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Niemira Brendan A - - 2011
Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes ...
Chumchal Matthew M - - 2011
We studied the biomagnification of total and methylmercury in a subtropical freshwater lake, Caddo Lake, Texas/Louisiana, USA. The present study is unique in that we not only included invertebrates (seven species) and fish (six species) but also an amphibian (one species), reptiles (three species) and mammals (three species). Non-fish vertebrates ...
Rogovik Alexander L - - 2011
Question There is a large population of overweight and obese children in my clinic. What medications for treatment of obesity are effective and can be used in children? Answer Orlistat is the only medication indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity in adolescents. It ...
Carbone Chris - - 2011
Identifying tradeoffs between hunting and scavenging in an ecological context is important for understanding predatory guilds. In the past century, the feeding strategy of one of the largest and best-known terrestrial carnivores, Tyrannosaurus rex, has been the subject of much debate: was it an active predator or an obligate scavenger? ...
Ellis Bonnie K - - 2011
Introductions or invasions of nonnative organisms can mediate major changes in the trophic structure of aquatic ecosystems. Here we document multitrophic level impacts in a spatially extensive system that played out over more than a century. Positive interactions among exotic vertebrate and invertebrate predators caused a substantial and abrupt shift ...
Cano-Sancho G - - 2011
Fumonisins occur mainly in maize and they produce alterations on sphingolipid metabolism, unbalancing the sphinganine (Sa)/sphingosine (So) ratio. This alteration has been proposed as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure. The objective of this study was to establish the urinary and plasmatic levels of Sa, So as well as the ratio ...
Smit Hendrik Jan - - 2011
The effects of theobromine in man are underresearched, possibly owing to the assumption that it is behaviourally inert. Toxicology research in animals may appear to provide alarming results, but these cannot be extrapolated to humans for a number of reasons. Domestic animals and animals used for racing competitions need to ...
Yamamoto Shinya - - 2011
The determination of five drugs, fenfluramine (FEN), N-nitrosofenfluramine (NFE), sibutramine (SIB), mazindol (MAZ) and phenolphthalein (PHP), was studied in slimming health foods using GC-MS/MS. These drugs have been detected at high rates, especially in slimming health foods. Prolonged or excessive consumption of non-approved or unauthorized pharmaceuticals may cause serious adverse ...
Erzinger Melanie M - - 2011
Chemical and biochemical processes underlying food-drug interactions in cancer therapy have not been well addressed with a systematic focus, even though they offer significant potential for enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Bioreductive anticancer drugs are metabolically activated by reductase enzymes. The levels and activities of relevant metabolic enzymes are ...
Cuthbert Richard - - 2011
Contamination of their carrion food supply with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has caused rapid population declines across the Indian subcontinent of three species of Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia. The governments of India, Pakistan and Nepal took action in 2006 to prevent the veterinary use of diclofenac on ...
Grimm Jeffrey W - - 2011
For someone on a food-restricted diet, food craving in response to food-paired cues may serve as a key behavioral transition point between abstinence and relapse to food taking. Food craving conceptualized in this way is akin to drug craving in response to drug-paired cues. A rich literature has been developed ...
Riede Jens O - - 2011
Ecology Letters (2011) 14: 169-178 ABSTRACT: Despite growing awareness of the significance of body-size and predator-prey body-mass ratios for the stability of ecological networks, our understanding of their distribution within ecosystems is incomplete. Here, we study the relationships between predator and prey size, body-mass ratios and predator trophic levels using ...
Jeong Sang-Hee SH Hoseo University, Baebang 165, Asan - - 2010
Growth promoters including hormonal substances and antibiotics are used legally and illegally in food producing animals for the growth promotion of livestock animals. Hormonal substances still under debate in terms of their human health impacts are estradiol-17β, progesterone, testosterone, zeranol, trenbolone, and melengestrol acetate (MGA) . Many of the risk ...
Watters Jason V - - 2010
Environmental enrichment is widely used to stimulate animal time budgets that seem more natural and diverse than those of unenriched animals. Uncertainty of reward is a suggested means to maintain enrichment's efficacy. Foraging tasks are widely applied in zoo animal enrichment, yet few rely on the logic of optimal foraging ...
Williams David L - - 2010
In farm animal practice, there is often a clear tension between animal welfare and the economic basis of food animal production. Animal well-being is regularly compromised by the stringencies of intensive animal husbandry. Conditions such as infectious keratoconjunctivitis or ocular squamous cell carcinoma, while having negative effects on animal welfare, ...
Williams David L - - 2010
The increase in number of food-producing animals each year implies that even small prevalences of congenital anomalies in these ruminant species are still reflected in a significant number of affected animals born each year. It takes a specific investigation to show the true incidence of such congenital abnormalities. This article ...
Love David C - - 2011
Industrial food animal production employs many of the same antibiotics or classes of antibiotics that are used in human medicine. These drugs can be administered to food animals in the form of free-choice medicated feeds (FCMF), where animals choose how much feed to consume. Routine administration of these drugs to ...
Fuller Grace - - 2011
Techniques for analyzing hormone metabolites in animal excreta have created many opportunities for noninvasive monitoring of health, reproduction, and welfare in zoo animals, but can be difficult to implement when individual samples are not readily identifiable in animal groups. A common approach to this problem is to feed animals an ...
Moore D A - - 2010
Critical to changing biosecurity practices on the farm is an individual assessment of those practices contributing to disease transmission. The purpose of this project was to assess, implement, and refine a biological risk management survey for use on large western United States dairy farms. Assessment tools developed by Iowa State ...
Liu Wei - - 2010
Chlorpromazine is a typical antipsychotic drug used to make food-producing animals calm and promote growth as feed additives. Accumulation of chlorpromazine in animal bodies would cause side effects in the circulatory and nervous systems, and have adverse effects on blood cells, the skin and the eye. To detect the chlorpromazine ...
Chomel B B - - 2010
The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe ...
Collins J - - 2010
This report describes the progression in welfare standards for horses on a horse farm in the Republic of Ireland between 2007 and 2009. Visits to the farm were undertaken and information, in the form of written notes and digital recording of observations and examinations, was gathered in consultation with officials ...
Beeler-Marfisi J - - 2011
Gelatinous marrow transformation, or serous atrophy of bone marrow fat, has been noted in livestock, laboratory animals, and wildlife in association with an inadequate plane of nutrition, inanition, or intoxication. This is a report of gelatinous marrow transformation and hematopoietic marrow atrophy in a 5-year-old miniature horse stallion. The horse ...
Val-Laillet D - - 2010
Chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is known to influence food intake and body weight in animals and humans. The aim of our work was to evaluate the effects of long-term VNS in adult obese minipigs. Eight minipigs were fed ad libitum a Western diet to cause obesity, after which half ...
Scotti Stefania - - 2010
Semantic dissociations show that biological stimuli present a further dissociation between animals and plant life. Almost all cases of greater impairment of plant life knowledge were males, suggesting a higher male familiarity with animals possibly derived from different daily activities. To verify this hypothesis, we collected familiarity ratings for normal ...
Mohammadi Mahmoud - - 2010
Parents of epileptic children are willing to know if specific foods precipitate or aggravate their kids' seizures. Nonetheless conclusive data are limited. Alternative medicine has become a popular approach to many diseases in the world and there are limited data about this approach to epilepsy in Iran. We tried to ...
Berendsen Bjorn - - 2010
Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries. However, ...
Nietfeld Jerome C - - 2010
This article briefly reviews criteria for selecting animals for necropsy and outlines necropsy procedure and samples to collect when investigating new or emerging diseases of food animals. It gives recommendations on how to collect samples for submission to a diagnostic laboratory and how to package and ship the samples so ...
Jackson Kathryn A - - 2010
While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence ...
Vanderhaeghen W - - 2010
Until recently, reports on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food production animals were mainly limited to occasional detections in dairy cattle mastitis. However, since 2005 a MRSA clone, CC398, has been reported colonizing pigs, veal calves and broiler chickens and infecting dairy cows. Many aspects of its prevalence in pigs ...
Fink-Gremmels Johanna - - 2010
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) are non-nutritional components that occur in numerous feed materials and are able to exert toxic effects in animals. The current article aims to summarize innate defense strategies developed by different animal species to avoid excessive exposure to PSMs. These mechanisms include pre-systemic degradation of PSMs by ...
McCarthy S D S - - 2010
We examined how alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity within the bodies and in the materials released by the crustacean Daphnia magna responds to variable algal food phosphorus (P)-content. We found that Daphnia eating P-poor food (C:P approximately 700) had significantly higher AP activity in their bodies on a mass-specific basis compared ...
McCue Marshall D - - 2010
All animals face the possibility of limitations in food resources that could ultimately lead to starvation-induced mortality. The primary goal of this review is to characterize the various physiological strategies that allow different animals to survive starvation. The ancillary goals of this work are to identify areas in which investigations ...
Breunig Esther - - 2010
Appetite, food intake, and energy balance are closely linked to the endocannabinoid system in the central nervous system. Now, endocannabinoid modulation has been discovered in the peripheral olfactory system of larval Xenopus laevis. The endocannabinoid 2-AG has been shown to influence odorant-detection thresholds according to the hunger state of the ...
Yadav B S - - 2010
Resistant starch (RS) content was determined in the conventionally boiled (H1) and pressure-cooked (H2) cereals, legumes and tubers using enzymatic method. Both H1 and H2 legumes contained higher amount of RS as compared to cereals and tubers. H1 and H2 lentils showed highest RS content of 5.0 and 4.9% (dwb), ...
Gonzalez Ronald - - 2010
Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered anorexigen encoded in the precursor peptide, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) in mammals. To date, nesfatin-1 has not been described in any non-mammalian species, although some information is available in the sequenced genomes of several species. Our objective was to characterize nesfatin-1 in fish. In the present study, ...
Matkovi? Kristina - - 2009
The air of animal dwellings can contain great amounts of bioaerosol composed of dust, bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. The composition may depend on animal species, building construction, animal accommodation, and microclimate parameters, to name just a few factors. Pathogens contained may be a serious threat to animal and human health.The ...
- - 2009
Resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins is rapidly increasing in bacteria infecting humans. Although many of these problems are linked to human to human transmission and to use of antimicrobials in human medicine, the potential role of community reservoirs such as food producing animals needs to be scrutinized. Resistance ...
Cocchi Monia - - 2010
Two young dogs belonging to the same kennel placed nearby Treviso (north-eastern Italy) died at the end of 2008 with clinical signs of renal failure. They were subjected to necropsy and were evaluated for histopathological and toxicological changes. Both the animals had same clinical signs and laboratory evidence of uremia. ...
Greger M - - 2010
The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the commercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in transgenic ...
Willems Robert A - - 2009
While investigating certain aspects of animal physiology, neurology or behavior, research scientists sometimes must limit the amount of food or water provided to animals used in a study. Such limitations can negatively impact the health and welfare of laboratory animals by, for example, causing them to experience distress or pain. ...
Wideman Cyrilla H - - 2009
Melatonin levels, metabolic parameters, circadian rhythm activity patterns, and behavior were observed in rats subjected to a 12-h/12-h light/dark cycle (LD) compared to animals exposed to continuous dark (DD) or continuous light (LL). LD and DD animals were similar in melatonin levels, food intake, relative food intake, feed efficiency, water ...
Ratel Jérémy - - 2009
Animal-derived products are particularly vulnerable to contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These lipophilic substances, which are generated by an increasing number of sources, are easily transferred to the atmosphere, water, soil, and plants. They are ingested by livestock and become trapped in the fat fraction of edible animal tissues. ...
Songer J Glenn - - 2010
Clostridia are not normally considered to be zoonotic pathogens, although many species affect both humans and domestic animals. Three cases in which organisms occur, possibly via direct or indirect transmission, in both food animals and humans are considered here. Strains of Clostridium perfringens that produce enterotoxin (CPE) are typically transmitted ...
Collignon Peter - - 2009
The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans through the food supply. Improved management of the use of antimicrobials in food animals, particularly reducing the usage of those that are "critically important" for human medicine, is an important step ...
Campbell William C - - 2009
It is popular in some quarters to say that there is no food crisis; that there is food aplenty; and that the problem is one of distribution or other over-arching technical difficulty. To the starving, however, there is a food crisis; and it neither speaks well nor bodes well for ...
Cox Louis Anthony Tony LA - - 2009
Penicillin and ampicillin drugs are approved for use in food animals in the United States to treat, control, and prevent diseases, and penicillin is approved for use to improve growth rates in pigs and poultry. This article considers the possibility that such uses might increase the incidence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus ...
Jelinski Murray D - - 2009
This second of 2 articles, relating to the veterinary profession in western Canada, explores the factors associated with veterinarians' career path choices. Among other factors, companion animal (small animal and equine) (CA) practitioners were less likely to have been raised in, or near to, a small center (< or = ...
Nurten Asiye - - 2009
Animals treated with scopolamine after fasting develop convulsions after they are allowed to eat ad libitum. This study was aimed at investigating the effect on these convulsions of liquid food intake, feeding by gavage, and placebo. Fasted mice treated with saline or scopolamine were allowed to eat solid food, slurry ...
Sugiura Katsuaki - - 2009
Increased antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that cause infections in humans is a threat to public health. The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals in the form of veterinary medicine and feed additives may lead to the emergence or spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin. In Japan, the ...
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