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Results 501 - 550 of 603
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Lancaster F - - 1987
Female Long-Evans rats (N = 30) were tested for individual preference for beer for a 24 h period and then assigned to beer (BR) (N = 15) or control (CT) (N = 15) groups according to preference. BR animals were allowed ad libitum access to beer, food and water; while ...
Pévet P - - 1987
In the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus,L.) pinealectomy as well as a constant high level of either circulating melatonin or 5-methoxytryptamine induced marked changes in the immunocytochemically demonstrable central vasopressinergic innervation. When compared to control animals, a drastic decrease of AVP-immunoreaction was observed in the diagonal band of Broca, the lateral ...
Price K R - - 1987
Saponins occur widely in plant species and exhibit a range of biological properties, both beneficial and deleterious. This review, which covers the literature to mid 1986, is concerned with their occurrence in plants and their effects when consumed by animals and man. After a short discussion on the nature, occurrence, ...
Weinberg D S - - 1986
Aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone and latamoxef (moxalactam) were evaluated in a hamster model for antibiotic-associated colitis. Aztreonam, a novel monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic specifically directed against aerobic Gram-negative bacteria with limited activity against Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria did not cause haemorrhagic caecitis and death in hamsters when administered intraperitioneally or orally. Quantitative ...
Short C E - - 1986
The use of preanesthetic agents alone or in various combinations in food animals is complex. In addition to considering the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of the medications, one must give additional consideration to the animals's temperament, its physical condition, and its environment. Also, the potential of residues from meat and milk ...
Collins M - - 1986
The relationship between air quality--its dust content--and respiratory diseases of animals in the food industry and otherwise is examined. The correlation between dust content and incidence of disease in farm animals is also discussed. Lesions caused either directly or indirectly by dust-transported microorganisms are reviewed. Effects of dust on animal ...
Steffey E P - - 1986
Successful anesthetic management of food animals depends on knowledge of basic principles and techniques of anesthesia common to most species. When specifically considering food animals, additional emphasis is directed toward animal size, temperament, and anatomy. Respiratory failure induced by a variety of mechanisms is a major complication of special importance ...
Karasov W H - - 1986
The magnitude of energy flow through individual animals and their populations is potentially limited by several physiological factors. These include thermal constraints affecting the time available for foraging, physiological design constraints affecting foraging mode and the rate of prey capture, and digestive constraints on how much food can be processed ...
Feingold K R - - 1986
The mechanism by which diabetes results in an increase in small intestinal cholesterol synthesis is unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that limiting food intake prevents the increase in intestinal cholesterol synthesis, and it has therefore been proposed that the stimulation of cholesterol synthesis in the small intestine is secondary to ...
Micozzi M S - - 1986
Understanding the processes of postmortem change in biologic systems is important to the forensic sciences. Previous experimental studies of postmortem change in animals under field conditions made use of animal carcasses that had been incidentally exposed to the effects of freezing and thawing or mechanical damage, or both, and were ...
Juhr N C - - 1986
To examine the connection between caecal size and urea concentration in the caecal contents urease inhibition was tested in conventional animals and urea and urease were administered to germ-free rats and mice. Administration of alloxan and barbituric acid and immunization with urease led to slightly larger caeca in conventional animals. ...
McGlone J J - - 1986
One type of social behavior--agonistic behavior--is commonly observed among food animals. Agonistic behaviors are those behaviors which cause, threaten to cause or seek to reduce physical damage. Agonistic behavior is comprised of threats, aggression and submission. While any one of these divisions of agonistic behavior may be observed alone, they ...
Sahebjami H - - 1986
Fasting and starvation affect various aspects of lung structure and function in experimental animals. Short-term food deprivation influences lung metabolism and biochemistry; prolonged partial food restriction affects lung structure and mechanics as well. This article provides a historical review of the topic and summarizes data obtained in humans and animals.
Marcucella H - - 1986
Sixteen male albino rats were divided into two groups of eight animals and maintained at either their free-feeding or at 80% of their free-feeding weight. For four animals, access to 8% ethanol was unrestricted, for the remaining four, access was restricted to eight 20-min access periods per day. Mean amounts ...
Jones D D - - 1986
The commercialization of genetically engineered food animals will pose a number of legal and regulatory questions. These may be grouped into questions of process and questions of products. The process of animal genetic engineering with artificially constructed vectors will probably be regulated in much the same manner as other veterinary ...
Zach R - - 1985
Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental ...
Sadykhova E F - - 1985
It is generally recognized that food-motivated reactions of animals occur with the participation of cortical and subcortical structures of the brain (hypothalamus, limbic-reticular complex), between which complex neurochemical interactions are established. It is believed that activation of various structures of the central nervous system at various levels of food-motivated excitation ...
Eisele G R - - 1985
In recent years, society has become increasingly aware and concerned about protection from chemicals released into the environment. The knowledge of the metabolism and effects of organic compounds in animals, specifically food-producing animals, are of paramount importance in assessing potential human health hazards. An intensive effort has been directed at ...
Deloof S - - 1985
The electrical activity of the antrum and the pylorus was recorded in rabbits, with chronically implanted electrodes. Effects of food intake were studied before and after bilateral vagotomy (b.v.), ventral vagotomy (v.v.) or dorsal vagotomy (d.v.) performed just above the diaphragm. In fasted animals, the electrical activity was characterized by ...
Shaikh B - - 1985
A survey of literature is presented dealing with physical-chemical methods for the detection and quantitation of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, and neomycin) that are used in food-producing animals. Recent developments in cleanup and determinative procedures, particularly liquid chromatography, for these compounds in fluids and tissues are emphasized. Little research ...
Robbins E I - - 1985
Microfossils resembling fecal pellets occur in acid-resistant residues and thin sections of Middle Cambrian to Early Proterozoic shale. The cylindrical microfossils average 50 x 110 mum and are the size and shape of fecal pellets produced by microscopic animals today. Pellets occur in dark gray and black rocks that were ...
O'Connor J J - - 1985
The fate of pentobarbital through rendering was evaluated by following a group of euthanatized animals through a commercial rendering facility. Samples of material were collected at various points in the rendering process, and assays for pentobarbital were conducted by an ultraviolet spectrophotometric method. The results indicated that the pentobarbital, or ...
Shane S M - - 1985
Campylobacter jejuni, which is now recognized as a discrete species, is a gram negative, microaerophilic, thermophilic, nalidixic acid sensitive, hippurate positive pathogen requiring special selective media for propogation. The organism is widely distributed in avian species, experimental and companion animals and in humans. Mammalian campylobacteriosis is characterized by an enterocolitis ...
Davis J M - - 1985
Samples of commercially used asbestos, especially chrysotile, are frequently contaminated by small amounts of other fibrous minerals. Among these are tremolite and brucite although pure tremolite is also produced commercially in relatively small quantities. In order to determine how harmful commercially exploited tremolite might be in comparison with other asbestos ...
Krasse B - - 1985
Current methods used in examining the cariogenic potential of foods are plaque pH measurements, measurements of adhesiveness of foods, experimental caries models and animal tests. pH measurements can be used for separating the non-acidogenic foods from the acidogenic ones but they are not suitable for separating foods with different levels ...
Garcia J - - 1985
The ability of animals to associate stimuli depends on whether the stimuli are processed by the cognitive system or the affective system. Historically, a distinction was made between "thinking" and "feeling" by the empirical philosophers of the Renaissance. Recent evidence indicates that cognition and affect can be fruitfully applied to ...
Verhaegen M J - - 1985
Much more than other primates, man has several features that are seen more often in aquatic than terrestrial mammals: nakedness, thick subcutaneous fat-layer, stretched hindlimbs, voluntary respiration, dilute urine etc. The Aquatic Ape Theory states that our ancestors once spent a significant part of their life in water. Presumably, early ...
Karch S B - - 1984
A 72-yr-old man receiving more than 300 separate DC countershocks in 2 wk exhibited morphologic heart changes, including areas of coagulation necrosis in the subepicardium and areas of frank hemorrhage. In other sites the myocytes were pathologically contracted, a finding previously demonstrated in experimental animals as a result of defibrillation ...
Madison J B - - 1984
The food animal practitioner is faced repeatedly with the dilemma of whether to intervene with treatment or to recommend sale of an animal for salvage value. An algorithm is presented that allows a clinician to choose between intervention or sale for salvage value in cases where the economics of the ...
Ravo B - - 1984
The most important cause of morbidity and mortality in colonic resection remains anastomotic leakage and, to this end, temporary stomas, with their own incidence of mortality or morbidity, are often created. Problems associated with both anastomosis and stoma can be prevented with the use of an internal bypass tube. This ...
Czech D A - - 1984
An easily constructed and inexpensive device for use in monitoring motor activity in small animals is described, which utilizes a suspension system and integrated circuit photodetector technology. Its sensitivity is readily adjusted, making it useful in a variety of applications. It provides a reasonably natural environment with minimal disturbance to ...
Susswein A J - - 1984
The hypothesis that subsatiating levels of internal food stimuli can arouse and potentiate feeding behavior was examined in the mollusc Aplysia californica. Animals were fed a small quantity of seaweed and their latencies to show biting responses were determined after food arousal was permitted to partially decay. Control animals were ...
Claiborne J B - - 1984
The transepithelial potential (TEP) across the gills of a seawater teleost, the long-horned sculpin (Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus), was measured both in vivo and utilizing an isolated, perfused head preparation (IPHP). The TEP of the IPHP was compared to that of the whole animal while in normal seawater and Na- or Cl-free ...
Settepani J A - - 1984
To summarize, concern has developed over the extra-label use of chloramphenicol in food-producing animals because a type of blood dyscrasia that is usually fatal to a significant subgroup of the population with an apparent predisposed sensitivity to chloramphenicol has been associated with extremely low levels of exposure to the drug. ...
Henrickson R L - - 1984
The hide of an animal previously used for leather may be upgraded in value through its expanded use as a food additive. While not a complete protein, collagen--the main protein of hide--may provide desirable functional properties within a food system. This protein is now abundant and will increase as new ...
Gebreel A O - - 1983
In Libya traditional animal husbandry and the practice of domestic slaughter of food animals contribute to the maintenance of the Echinococcus cycle. The cost of echinococcosis is high and may significantly affect the national economy. This study, employing the ELISA test, has indicated an approximately 10% infection rate in children ...
Ejiri S - - 1983
In contrast to high molecular weight forms of elongation factor 1 (EF-1H) from animal sources which contain three subunits, EF-1a, EF-1b, and EF-1c, EF-1H from wheat embryo consisted of four subunits, EF-1a, EF-1b, EF-1b', and EF-1c, in an equimolar ratio. The molecular weights of EF-1a, EF-1b, EF-1b', and EF-1c from ...
Davies R - - 1983
The cytotoxicity of seven specimens of respirable talc dust for mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro was studied. All talcs showed modest but consistent macrophage cytotoxicity and would be expected to be fibrogenic in vivo. Available data suggest that under certain circumstances respirable talc can cause lung fibrosis in animal inhalation ...
Silenas R - - 1983
Peritonitis was produced in rabbits using a human fecal suspension. Catheters for multiple peritoneal lavage then were inserted and continuous irrigation was performed. Contrast material was injected on day 1, 2, or 3 to evaluate the mechanical effectiveness of irrigation. Radiologic studies revealed that contrast material penetrated most or all ...
Friess S L - - 1983
An important series of issues confronts the animal research scientist involved in meeting world needs for food products from animal agriculture. The major issues stem from societal pressures for improved products, for prevention of chemical pollution of the biosphere, and for wise use of animal resources in toxicological testing and ...
Katze J R - - 1982
Queuine, a modified base found in transfer RNA, appears to be a new dietary factor because (i) previous studies have shown that mice require it for the expression of queuine-containing transfer RNA's but apparently do not synthesize it, and (ii) significant amounts of free queuine are present in common plant ...
Marques D M - - 1982
This study compared the effects of transection of the lateral olfactory tracts (LOT) and the accessory olfactory tracts (AOT) in male hamsters on nest building, food piling, and sexual behavior. Autoradiographic tracing of amino acids injected into the olfactory bulbs allowed accurate determination of the location and extent of the ...
Watt J - - 1981
An increased number of reports have appeared in the literature describing the harmful effects of degraded and undegraded carrageenan supplied to several animal species in their diet or drinking fluid. The harmful effects include foetal toxicity, teratogenicity, birth defects, pulmonary lesions, hepatomegaly, prolonged storage in Kupffer cells, ulcerative disease of ...
Corbett S W - - 1980
The body weight of male rats with lateral hypothalamic lesions remained approximately 20% below that maintained by nonlesioned controls. One month following surgery, both food intake and energy losses in feces and urine were measured in all animals for five days. The percentage of ingested food absorbed by the gut ...
Huber W G - - 1980
1. Bioavailability studies and current methodologies provide a very useful system for assessing the safety of radioactive drug related residues in food-producing animals. 2. Two year chronic toxicity studies provide useful information regarding the toxic properties of the parent drug but they have limited value for the assessment of safety ...
Bowen W H - - 1980
By feeding rats their essential nutrition through gastric intubation and test foods on a programmed feeder it is possible to determine the cariogenicity of many foods in animals. Because the test food is the only substance that contacts teeth, all carious lesions that develop can be ascribed solely to the ...
Krieger D T - - 1980
Daytime restriction of food and water availability in nocturnal animals phase-shifts the circadian periodicity of plasma corticosteroid concentrations and body temperature. These shifted rhythms do not persist in animals with lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus, in contrast to our previous reports of persistence of such shifted rhythms in animals with ...
Jordan J P - - 1980
As a prelude to a flight experiment, an attempt was made to separate energy requirements associated with gravity from all other metabolic needs. The biological effects of weightlessness were simulated by suspending animals in a harness so that antigravity muscles were not supporting the body. Twelve pairs of rats were ...
Simoons F - - 1980
Some illustrations are given of how historical factors, such as the pattern of domestication of animals, and plants, and religious traditions, work together to form cultural determinants of diet. It is suggested that some long-term genetic changes in human populations may have come about as a result of consumption of ...
King B M - - 1980
Early studies of hypothalamic function found that damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) resulted in marked overeating but inferior performance in food-motivated tasks, leading several investigators to conclude that hyperphagic VMH animals were actually less hungry than normal animals. However, numerous studies have since demonstrated that under certain conditions VMH-damaged ...
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