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Longair J A - - 1991
All animals that are to be killed, whether for food, for humane reasons, or because they are homeless, must receive a quick and painless death. In some smaller communities, veterinary or humane society expertise may not be readily available to humanely kill stray and unwanted animals. An alternative that provides ...
Khan R A - - 1991
Prevalence of species of Sarcocystis in muscle of 36 caribou, Rangifer tarandus terraenorae, shot in Newfoundland, Canada, was 53%. A greater percentage of infected animals were obtained from the central part of the island. The highest concentration of microscopic sarcocysts, 1/mm2 of tissue, was observed in a 5-year old animal. ...
Li X - - 1991
The People's Republic of China has a large number of animal parasites transmitted through the ingestion of food products. Approximately 20 species of parasites in animals and man are reported from most of the provinces and autonomous regions of the country. The major food-borne parasitic zoonoses are reported from pigs, ...
Yousef M K - - 1991
To meet the food demands of the ever-increasing world population, man's only major future land bank is the arid lands. However, their exploitation has been limited and constitutes a major challenge to many scientific disciplines. Under the present conditions of hunger and/or malnutrition, a large-scale expansion in food production is ...
Coates M E - - 1991
Dietary restriction in the maintenance of animals for aging research has been the subject of intense recent interest. This interest may be justified. Current formulas for laboratory animal diets were a natural progression from those for farm animals, but the objectives and conditions for maintaining laboratory and farm animals are ...
Pollreisz J H - - 1991
Mass medication is a health management tool that, when used appropriately, results in cost savings and sound economic return to the food animal producer. Careful planning and consideration should precede the implementation of a mass treatment program, clearly defining the goal to be achieved and a detailed plan of execution. ...
Shell E W - - 1991
The husbandry of aquatic animals originated in China in approximately 1,100 B.C., thousands of years after the beginning of animal agriculture. The practice did not reach Europe until the Middle Ages. Aquaculture apparently was not very important in Western Europe. The early immigrants from that region did not include fish ...
Page S W - - 1991
Diethylstilboestrol is a non-steroidal orally active oestrogen that in the past has been widely used in a variety of conditions in both medical and veterinary fields. In recognition of potential systemic availability to man of DES in the tissues of treated food-producing animals, together with an understanding of the potential ...
Ekholm A - - 1991
It has recently been proposed by Kraig et al. that H+ is compartmentalized during complete ischaemia, with glial cells of hyperglycemic animals becoming excessively acidic (pH approximately 5.2), compared to neurons (pH approximately 6.2). In part, the evidence for that is a discontinuous delta PCO2/delta lactate relationship, with PCO2 precipitously ...
Pliner P - - 1991
Research from the anthropological, psychological, and animal behavior literatures suggests that foods of animal origin have a special status. In two studies we explored the question of whether individuals are more neophobic with respect to animal foods than non-animal foods. In the first study male and female subjects, after reading ...
de Waal A - - 1991
Dehydration, to varying degrees, will inevitably occur in horses participating in endurance trail rides. This water loss is directly related to the amount of body water lost through evaporative cooling, that in turn being related to the amount and rate of work performed, and to the environmental temperature and humidity. ...
Page S W - - 1991
Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic which has enjoyed extensive use in both medical and veterinary practice. Shortly after its introduction in the late 1940s, the use of chloramphenicol was associated with the induction of an idiosyncratic form of aplastic anaemia in man. This rare and unpredictable adverse effect has since ...
Page S W - - 1991
The use of chloramphenicol in the horse is now prohibited as horses are classified as food-producing animals. However, chloramphenicol has until recently been widely available for oral, intramuscular or intravenous administration. A critical appraisal of the published literature on the use of chloramphenicol in the horse clearly demonstrates that there ...
Blecha F - - 1991
Cytokines such as human, bovine, and porcine interferons and human and bovine interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 have been used in vivo in cattle and pigs. Colony-stimulating factors and tumor necrosis factor alpha have been evaluated in vitro in food animals. Studies to evaluate cytokines in domestic food animals have shown that ...
Jilge B - - 1991
Although the rabbit is an almost 'classical' laboratory animal, chronobiological research in this species is in its infancy. It appears not even clear, whether the rabbit is a predominantly diurnal, crepuscularly active or nocturnal animal. In an ordinary, non sound-isolated animal room rabbits exhibited elevated locomotor activity, hard faeces excretion, ...
Flores B M - - 1990
Campylobacter cinaedi and C. fennelliae have been associated with proctocolitis, bacteremia, and asymptomatic rectal infection, primarily in homosexual men. To more directly assess the pathogenic role of these organisms, we studied their disease-producing potential in 12- to 25-day-old pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Four infant monkeys were challenged with 10(8) to ...
Koe B K - - 1990
Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors constitute a new class of psychotherapeutic agents that promote enhanced central serotonergic neurotransmission in animal studies. Sertraline, a member of this class, exhibits considerable potency and specificity in inhibiting serotonin neuronal reuptake in preclinical studies. Thus, it is likely to exert antidepressant activity without significant anticholinergic, ...
Wiederhold M L - - 1990
The gravity receptor organs of gastropod molluscs, such as Aplysia californica, are bilateral paired statocysts, which contain dense statoconia within a fluid-filled cyst. Gravitational forces on the statoconia are sensed through their interaction with ciliated mechanoreceptor cells in the wall of the cyst. Larval Aplysia contain a single statolith within ...
Hurnik J F - - 1990
The concern for food animal well-being is one of several serious issues facing intensive animal agriculture. This paper focuses on ethical concepts relevant to the treatment of farm animals and discusses the reasons for social attractiveness of animal welfare philosophy. It defines animal quality of life to be a function ...
Kerr L A - - 1990
Insecticides, nitrates, gossypol, copper, and plants are a few of the common toxicoses observed in livestock in a particular specie due to various factors. Some species may have anatomical or physiological uniquenesses making them more susceptible to certain agents. Another specie may be exposed to some agents more frequently than ...
Bhunia A K - - 1990
Pediocin AcH, a bacteriocin of Pediococcus acidilactici H, inhibits the growth of several food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The antigenic property of partially purified pediocin AcH was tested by immunizing mice and a rabbit. Pediocin AcH was not immunogenic in these animals as determined by immunoblotting even after conjugation to ...
Nunn S - - 1990
The mucosal exudate from the gastrointestinal tract of six adult female New Zealand rabbits was studied using scanning electron microscopy and without any attempt being made to clean the luminal surface before screening. The exudate consisted of mucus, debris and bacteria. Qualitative assessment showed that the nature and distribution of ...
Dorman D C - - 1990
Companion animal exposures to volatile hydrocarbons and turpentine accounted for 2% of all calls received by the IAPIC in 1987. Volatile hydrocarbons are also used as vehicle solvents (e.g., pesticides), and both vehicle and active ingredients pose a significant hazard to companion animals. The most significant clinical effects of the ...
Tester J R - - 1990
This paper reviews information on the effects of biological and environmental factors on activity rhythms of wild animals monitored by radio telemetry. Variations in radio signals received from free-ranging animals are used to determine the pattern of activity and rest. Telemetry is especially effective for obtaining activity data from wild ...
Blecha F - - 1990
In the production of domestic food animals several situations exist where disease decreases production efficiency. Some of these diseases are exacerbated by a lowered or compromised immune response of the host. If immunomodulators can be used to augment immune function at critical periods during the production of food animals, such ...
Giese W W - - 1989
The nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl stimulated new discussions and experiments on the question, how and to what extent the radiocesium-concentration in animal derived foods can be reduced. In a brief review this paper describes the use of two groups of feed additives as already applied in laboratory experiments during ...
Kuiper-Goodman T - - 1989
Ochratoxin A (OA) is a mycotoxin which has been found to occur in foods of plant origin, in edible animal tissues, as well as in human blood sera and tissues. The ability of OA to move up the food chain is aided by its long half-life in certain edible animal ...
Rosen S C - - 1989
Food-induced arousal in Aplysia is characterized by a progressive increase in the speed and strength of biting responses elicited by a seaweed stimulus. Data from semi-intact and dissected preparations suggest that the identified, serotonergic, metacerebral cells (MCCs) of the cerebral ganglion contribute to food-induced arousal by enhancing the strength of ...
Kallfelz F A - - 1989
Questions regarding pet animal nutrition are probably among the most frequent queries encountered by companion animal veterinarians. Given the plethora of pet food products available and the amount of advertising used to promote them, it is not surprising that pet owners have concerns as to what they should feed their ...
Livingston B T - - 1989
The mechanism of determination of early embryonic cells has been investigated using sea urchin embryos. An efficacious method of isolating blastomere pairs from the animal or vegetal half of sea urchin embryos was developed. The overt differentiation of separated animal and vegetal blastomere pairs resembles that of separated animal and ...
Feingold K R - - 1989
Previous studies have demonstrated that a variety of conditions that result in an increase in food intake lead to an increase in small-intestinal cholesterol synthesis. In the present study, it was determined whether hyperphagia induces an increase in cholesterol synthesis in segments of the small intestine excluded from contact with ...
Figler R A - - 1989
Arginine vasotocin (AVT) and neurophysin (NP) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in two species of sea turtle, the olive ridley, Lepidochelys olivacea, and the loggerhead, Caretta caretta, during the brief period of nesting and oviposition. In both species, AVT was low in animals which were not reproductively active. AVT was ...
Kopcha M - - 1989
Presently, in the United States, there are no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, except aspirin, that are approved for use in animals intended for food production. Use of phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, and dipyrone for treatment of food animals may be considered in special circumstances. Such use requires strict adherence to FDA guidelines ...
Greenhalgh D G - - 1988
Adriamycin-impaired wound healing in mice was found to be related to the degree of weight loss which in turn was dependent on the dose given. Treated animals had an initial decrease in food consumption that correlated with initial weight loss. After approximately 7 days, food consumption returned to normal but ...
Laemle L K - - 1988
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity in the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) was studied in 15 bats which are seasonal hibernators, using the unlabeled antibody enzyme method of Sternberger. Our results showed that the density of immunoreactive fibers and terminal plexuses in the AHA was greatest in euthermic animals and decreased ...
Kerkut G A - - 1988
1. With the development of techniques of gene transfer, human genetic defects such as sickle cell anaemia, phenylketonurea, cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, Huntington's chorea, etc. will be eliminated. Ninety nine percent of humans in the year 2500 will be much the same as at present, but healthier. 2. Studies of Comparative ...
Van Dijk J E - - 1988
The significance of food allergy as a primary cause for gastrointestinal disturbances in domestic animals, especially calves and piglets, is discussed. The immunological backgrounds and pathogenesis are described in some detail. The clinical and pathological manifestations in animals are related to those in man. Diagnostic possibilities, therapy and prevention, as ...
Steely W M - - 1987
The possible benefit of either partial splenectomy or splenic autotransplantation as protection against post-splenectomy sepsis was investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged with intravenous Streptococcus pneumoniae and the incidence of bacteremia and mortality were recorded. Animals were divided into four groups based upon the amount of splenic tissue conserved: total splenectomy ...
Laties V G - - 1987
Imposing moderate amounts of food deprivation on an animal allows the use of reward techniques in studying behavior and poses fewer ethical problems than does the use of aversive procedures. Possible discomfort caused by experiments using aversive stimulation frequently can be reduced. Habituating animals to experimental procedures is almost always ...
Kuslansky B - - 1987
Animals filled almost to satiation by nonnutritive bulk do not satiate when they ingest a small amount of seaweed. This suggests that satiation is not triggered by chemostimulation of an anteriorly located "hot spot." Inflation of a balloon placed in the gut of the animal results in satiation as reflected ...
Greenhalgh D G - - 1987
Since infection and malnutrition both impair wound repair, we examined the interactions of an intra-abdominal abscess and its nutritional alterations on wound healing. Mice subjected to a left paraspinal incision then underwent either cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation (sham). Abscesses and an early decrease in food intake ...
Hemsworth P H - - 1987
The objective of this article is to discuss the human-animal relationship in animal production, emphasizing the importance of this relationship to the productivity and welfare of the animal, some of the factors that may regulate the relationship, and how to manipulate this relationship to improve the productivity and welfare of ...
Fraser D - - 1987
This article considers the major fighting-related activities of the most common food animals. Instead of being seen as a largely pathologic phenomenon born solely of frustration and pain, aggressive behavior is now regarded as a natural part of an animal's behavioral equipment for survival and reproduction. There is a need, ...
Wise J K - - 1987
American agribusiness is undergoing significant change and stress. In the future, agriculture faces continued instability and uncertainty because of ever-changing global economic conditions, rapid technological advances, increasing production efficiencies, shifts in demand for agricultural products, and a growing dependence of US producers on increasingly competitive world markets. In order to ...
Lukowiak K - - 1987
There is a factor in the blood of a food-satiated Aplysia which brings about suppression of the gill withdrawal reflex (GWR) and the concomitant neuronal activity evoked by tactile stimulation of the siphon in an in vitro preparation taken from a non-food-satiated Aplysia. Blood from control non-food-satiated animals has little ...
Croll R P - - 1987
Previous research suggests that gut distension by ingested bulk plays an important role in the regulation of food intake in gastropod molluscs. The present study tested whether the bilateral stomatogastric nerves which innervate the esophagus and crop in Pleurobranchaea form a neural pathway carrying information about gut distension to the ...
Yang Y - - 1987
The effect of intragastric balloons as a noninvasive method for weight reduction was observed in nine castrated Yorkshire pigs. None of the animals lost weight. The appetites of the experimental animals were inhibited for only a short period of time. A significant dilatation of the stomach after balloon insertion was ...
Garstin W I - - 1987
Presented is an in vivo animal model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in which we used an isolated loop of rabbit colon. Changes in mucosal perfusion and macroscopic and microscopic appearances were studied after exposure of the mucosa to different intraluminal tensions and pHs. Mucosal perfusion was reduced with increasing intraluminal ...
Becker B A - - 1987
'Stress', 'stressors' and the 'stress response' are terms which represent concepts rather than being precisely definable. No single theory of stress has been universally accepted. Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome of stress remains the primary theory for the basis of stress research in food-producing animals; however, other concepts and theories have ...
Gallaher E J - - 1987
Mice were treated with 0.025% alprazolam incorporated into their laboratory chow for periods of one, two, and four weeks. Treated animals gained weight and appeared healthy during treatment, although an increased number of animals were lost in the treatment groups due to cannibalism. When regular food was substituted, alprazolam-treated animals ...
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