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Henney Herbert R HR - - 2011
The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and tolerability of dalfampridine extended-release tablets in healthy adults under fed and fasted conditions were evaluated. The study participants (n = 30) were randomly assigned to receive one 10-mg dalfampridine tablet in a fasted condition (no food for 10-12 hours) or a fed condition (after a high-fat ...
Chajès Véronique V The International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, - - 2011
Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ...
Flaherty Keith T - - 2011
In August 2011 vemurafenib (Zelboraf; Daiichi Sankyo/Roche), an inhibitor of BRAF kinase, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with the BRAF(V600E) mutation.
Teng R - - 2011
What is known and Objective:  Ticagrelor is the first reversibly binding oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist and has been approved in the European Union and the USA for the reduction of clinical thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. This study aimed to assess the effect of food on ticagrelor ...
Marengo Mauro - - 2011
Scope: To improve our understanding of the interaction of food allergens with cells of the immune system, the endocytosis by human monocytes of bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and ovomucoid (OM) - two major food allergens - and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied. Methods and results: BLG was covalently conjugated to ...
Sjøtun K - - 2011
Concentration of (99)Tc has been measured in fucoids and molluscs, sampled in a sheltered intertidal at the southwest coast of Norway from February to November 2006. The concentrations of (99)Tc in molluscs differed significantly between species. The filtering bivalve Mytilus edulis had the lowest concentrations with averages of 2.3-5.9Bqkg(-1)d.w., while ...
Belcaro G - - 2011
It is now possible to define food supplements on the basis of their preclinical or clinical action. Nutraceuticals and food supplements when used as drugs to prevent or treat clinical conditions could be defined as Pre-drugs (Preventive drugs or pre-clinical drugs). Nutraceuticals, when used with the aim to limit the ...
Graefe-Mody Ulrike - - 2011
The objective of this study was to determine the relative bioavailability of the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin when administered with and without food, in accordance with regulatory requirements to support dosing recommendations for patients. This was a randomized, open-label, crossover study involving 32 healthy white male and female subjects. All ...
Ruggiero Antonio - - 2011
PURPOSE: The number of oral anticancer agents has greatly increased in recent years. It is a well-known fact that food intake can induce significant variations in the bioavailability of these drugs. The aim of this review is to describe the interactions between diet and oral anticancer drugs in terms of ...
Eussen Simone R B M - - 2011
It is increasingly recognized that most chronic diseases of concern today are multifactorial in origin. To combat such diseases and adverse health conditions, a treatment approach where medicines and nutrition complement each other may prove to be the most successful. Within nutrition, apart from (disease-related) dietetic regimes, an increasing number ...
Kozak Andrea T - - 2011
Low distress tolerance is an inability to withstand negative emotions. The connection between low distress tolerance and addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, and illegal drugs has been established. The purpose of the current study was to extend this work to overeating, which is an important symptom of food addiction. We investigated ...
Coronel M B - - 2011
Ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in blood plasma, as well as the consumption of possibly contaminated foodstuffs by adult inhabitants, were determined in three seasons in the plain and the mountain regions of the province of Lleida (Spain). Daily intake of the toxin was estimated in order to evaluate the exposure ...
Sharpe Amanda L - - 2011
RATIONALE: Traditional protocols for inducing sensitization to psychostimulants use an intermittent or "binge"-like drug administration, and binge eating behavior is comorbid with drug abuse in humans. Food restriction increases the reinforcing properties and self-administration of many drugs of abuse. OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypotheses that (1) food restriction ...
Marasanapalle Venugopal P - - 2011
Context: Food effects were defined as positive, when coadministration of food causes an increase in the extent of absorption (AUC(0-∞)) of a drug when compared with fasted state drug administration and no effect when coadministration of food causes no change in AUC(0-∞). In general, low solubility drugs exhibit positive food ...
Abbas Richat - - 2011
PURPOSE: Bosutinib (SKI-606), a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is in clinical development for the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). To support clinical development, we conducted a dose-escalation and food-effect evaluation of safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of bosutinib in healthy adults. METHODS: This was a randomized, ...
Sundar Shyam - - 2011
This randomized, open-label study of patients in India with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) investigated the effect of food on sitamaquine and desethyl-sitamaquine pharmacokinetics. Patients were randomized to receive oral sitamaquine, 2 mg/kg/day, once a day for 21 days across four cohorts (n = 41) (fasted/fed, fed/fasted, fed/fed, and fasted/fasted) over two ...
Morimoto Kaori - - 2011
We previously showed that oseltamivir, a prodrug of the influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor Ro 64-0802, is a substrate of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (PEPT1), and its intestinal absorption in rats is markedly inhibited by administration with milk. To investigate the importance of PEPT1 for oseltamivir absorption in humans, and the characteristics ...
Sjödin Linnea - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the target organs of adverse drug effects in different phases of drug development. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of population pharmacokinetic modeling to quantify the rate of gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit time (SITT) in response to drugs ...
Koetsier Egbert - - 2011
Food availability is a key factor in ecology and evolution, but available techniques to manipulate the effort to acquire food in vertebrates are technically challenging and/or labour intensive. We present a simple technique to increase foraging costs in seed-eating birds that can be applied with little effort and at low ...
Niemira Brendan A - - 2011
Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes ...
Chumchal Matthew M - - 2011
We studied the biomagnification of total and methylmercury in a subtropical freshwater lake, Caddo Lake, Texas/Louisiana, USA. The present study is unique in that we not only included invertebrates (seven species) and fish (six species) but also an amphibian (one species), reptiles (three species) and mammals (three species). Non-fish vertebrates ...
Rogovik Alexander L - - 2011
Question There is a large population of overweight and obese children in my clinic. What medications for treatment of obesity are effective and can be used in children? Answer Orlistat is the only medication indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity in adolescents. It ...
Carbone Chris - - 2011
Identifying tradeoffs between hunting and scavenging in an ecological context is important for understanding predatory guilds. In the past century, the feeding strategy of one of the largest and best-known terrestrial carnivores, Tyrannosaurus rex, has been the subject of much debate: was it an active predator or an obligate scavenger? ...
Ellis Bonnie K - - 2011
Introductions or invasions of nonnative organisms can mediate major changes in the trophic structure of aquatic ecosystems. Here we document multitrophic level impacts in a spatially extensive system that played out over more than a century. Positive interactions among exotic vertebrate and invertebrate predators caused a substantial and abrupt shift ...
Cano-Sancho G - - 2011
Fumonisins occur mainly in maize and they produce alterations on sphingolipid metabolism, unbalancing the sphinganine (Sa)/sphingosine (So) ratio. This alteration has been proposed as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure. The objective of this study was to establish the urinary and plasmatic levels of Sa, So as well as the ratio ...
Smit Hendrik Jan - - 2011
The effects of theobromine in man are underresearched, possibly owing to the assumption that it is behaviourally inert. Toxicology research in animals may appear to provide alarming results, but these cannot be extrapolated to humans for a number of reasons. Domestic animals and animals used for racing competitions need to ...
Yamamoto Shinya - - 2011
The determination of five drugs, fenfluramine (FEN), N-nitrosofenfluramine (NFE), sibutramine (SIB), mazindol (MAZ) and phenolphthalein (PHP), was studied in slimming health foods using GC-MS/MS. These drugs have been detected at high rates, especially in slimming health foods. Prolonged or excessive consumption of non-approved or unauthorized pharmaceuticals may cause serious adverse ...
Erzinger Melanie M - - 2011
Chemical and biochemical processes underlying food-drug interactions in cancer therapy have not been well addressed with a systematic focus, even though they offer significant potential for enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Bioreductive anticancer drugs are metabolically activated by reductase enzymes. The levels and activities of relevant metabolic enzymes are ...
Cuthbert Richard - - 2011
Contamination of their carrion food supply with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has caused rapid population declines across the Indian subcontinent of three species of Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia. The governments of India, Pakistan and Nepal took action in 2006 to prevent the veterinary use of diclofenac on ...
Grimm Jeffrey W - - 2011
For someone on a food-restricted diet, food craving in response to food-paired cues may serve as a key behavioral transition point between abstinence and relapse to food taking. Food craving conceptualized in this way is akin to drug craving in response to drug-paired cues. A rich literature has been developed ...
Riede Jens O - - 2011
Ecology Letters (2011) 14: 169-178 ABSTRACT: Despite growing awareness of the significance of body-size and predator-prey body-mass ratios for the stability of ecological networks, our understanding of their distribution within ecosystems is incomplete. Here, we study the relationships between predator and prey size, body-mass ratios and predator trophic levels using ...
Jeong Sang-Hee SH Hoseo University, Baebang 165, Asan - - 2010
Growth promoters including hormonal substances and antibiotics are used legally and illegally in food producing animals for the growth promotion of livestock animals. Hormonal substances still under debate in terms of their human health impacts are estradiol-17β, progesterone, testosterone, zeranol, trenbolone, and melengestrol acetate (MGA) . Many of the risk ...
Watters Jason V - - 2010
Environmental enrichment is widely used to stimulate animal time budgets that seem more natural and diverse than those of unenriched animals. Uncertainty of reward is a suggested means to maintain enrichment's efficacy. Foraging tasks are widely applied in zoo animal enrichment, yet few rely on the logic of optimal foraging ...
Williams David L - - 2010
In farm animal practice, there is often a clear tension between animal welfare and the economic basis of food animal production. Animal well-being is regularly compromised by the stringencies of intensive animal husbandry. Conditions such as infectious keratoconjunctivitis or ocular squamous cell carcinoma, while having negative effects on animal welfare, ...
Williams David L - - 2010
The increase in number of food-producing animals each year implies that even small prevalences of congenital anomalies in these ruminant species are still reflected in a significant number of affected animals born each year. It takes a specific investigation to show the true incidence of such congenital abnormalities. This article ...
Love David C - - 2011
Industrial food animal production employs many of the same antibiotics or classes of antibiotics that are used in human medicine. These drugs can be administered to food animals in the form of free-choice medicated feeds (FCMF), where animals choose how much feed to consume. Routine administration of these drugs to ...
Fuller Grace - - 2011
Techniques for analyzing hormone metabolites in animal excreta have created many opportunities for noninvasive monitoring of health, reproduction, and welfare in zoo animals, but can be difficult to implement when individual samples are not readily identifiable in animal groups. A common approach to this problem is to feed animals an ...
Moore D A - - 2010
Critical to changing biosecurity practices on the farm is an individual assessment of those practices contributing to disease transmission. The purpose of this project was to assess, implement, and refine a biological risk management survey for use on large western United States dairy farms. Assessment tools developed by Iowa State ...
Liu Wei - - 2010
Chlorpromazine is a typical antipsychotic drug used to make food-producing animals calm and promote growth as feed additives. Accumulation of chlorpromazine in animal bodies would cause side effects in the circulatory and nervous systems, and have adverse effects on blood cells, the skin and the eye. To detect the chlorpromazine ...
Chomel B B - - 2010
The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe ...
Collins J - - 2010
This report describes the progression in welfare standards for horses on a horse farm in the Republic of Ireland between 2007 and 2009. Visits to the farm were undertaken and information, in the form of written notes and digital recording of observations and examinations, was gathered in consultation with officials ...
Beeler-Marfisi J - - 2011
Gelatinous marrow transformation, or serous atrophy of bone marrow fat, has been noted in livestock, laboratory animals, and wildlife in association with an inadequate plane of nutrition, inanition, or intoxication. This is a report of gelatinous marrow transformation and hematopoietic marrow atrophy in a 5-year-old miniature horse stallion. The horse ...
Val-Laillet D - - 2010
Chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is known to influence food intake and body weight in animals and humans. The aim of our work was to evaluate the effects of long-term VNS in adult obese minipigs. Eight minipigs were fed ad libitum a Western diet to cause obesity, after which half ...
Scotti Stefania - - 2010
Semantic dissociations show that biological stimuli present a further dissociation between animals and plant life. Almost all cases of greater impairment of plant life knowledge were males, suggesting a higher male familiarity with animals possibly derived from different daily activities. To verify this hypothesis, we collected familiarity ratings for normal ...
Mohammadi Mahmoud - - 2010
Parents of epileptic children are willing to know if specific foods precipitate or aggravate their kids' seizures. Nonetheless conclusive data are limited. Alternative medicine has become a popular approach to many diseases in the world and there are limited data about this approach to epilepsy in Iran. We tried to ...
Berendsen Bjorn - - 2010
Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries. However, ...
Nietfeld Jerome C - - 2010
This article briefly reviews criteria for selecting animals for necropsy and outlines necropsy procedure and samples to collect when investigating new or emerging diseases of food animals. It gives recommendations on how to collect samples for submission to a diagnostic laboratory and how to package and ship the samples so ...
Jackson Kathryn A - - 2010
While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence ...
Vanderhaeghen W - - 2010
Until recently, reports on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food production animals were mainly limited to occasional detections in dairy cattle mastitis. However, since 2005 a MRSA clone, CC398, has been reported colonizing pigs, veal calves and broiler chickens and infecting dairy cows. Many aspects of its prevalence in pigs ...
Fink-Gremmels Johanna - - 2010
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) are non-nutritional components that occur in numerous feed materials and are able to exert toxic effects in animals. The current article aims to summarize innate defense strategies developed by different animal species to avoid excessive exposure to PSMs. These mechanisms include pre-systemic degradation of PSMs by ...
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