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Results 351 - 400 of 846
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Guitton Matthieu J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The interactions among experience, emotion, and memory are considered to be instrumental in the ontogeny and maintenance of acquired emotional and behavioral disorders (e.g., phobias). Here we address the question whether an anxiety-like state can associate with taste to produce conditioned taste aversion (CTA). METHODS: We have used an ...
Araujo Joseph A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare preferences of dogs for 2 similar foods by use of 2 distinct methods (the cognitive palatability assessment protocol [CPAP] and the 2-pan test). ANIMALS: 13 Beagles. PROCEDURE: 6 dogs were trained in a 3-choice object-discrimination-learning task in which their nonpreferred objects were associated with a reward of ...
Killinger K M - - 2004
To determine visual preference and value for fresh beef steaks differing in marbling level and color, consumers in Chicago and San Francisco (n = 124 per city) evaluated two pairs of steaks in a retail case. Steaks differing in marbling level (Modest/Moderate vs. Slight) and color (bright, cherry-red vs. dark ...
Mata Astolfo - - 2004
Nectarivory has evolved repeatedly in a number of unrelated bird taxa throughout the world and nectar feeding birds, regardless of their taxonomic affiliation, display convergent foraging and food processing adaptations that allow them to subsist on weak sugar solutions. However, phylogeny influences sugar type preferences of nectarivores. We investigated sugar ...
Appleton K M - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Effects of sweet taste on short-term appetite are still being actively researched. This study investigates the proposal that the effects of sweet tastes on appetite may differ as a result of differing habitual experiences of sweetness with or without energy. METHODS: Effects of sweet tastes on appetite were investigated ...
Fredericks Emily MacDonald - - 2004
RATIONALE: Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with positive clinical effects across a wide range of domains. Despite the clinical effectiveness of MPH, concern has arisen with respect to its abuse potential. OBJECTIVES: To assess MPH preference in adults ...
Mojet Jos - - 2004
An increase in concentration of one of the tastants in a 'real food' might affect not only the perception of the taste quality of that manipulated tastant but also the other perceivable taste qualities. The influence of concentration increase of sodium or potassium chloride in tomato soup, sucrose or aspartame ...
Rozin Paul - - 2004
Preference for natural refers to the fact that in a number of domains, especially food, people prefer natural entities to those which have been produced with human intervention. Two studies with undergraduate students and representative American adults indicate that the preference for natural is substantial, and stronger for foods than ...
Prescott J - - 2004
Despite increasing evidence that variations in sensitivity to the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) are also reflected in responses to other tastes in solution, there has been little research examining the impact of PROP sensitivity on responses to sensory qualities in foods or beverages. The present studies examined responses of PROP ...
Wrenn Craige C - - 2004
The social transmission of food preference (STFP) is an ethologically relevant test of olfactory memory that can be used in mice. In this test, "observer" mice interact with a "demonstrator" mouse that has recently eaten a novel food. When observer mice are presented with a choice between the food eaten ...
Bartoshuk Linda M - - 2004
Pfaffmann, famous for pioneering work in taste neurophysiology, was a great supporter of psychophysics. He wrote: "Indeed it can be said that without behavioral study, hand in hand with physiological and anatomical methods, one gets only a partial insight: telling where, and to some degree how, but not for what!" ...
Paradis Sébastien - - 2004
Flavor aversion learning occurs when digestive illness follows ingestion of a novel food. Such learning has been shown to exist in mammals and birds. In this experiment, we looked for flavor aversion learning in amphibians (Bufo paracnemis, Pachytriton breviceps) and reptiles (Basiliscus vitattus, B. basiliscus, Eumeces schneideri, Mabuya multifasciata). After ...
Tracy Andrea L - - 2004
To develop and use a behavioral paradigm for assessments of what nutrient properties are detected by intestinal chemoreceptors, we combined features of the "electronic esophagus" preparation (Elizalde G and Sclafani A. Physiol Behav 47: 63-77, 1990) and the conditioned taste aversion protocol (Garcia J and Koelling RA. Psychon Sci 4: ...
Czepa Andreas - - 2004
Although various reports pointed to 6-methoxymellein (1) as a key player imparting the bitter taste in carrots, activity-guided fractionation experiments recently gave evidence that not this isocoumarin but bisacetylenic oxylipins contribute mainly to the off-taste. Among these, (Z)-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3-ol (2), (Z)-3-acetoxy-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-8-ol (3), and (Z)-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (falcarindiol, 4) have been successfully identified. In ...
Benton D D Department of Psychology, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea, Wales, UK. - - 2004
The role of parental behaviour in the development of food preferences is considered. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. Particularly towards the second year of life, there is a tendency to avoid novel foods (neophobia). Food ...
Rega Barbara - - 2004
This work elucidates the role of suspended solids in sensorial perception and flavor release in orange juice. The coarsest pulp (insoluble particles with a diameter of >2 microm) accounted for two major physicochemical effects in orange juice samples: it retained large amounts of aroma compounds, including terpenes and aldehydes, and ...
Prescott John - - 2004
Through repeated pairings with a tastant such as sucrose, odors are able to take on the tastant's qualities, e.g. by becoming more sweet smelling. When such odors are subsequently experienced with a sweet tastant in solution, the mixture is often given a higher sweetness rating than the tastant alone. Odor-induced ...
Dalton Pamela - - 2004
Olfactory disorders can cause serious consequences from the inability to detect many olfactory warning signals (eg, smoke, spoiled food, and gas leaks) and can significantly impact nutritional status, eating satisfaction, and many other issues related to quality of life. More than 200,000 people a year seek treatment for impaired olfactory ...
Ullrich Natalia V - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status and food adventurousness on liking of bitter, hot, and pungent foods. DESIGN: Self-reported survey of food likes/dislikes for 70 foods. Subjects were classified as tasters or nontasters of PROP using a standard screening procedure. By their response to a query ...
De Araujo Ivan E - - 2004
Important factors that influence food palatability are its texture and fat content. We investigated their representation in the human brain using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. It was shown that the viscosity of oral stimuli is represented in the (primary) taste cortex in the anterior insula, in which activation was ...
Bolivar Valerie J - - 2004
In food preference studies, mammals are often categorized as being either neophilic or neophobic, i.e., preferring or disliking a novel-tasting food. To date, the genetic factors influencing novel food preference have not been elucidated. To understand this phenomenon, we investigated the genetics of food preference in eight inbred strains of ...
Wright Geraldine A - - 2004
Naturally occurring odors used by animals for mate recognition, food identification and other purposes must be detected at concentrations that vary across several orders of magnitude. Olfactory systems must therefore have the capacity to represent odors over a large range of concentrations regardless of dramatic changes in the salience, or ...
Rozin Paul - - 2004
We know very little about either the mechanisms through which preferences are created in humans, or the contributions of particular developmental forces: e.g. genetics, parental influence, peer influence, the media. Prior work has indicated surprisingly low correlations (averaging about 0.15) between the food or music preferences of young adult and ...
Seger Carol A - - 2004
Self-related thought and other person related thought have received a great deal of study in recent years, but have seldom been examined in the same experiment. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the neural correlates of judgments of ones own preferences with judgments of another person's ...
Fernandez Eduardo J - - 2004
A study selected 5 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) located at the Frank Buck Zoo in Gainesville, Texas, for a food preference assessment. The study used a paired-choice procedure across 7 different food items for all 5 tamarins. Preferences for the food items across all the tamarins varied, although general trends ...
Mueller Michael M - - 2004
A treatment with differential or noncontingent reinforcement and nonremoval of the spoon increased the acceptance of one or two of 16 foods for 2 participants with severe food refusal. These differential levels of acceptance were demonstrated empirically in an ABAB design in which A was the presentation of the accepted ...
Laska Matthias - - 2003
The taste of most fruits is characterized by a mixture of sensations termed sweet and sour by humans, and the food selection behavior of primates suggests that they may use the relative salience of sweetness and sourness to assess palatability of potential food items. Therefore, taste responses of six squirrel ...
Bernays E A - - 2003
Electrophysiological recordings from taste sensilla of the caterpillar Estigmene acrea with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) seneciphylline N-oxide demonstrated that extensive feeding on plants rich in PAs caused a loss in response of the PA-sensitive cell in the lateral styloconic sensillum on the galea. The effect could be repeated using pure ...
Lupfer Gwen - - 2003
Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) interacted with a conspecific demonstrator that had recently consumed a flavored food. When given a choice between their demonstrator's flavor and another flavor, the dwarf hamsters preferred the flavor their demonstrator had eaten. Golden hamsters did not prefer their demonstrators' diets ...
Wansink Brian - - 2003
Early adopters of unfamiliar, but nutritious foods can do so because of a combination of taste-motivations and health-motivations. Yet because taste can provide an enduring motivation for dietary change, profiling the taste-motivated segment of a particular food might prove useful in identifying and stimulating adoption among similar predisposed segments. This ...
Sherwood Nancy E - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Card-sorting tasks for assessing food and activity preferences and patterns among African American girls were developed. Associations among food preference and intake frequency, activity preference and frequency, and body mass index were examined. DESIGN: Participants completed newly developed card-sorting tasks assessing food and activity preferences and patterns. Height and ...
Visalberghi Elisabetta - - 2003
Information on the process of preference acquisition towards novel foods in nonhuman primates is lacking. This study aims to assess (1) whether nutrient and energy contents affect preferences towards novel foods encountered repeatedly by individuals when alone, (2) whether these preferences change after additional encounters with the novel foods, and ...
Salvy Sarah Jeanne - - 2003
Previous investigations of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) induced by wheel running have used flavored liquids such as conditioned stimuli (CSs). Assuming that classical conditioning mediates activity anorexia, it is expected that CTA induced by physical activity should extend to food stimuli. The main purpose of the present experiment was to ...
Ishii Y - - 2003
Food intake is influenced not only by nutritional status but also by diverse environmental factors. Indeed, a unique quality of food reward is its strong modulation by palatability cues, such as taste, with animals generally preferring diets that are sweet and avoiding those that are either bitter or sour. As ...
Sparkes S - - 2003
Activity anorexia (AA) occurs when rats are restricted to one meal period (60-90 min) each day and have unlimited access to a running wheel the rest of the time. This AA procedure also contains the conditions necessary for conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The food eaten during the meal period is ...
Wansink Brian - - 2003
Building on findings related to physiological and psychological motivations of food preference, this research develops a framework to examine preferences toward comfort foods. Study 1 used a North American survey of 411 people to determine favored comfort foods, and Study 2 quantified the preferences for these foods across gender and ...
Benoit Stephen C - - 2003
The conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is routinely used to assess the aversive consequences of anorexic agents, including potential pharmacological therapies for obesity. In a typical CTA paradigm, rats briefly sampling a novel tastant (e.g., saccharin) are acutely administered with toxin (e.g., lithium chloride, LiCl). After as few as one taste-toxin ...
Grigorov Martin G - - 2003
The introduction of molecular tools in food research offers the possibility to the food industry to benefit from the experience gained in the field by pharmaceutical companies. In this work we are showing how in silico virtual screening techniques based on molecular similarity were applied for identifying novel umami-tasting compounds. ...
Stacey Phillip S - - 2003
AIMS: To ascertain whether thiamine HCl could be detected in beer using a double-blind triangular taste test. METHODS: Three 100 ml samples of beer to which 10 or 0 mg of thiamine were added were presented in counterbalanced order to 49 volunteers. Subjects consumed and rated each sample separately for ...
Bosque Carlos - - 2003
We tested discriminatory ability and food choice in relation to protein content of the diet in wild-caught Blue-gray Tanagers (Thraupis episcopus), a generalist tropical frugivorous bird. In two sets of experiments we offered to five individual birds in pair-wise choice trials two nearly iso-caloric experimental diets differing in their protein ...
Moles Anna - - 2003
Pregnancy related differences in food preferences and food intake are well recognized in animals and humans. Changes in maternal hormonal profiles are supposed to be implicated in such a phenomenon. Since fetal sex hormones are excreted in their dams' bloodstream, they can affect the behaviour of mothers during gestation. We ...
Lau Anthony - - 2003
Odor emissions during manure spreading events have become a source of concern, particularly where farms are located nearby urban areas. The objective of the present study was to compare odor concentrations and odor emission rates due to pig manure application using two different types of applicators, a sub-surface deposition system ...
Galef Bennett G BG - - 2003
A procedure is described for quantitating the transfer of information about inducing increased intake of distinctively-flavored foods or fluids among common laboratory rodents. The method provides a simple, efficient, non-invasive way to produce robust, long-lasting changes in appetitive behaviors of laboratory rodents that can be used in studies of the ...
Porchezhian E - - 2003
Chemistry and pharmacology of Gymnema sylvestre is reviewed relying on research papers and patent literature. Extracts of this plant are widely used in Australian, Japananese, Vietnamese and Indian folk medicine. Gymnema preparations have a profound action on the modulation of taste, particularly suppressing sweet taste sensations. It is used in ...
Blass Elliott M - - 2003
Childhood obesity reflects the confluence of three factors that minimize attention to internal physiologic satiety signals: the release of central opioids through ingestion of sweets and fats, which induces a preference for such foods; the phylogenetic quality of extending meals in response to environmental demands, as in work schedules, or ...
Raksakulthai Rocharake - - 2003
When exopeptidases catalyze hydrolysis of peptide bonds, the product(s) may have a less bitter taste, and the free amino acids or small peptides formed may function in food as pleasant-tasting flavor compounds or as flavor precursors. There are several classes of exopeptidase based on specificity for hydrolysis of synthetic substrates. ...
Beattie V E - - 2002
The effects of repeated food deprivation, prior to slaughter, on performance, feeding behaviour and meat quality of pigs was examined. Three experimental treatments were compared. In treatment 1 pigs had ad libitum access to feed up to the point of loading on the day of slaughter. Treatment 2 involved a ...
Patchell C J - - 2002
Creon 10,000 Minimicrospherestrade mark (Creon) 10,000 MMS) is a pancreatic enzyme formulation that contains smaller spheres of pancreatin in a 50% smaller capsule than conventional microspheres (Creon) 8,000). This three-centre study investigated the preference of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients for these products. In one centre, 72 h stool fat excretion ...
Turnbull Bianca - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Understanding what motivates the preference for and selection of foods has important health implications. Research suggests that the phytochemicals present in green leafy vegetables contain anticarcinogenic properties. As a result of the bitter taste of phytochemical compounds, however, foods containing these are often not well accepted, particularly by children. ...
Skinner Jean D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare children's food preferences longitudinally and identify factors related to food preferences. DESIGN: Mothers completed the Food Preference Questionnaire for children at 2 to 3 years of age (T1), 4 years (T2), and 8 years (T3) and for themselves at T1 and T3. Both groups completed a Food ...
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