter Astrid M - - 2009
Food-borne toxoplasmosis in humans may result from exposure to different stages of Toxoplasma gondii, in particular from the ingestion of tissue cysts or tachyzoites contained in meat, primary offal (viscera) or meat-derived products of many different animals, or the ingestion of sporulated oocysts that are contained in the environment and ...
Leibler Jessica H - - 2009
Many emerging infectious diseases in human populations are associated with zoonotic origins. Attention has often focused on wild animal reservoirs, but most zoonotic pathogens of recent concern to human health either originate in, or are transferred to, human populations from domesticated animals raised for human consumption. Thus, the ecological context ...
Sheppard Samuel K SK Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford. OX1 3SY, United - - 2009
A nationwide multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) survey was implemented to analyze patterns of host association among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from clinical disease in Scotland (July 2005-September 2006), food animals (chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs and turkey), non-food animals (wild birds) and the environment. Sequence types (STs) were determined ...
Holm-Nielsen J B - - 2009
One of the common tendencies of animal production activities in Europe and in developed countries in general is to intensify the animal production and to increase the size of the animal production units. High livestock density is always accompanied by production of a surplus of animal manure, representing a considerable ...
Suzuki Michiyo - - 2009
Locomotory behavior (motility) and mechanosensation are of vital importance in animals. We examined the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on locomotory behavior and mechanosensation using a model organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Bacterial mechanosensation in C. elegans induces the dopamine-mediated slowing of locomotion in the presence of bacteria (food), known ...
Akhtar Aysha Z - - 2009
What we eat is rapidly becoming an issue of global concern. With food shortages, the rise in chronic disease, and global warming, the impact of our dietary choices seems more relevant today than ever. Globally, a transition is taking place toward greater consumption of foods of animal origin, in lieu ...
Last Kim S - - 2009
The burrow emergence activity of the wild caught ragworm Nereis virens Sars associated with food prospecting was investigated under various photoperiodic (LD) and simulated tidal cycles (STC) using a laboratory based actograph. Just over half (57%) of the animals under LD with STC displayed significant tidal (approximately 12.4 h) and/or ...
Feierl Gebhard - - 2009
Campylobacter species are among the most commonly identified causative agents of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In Austria, campylobacteriosis has been a notifiable disease since 1996 and its incidence has increased continuously over the past years. Improvement of notification has led to an important increase in knowledge of the ...
Ben Arous Juliette - - 2009
Most animals display multiple behavioral states and control the time allocation to each of their activity phases depending on their environment. Here we develop a new quantitative method to analyze Caenorhabditis elegans behavioral states. We show that the dwelling and roaming two-state behavior of C. elegans is tightly controlled by ...
Chen Bao-Ji - - 2009
This paper discussed the threats from farm animals to food and human security. In response to these threats, a radical reform plan was adapted by several countries and the plan includes restructure of the organization of governing agencies, implementation of a traceability system from the farm sector to end users, ...
Butler Jennifer E F - - 2009
Animal cloning is "complex process that lets one exactly copy the genetic, or inherited, traits of an animal." In 1997, Dolly the sheep was the first animal cloned and since then "scientists have used animal cloning to breed dairy cows, beef cattle, poultry, hogs and other species of livestock." Cloned ...
Wheeler M B - - 2009
Assessment of general risk posed from transgenic (T) animals is important to their future contributions to society. Identification of potentially harmful properties of transgenic livestock is the initial step in a risk assessment. Direct and indirect impacts of potential harmful properties of T livestock need to be evaluated at 3 ...
Jammoul Firas - - 2009
Although vigabatrin irreversibly constricts the visual field, it remains a potent therapy for infantile spasms and a third-line drug for refractory epilepsies. In albino animals, this drug induces a reduction in retinal cell function, retinal disorganization, and cone photoreceptor damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the light ...
Asakura Hitoshi - - 2008
The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is not fully understood. The interaction between intestinal environmental factors of food and intestinal microbes and the immunological system of hosts seems to be an important aspect. We have reviewed the relationship of the daily consumption of dietary animal meat ...
Mulatti Claudio - - 2008
People who are asked to classify whether words presented visually belong to the category of animals respond to nonwords derived from animal names more slowly than they do to nonwords derived from nonanimal names. This is known as the turple effect (Forster, 2006; Forster & Hector, 2002). In the present ...
Reed Danielle R DR Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2008
Food intake of humans is governed by the food's nutritional value and pleasing taste, but also by other factors such as food cost and availability, cultural imperatives, and social status. The biological determinants of human food intake are not easily parsed from these other factors, making them hard to study ...
Dreschel Nancy A - - 2009
Salivary cortisol has been increasingly used as a measure of stress response in studies of welfare, reaction to stress and human-animal interactions in dogs and other species. While it can be a very useful measure, there are a number of saliva collection issues made evident through studies in the human ...
Seimenis Aristarhos M - - 2008
For trade purposes, ever increasing quantities of food animals and animal products that are transported more rapidly than ever before are contributing to the spread of zoonoses and are creating threats on a permanent basis. Most countries in south-eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East are increasing imports of ...
Dixon Brent R - - 2008
The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was determined for ringed and bearded seals harvested for food in the Nunavik region in northern Quebec, Canada. Flow cytometric results demonstrated that G. duodenalis was present in the intestinal contents of 80% of the ringed seals and 75% of the bearded ...
Aarestrup Frank M - - 2008
Bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms for the efficient evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Modern food production facilitates the emergence and spread of resistance through the intensive use of antimicrobial agents and international trade of both animals and food products. The main route of transmission between food animals and humans ...
Jelinski Murray D - - 2008
The classes of 2007 from the Atlantic Veterinary College, Ontario Veterinary College, and Western College of Veterinary Medicine were surveyed to determine what factors influenced the respondents' career path choices. Seventy percent (166/237) of those contacted participated in the survey of which 89.1% were female, 62.7% had an urban upbringing, ...
Falugi Carla - - 2008
Echinoderm early developmental stages might supply a good tool for toxicity testing in different fields, ranging from environment to food contamination, and in full respect of the 3Rs objectives (reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal experiments) that will eventually lead to the replacement of high vertebrate animal testing in toxicology. ...
Brindani F - - 2008
After an introduction concerning the structure of Italian and European Veterinary Offices, the authors outline the features of food production in the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, particularly concerning the role of veterinary hygienists and of the other professionals operating along the food chain. The authors underline that veterinarians ...
Zhao Dapeng - - 2008
Although there are some reports that have described primates eating animals, it is unknown whether predation on vertebrates exists in herbivorous leaf-eating primates. We have witnessed firsthand wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) preying on and consuming Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus meruld) in the Qinling Mountains of China. This event suggests ...
da Silva Rodrigo Costa - - 2008
Armadillos are primitive mammals used as food, mostly in rural areas. These animals may be sources of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis infection for humans, but there is little information about their potential risk as reservoirs. In order to determine the prevalence of armadillos infected by Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp., serum ...
Swoap Steven J - - 2008
The ability to enter a hypometabolic state upon restriction of caloric intake is pivotal for animal survival: balancing the energy budget in endotherms can be a real struggle when food is not available and/or the demand for heat production to maintain homeothermy becomes excessive. Bouts of torpor, characterized by metabolic ...
Anadón A - - 2009
Pyrethrin and pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in veterinary medicine for agricultural and domestic purposes. Although pyrethrins and pyrethroids are generally regarded as safe to animals, there have been reports of systemic poisoning in veterinary species. This review summarises the use of pyrethrins and pyrethroids in companion and food producing ...
Pozio E - - 2008
In the 27 Member States of the European Union, zoonotic parasites transmitted by food are circulating with different prevalence according to the country, the environmental conditions, the human behaviour, and the socio-economic level. Foodborne parasites can be divided in two main groups according to the way of transmission to humans. ...
Larson R L - - 2008
It is important for food animal veterinarians to understand the interaction among animals, pathogens, and the environment, in order to implement herd-specific biosecurity plans. Animal factors such as the number of immunologically protected individuals influence the number of individuals that a potential pathogen is able to infect, as well as ...
Biro Peter A - - 2008
Animal personality traits such as boldness, activity and aggressiveness have been described for many animal species. However, why some individuals are consistently bolder or more active than others, for example, is currently obscure. Given that life-history tradeoffs are common and known to promote inter-individual differences in behavior, we suggest that ...
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