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Results 401 - 450 of 843
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Pasquet P - - 2002
The extent to which taste responses--and notably the genetically determined sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP)--influences food preferences and food use is still a matter of debate. We addressed the issue on the basis of a behavioural and anthropological study performed in Tunis in 1999. The working sample consists of 123 adults ...
Zafra M A MA Psychobiology Area, Department of Experimental Psychology and Physiology of Behavior, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, 18071, Granada, Spain. - - 2002
A study was undertaken of the role of the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (PBNLe) in flavor preferences induced by the intragastric administration of predigested/cephalic food. These preferences were developed using two different learning procedures, concurrent and sequential. In the concurrent procedure, two different-flavored stimuli were presented at the same time: ...
Stasiak Maciej - - 2002
The processes of food and fluid acquisition are necessary for the preservation of the animal's integrity. This review describes behavioral investigations concerning the role of one experiential factor in early infancy, that of, prior diet and its effect on the development of solid food preferences in cats. The results are ...
Duncan A J - - 2002
The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which herbivores are able to use conditioned food aversions and preferences to learn about the nutritional and toxic properties of food plants, when food options are simultaneously available. Conditioned food aversions and preferences have been invoked as important mechanisms ...
Pliner Patricia - - 2002
We examined the effects of manipulated arousal on willingness to taste moderately novel and extremely novel foods in children ranging from 7 to 12 years of age. Children were assigned at random to one of three arousal conditions (low, moderate, and high). Twice during the 30-min manipulation period, the children ...
Blank Imre - - 2002
The role of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in coffee aroma is controversially discussed in the literature. MIB is known as an off-flavor compound in drinking water and food, but it has also been suggested as a key flavor component of Robusta coffee, discriminating Robusta from Arabica coffee. To check this hypothesis the ...
Brown J Lynne - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To learn how couples stratified by gender role preference (GRP) manage food preferences. DESIGN: One-time individual semistructured qualitative interview with each partner in a couple representing 1 of 3 GRP pairings. Settings/PARTICIPANTS: Volunteers were recruited using advertising and snowball sampling and met the criteria of both parents living at ...
Gardini Fausto - - 2002
The main objective of this work was to investigate if the use of Staphylococcus xylosus S81 as a starter culture in sausage production can influence the amount of histamine during ripening, and the concentration of the other most important biogenic amines, by influencing the activity of the microbial amino oxidases ...
Barratt-Fornell Anne - - 2002
A plant-based diet is said to protect against aging, heart disease, and cancer. Yet, the given advice to eat more vegetables and fruit often goes unheeded. Some consumers have turned instead to dietary supplements that provide plant-based antioxidants in a more concentrated form. Although these supplements are beneficial to human ...
Pieroni Andrea - - 2002
An ethnobiological field study on food plants and medicinal foods traditionally consumed in three Arbëresh (ethnic Albanian) communities in northern Lucania (southern Italy) document approximately 120 botanical taxa used for these purposes. Non-domesticated food vegetables (liakra), mostly gathered during the spring season, play a central role as traditional functional food. ...
Scalera Giuseppe - - 2002
Conditioned food aversion (CFA) and taste aversion (CTA) are widely occurring phenomena mediating rejection of solids or liquids, the ingestion of which has induced the onset of post-ingestional malaise. It is a powerful and durable imprint learning that may influence food choice and intake in all animals, including humans. For ...
Laska Matthias - - 2002
Taste preference thresholds for six food-associated saccharides and relative sweet-taste preferences were assessed in 12 European rabbits using two-bottle choice tests of brief duration (3 min). In Experiment 1, the animals were found to significantly prefer concentrations as low as 30 mM maltose, 50 mM polycose and sucrose, 75 mM ...
Yackinous Carol A - - 2002
Previous studies have related 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status to preference for, and consumption of various (bitter-tasting) foods recognized for their cancer-preventive properties. The aim of this study was to examine PROP taster status in relation to general measures of dietary intake as well as the consumption of specific food groups. ...
Mann Norman M - - 2002
Lost or impaired smell or taste should be taken seriously, as it puts a person at higher risk for toxic exposures, such as gas leaks, smoke, and rotting food, and it also takes away the enjoyment of some of life's pleasures, such as the fragrance of flowers or the taste ...
Manabe Yasuko - - 2002
Taste plays an important role in the regulation of food and fluid intake in animals. Taste information on the tongue is transmitted to the brain, and we feel hedonic or aversive sensation from the taste of a food. Various studies have shown that opioids or the dopamigenic system is deeply ...
Solomon Nancy G - - 2002
The social transmission of food preferences is affected by factors including the length of time a preference is maintained. The authors investigated the social transmission of food preferences in pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) and whether food items had to be present for memory to persist. A demonstrator vole was fed ...
DiBattista David - - 2002
Although animals generally prefer to eat foods with familiar rather than unfamiliar flavors, adult golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were found to do the opposite. After having prolonged exposure to a food with a particular flavor, hamsters were allowed to select between the food with the familiar flavor and the same ...
Olabi A A - - 2002
The effect of space flight and microgravity on the chemical senses is reviewed. Skylab-4 and Soyuz 30-31 studies revealed changes in taste thresholds while no effect was found in a Canadian investigation (41-G) and conflicting results were obtained on another Soyuz mission. Two simulated microgravity studies found no effect on ...
Keller Kathleen L - - 2002
Adult tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) are more sensitive to bitter taste and fattiness in foods, and often show lower acceptance of foods that are high in these taste qualities. This study hypothesized that PROP taster children would show lower acceptance of these same foods. Sixty-seven preschool children were classified as ...
Bayley Tracy M - - 2002
Food cravings and food aversions are common during pregnancy. A mechanism that may explain these changes in food preference is taste aversion learning. Accordingly, this study examined the temporal association between the first occurrences of nausea, vomiting, food cravings and food aversions during pregnancy. Ninety-nine women completed a questionnaire that ...
Piazza Cathleen C - - 2002
In the current investigation, we compared two methods of food presentation (simultaneous vs. sequential) to increase consumption of nonpreferred food for 3 children with food selectivity. In the simultaneous condition, preferred foods were presented at the same time as nonpreferred food (e.g., a piece of broccoli was presented on a ...
Stillman Jennifer A - - 2002
On the face of it, basic tactile sensation might seem the only essential sensory requirement for the delivery of foods and beverages to the digestive system. In practice, however, the appropriate delivery of raw materials for the maintenance and repair of the body requires complex sensory and cognitive processes, such ...
Moore Malcolm A - - 2002
Food preferences and habits regarding physical exercise and play regimens appear to become set relatively early in life, the mother being the major influence at this stage. Subsequently, the peer group takes on increasing importance, with continued roles for teachers and parents in providing an environment and guidance leading to ...
Bárdos G - - 2002
Most of the factors initiating food or fluid intake have already been studied, but much less is known about those terminating ingestion. We have hypothesised that discomfort originating from the gastrointestinal system may be one of those factors. Gut distension cause pain if the intestinal volume changes but merely discomfort ...
Kim Jong S - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Altered food preference or preoccupation with certain food after stroke has been rarely described in the literature. METHODS: We report four Korean patients who developed altered food preference secondary to unilateral cortical infarction. RESULTS: Two patients showed preoccupation with meat such as Pulgogi or Kalbi (roast beef flavored with ...
Wardle J - - 2001
Studying the correlative structure of young children's food preferences may help us to understand the influences on the development of eating habits. We investigated patterns of food preferences in 214 same-sex twin pairs aged 4 to 5 years. Mothers completed a questionnaire of their children's likes and dislikes for 94 ...
Sclafani A A Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College and The Graduate School City, University of New York Brooklyn, New York 11210-2889, USA. - - 2001
Investigations with laboratory animals can reveal much about the basic psychobiological determinants of food preference and diet-induced overeating. When offered a choice of foods, rats typically prefer high-fat and/or high-sugar food items over their nutritionally balanced chow diet. In addition, they may increase their total energy intake by 20-40% and ...
Cooling J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To characterize taste preferences in habitual high fat (HF) and low fat (LF) phenotypes. DESIGN: Eighteen test solutions to taste for each subject group in a fully repeated 2x6x3 measures design. SETTING: The Human Appetite Research Unit at Leeds University, Psychology Department. SUBJECTS: Eight lean HF (mean percentage fat ...
Glendinning J I - - 2001
When animals repeatedly sample a noxious food over a period of 1-4 days, they can markedly reduce their aversive behavioral response to the diet's unpleasant taste (e.g. 'bitterness') or toxic effects. This long-term adaptation process is selective, however, permitting insects to adapt physiologically to some but not all noxious foods. ...
Helen S. Jacob
As adults, many parasitoid wasps require carbohydrates for reproduction and self-maintenance. Consequently, many adult female parasitoids that require carbohydrate foods located at a distance from host patches face a trade-off between searching for hosts and food. In a series of experiments using a Y-tube olfactometer, we explored how hunger affects ...
Smith J E - - 2001
The lack of a small animal model with an emetic reflex in which the relationship between conditioned food aversion and emesis could be investigated prompted a study of the insectivore, Suncus murinus (the house musk shrew). A novel food (either tuna or chicken cat food) was paired (C+) with a ...
Scalera G - - 2001
In a previous report, it has been shown that water deprivation significantly affects the two-bottle taste preferences and one-bottle taste acceptance in rats when no food was available during tests. Since no food was available, the course of drinking was never interrupted by eating. Theoretically, if a rat faces a ...
Rolls E T - - 2001
Approximately 35% of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex taste and olfactory areas with olfactory responses provide a representation of odour that depends on the taste with which the odour has been associated previously. This representation is produced by a slowly acting learning mechanism that learns associations between odour and taste. ...
Knibb R C - - 2001
Currently in the U.K., as in the U.S.A. 20 years ago, when students were asked to name a food that they did not like, more dislike for the food was attributed to nausea or vomiting after eating than to other gastrointestinal symptoms or to illness in other parts of the ...
Drewnowski A - - 2001
Food choices and eating habits are largely influenced by how foods taste. Without being the dominant taste sensation, bitter taste contributes to the complexity and enjoyment of beverages and foods. Compounds that are perceived as bitter do not share a similar chemical structure. In addition to peptides and salts, bitter ...
Raudenbush B - - 2001
The present study assessed the effect of nasal dilators on ratings of food intensity and pleasantness. Participants wearing the dilators rated foods in the oral cavity as less pleasant and more intense than did those participants wearing a placebo strip. In addition, they consumed less of the test stimuli. Significant ...
Glendinning J I - - 2001
Animals have evolved several chemosensory systems for detecting potentially dangerous foods in the environment. Activation of specific sensory cells within these chemosensory systems usually elicits an aversive behavioral response, leading to avoidance of the noxious foods. Although this aversive behavioral response can be adaptive, there are many instances in which ...
Ackroff K - - 2001
The acceptance of food and the expression of preferences for particular foods have both innate and learned components. To determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the acquisition of learned preferences and the enhancement of inborn taste preferences, it is important to separate the component stimuli: the oral flavor cues and the ...
Johnson L R - - 2001
The addiction potential of anabolic steroids remains largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate voluntary oral testosterone intake in hamsters. Using a 2-bottle choice test, males preferred an aqueous solution of 200 microg/ml testosterone over vehicle. However, the taste of testosterone is not highly preferred. Addition of testosterone at 400 microg/ml increased ...
Drewnowski A - - 2001
Sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is an inherited trait. Although some people find PROP to be extremely bitter, others cannot distinguish PROP solutions from plain water. In a series of studies, greater PROP sensitivity was linked with lower acceptability of other bitter compounds and with lower reported ...
Ungless M A. - - 2001
The assumption that tentacle-lowering and food-finding may be used interchangeably as measures of food-attraction conditioning was examined in the snail, Helix aspersa. A brief pairing of an odor with the opportunity to feed (food-attraction conditioning) resulted in increased tendency to orient to that odor (food-finding), when tested the following day. ...
Forbes J M - - 2001
The intake of food has physiological consequences via physical (e.g. distension) and chemical (e.g. glucose) stimulation of receptors in the viscera and, in the longer term, by changes in signals from adipose tissue (e.g. leptin), integrated by the CNS. These consequences are associated with the sensory properties of the food ...
Vickers Z M - - 2001
Anecdotal evidence suggests that astronauts' perceptions of foods in space flight may differ from their perceptions of the same foods on Earth. Fluid shifts toward the head experienced in space may alter the astronauts' sensitivity to odors and tastes, producing altered perceptions. Our objective was to determine whether head-down bed ...
Zehentbauer G - - 2001
Based on the principles of static and dynamic headspace sampling, an apparatus was developed for the determination of the release of potent odorants from two types of baguette (industrial process or "intensifée" and traditional or "artisanal") differing in their odor profiles. We applied this apparatus to get an insight into ...
Tuorila H - - 2001
Aging diminishes chemosensory functioning, in particular the sense of smell, thus possibly decreasing the enjoyment from food. We examined the effect of age on ortho- and retronasal perception and on pleasantness ratings of cream cheese in which 3 levels of food aromas (vanilla or basil) were combined, respectively, with 3 ...
Loewen R - - 2000
This paper reports the development and validation of a self-report measure of food neophobia for children. Items described hypothetical situations in which novel foods might be encountered and asked children to report how they would feel about tasting or eating them. Ten items, representing two correlated subscales, were selected from ...
Villalba J J - - 2000
Ruminants select foods higher in nutrients and lower in toxins than the average of what is available whether fed in confinement or foraging on pastures or wild lands. Our objective was to better understand how sheep learn to select the most nutritious foods when they concurrently ingest different foods. We ...
Queyras A - - 2000
In this paper, we investigate the role of sociality in changing an induced food preference in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), in the particular case of interactions between animals with contrasting information. After modifying a food preference by making a preferred food unpalatable for pairs of individuals (labelled as conditioned ...
Azzara A V - - 2000
The effects of naltrexone on the expression and acquisition of flavor preferences conditioned by the postingestive actions of carbohydrates were investigated. Food-restricted rats (Experiment 1) were given one-bottle training with one flavored saccharin solution (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) infusions of 16% sucrose, and another flavored saccharin solution (CS-) paired ...
Galef BG - - 2000
To determine whether Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, could use socially acquired information to track recurrences of an intermittently available food (experiment 1), we allowed observer rats to interact every 2-3 days with demonstrator rats fed one of two diets, then determined the amount of each diet eaten by observers. We ...
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