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Results 301 - 350 of 847
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Eek Daniel - - 2006
Existing theories of social value orientations posit that prosocials maximize joint outcomes whereas proselfs maximize outcomes to themselves. Three studies employing a total of 157 undergraduates were conducted to test the alternative hypothesis that prosocials prefer equal outcomes to maximizing joint outcome. In study 1 participants completed the Triple-Dominance Measure ...
Smeets Paul A M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The brain plays a crucial role in the decision to eat, integrating multiple hormonal and neural signals. A key factor controlling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten. ...
Yeomans Martin R - - 2006
Odor stimuli play a major role in perception of food flavor. Food-related odors have also been shown to increase rated appetite, and induce salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. However, our ability to identify an odor as food-related, and our liking for food-related odors, are both learned responses. ...
Cooper S J - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to determine the behavioural effects of the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF 38393, and of the selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, quinpirole, on the feeding performance of food-deprived rats in a model of food-preference behaviour. The animals were familiarised with a choice ...
Saul'skaya N B - - 2006
In vivo intracerebral microdialysis/HPLC studies on Sprague-Dawley rats showed that simultaneous presentation of food and a tone previously combined with a pain stimulus was accompanied by transient elevation of the glutamate level in the extracellular space of the nucleus accumbens, the extent of this increase being proportional to the latent ...
Kobayashi Chiyoko - - 2006
A few studies have reported experience-inducible changes in human taste and olfactory sensitivities. However, no study thus far has systematically characterized the stability of the enhanced sensitivities. In our previous study, we found increases in taste identification ability for monosodium glutamate (MSG) in subjects who had been briefly exposed to ...
Klein D A - - 2006
Although sweet solids and liquids are palatable to humans and ingested frequently when readily available, the quantitative relationship between sweet taste and intake has not been reported in humans. To investigate the quantitative relationship between sweet taste and intake directly, we adapted the modified sham feeding technique, previously used in ...
Sanni, SA; Department of ...
The physico-chemical properties of early and medium maturing rice varieties were investigated. Protein values ranged from 7.5-8%: 7.54-7.65%; with amylose content of 22-24%: 22.64-24% for early maturing and for medium maturing rice varieties respectively. All the varieties were of medium soft gel consistency (63-78mm). Optimum cooking time (OT) for the ...
O'Doherty John P JP Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK. - - 2006
Food preferences are acquired through experience and can exert strong influence on choice behavior. In order to choose which food to consume, it is necessary to maintain a predictive representation of the subjective value of the associated food stimulus. Here, we explore the neural mechanisms by which such predictive representations ...
Kemmotsu Nobuko - - 2006
Do restrained and unrestrained eaters differ in their brain response to food odor? We addressed this question by examining restrained eaters' brain response to food (chocolate) and non-food (geraniol, floral) odors, both when odor was attended to and when ignored. Using olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs), we found that restrained eaters ...
Pedrosa M - - 2006
Hydrolyzed formulas used to feed infants with cow's milk-allergy can be classified as soy based, extensively hydrolyzed (casein, whey and mixed), and amino-acid based. Their unsatisfactory taste is reported by parents and physicians. The aim of this study was to ascertain the palatability of these formulas in a double-blind taste ...
Dinehart M E - - 2006
Intake of vegetables falls short of recommendations to lower risk of chronic diseases. Most research addresses bitterness as a sensory deterrent to consuming vegetables. We examined bitter and sweet sensations from vegetables as mediators of vegetable preference and intake as well as how these tastes vary with markers of genetic ...
Chandra Sathees B C - - 2005
Insects are capable of detecting, and discriminating between, a very large number of odours. The biological relevance of many of those odours, particularly those related to food, must first be learned. Given that the number of sensory receptors and antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli is limited relative to the number of ...
Dietz David M - - 2006
Previous studies have shown that repeated sodium depletions using the natriuretic-diuretic furosemide induce progressive increases in NaCl ingestion. We investigated the role of taste in this behavioral sensitization in Sprague-Dawley rats using short-term lickometer testing along with 2-h stimulated intake tests. Our results show maximal licking across a range of ...
Chang Won-Ic - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of taster status with taste detection and recognition thresholds for sucrose and quinine. DESIGN: Sixty-nine subjects (35 men and 34 women; mean age, 23.9+/-1.2 years) were included. Stimulus fluids were prepared, one each for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), sucrose ...
Zhang Yun - - 2005
Food can be hazardous, either through toxicity or through bacterial infections that follow the ingestion of a tainted food source. Because learning about food quality enhances survival, one of the most robust forms of olfactory learning is conditioned avoidance of tastes associated with visceral malaise. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans feeds ...
Scott Kristin - - 2005
The ability to identify food that is nutrient-rich and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection behavior. Recent studies with model organisms such as mice and ...
Wright Donald W - - 2005
Odor profiling efforts were directed at applying to high-density livestock operations some of the lessons learned in resolving past, highly diverse, odor-focused investigations in the consumer product industry. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used for field air sampling of odorous air near and downwind of a beef cattle feedyard and a ...
Fudge Melissa A - - 2006
The neurosteroid allopregnanolone may increase feeding by altering food palatability; however, it may also increase feeding by reducing anxiety (neophobia). Moreover, it is unclear whether this induced hyperphagia is selective to safe, palatable foods only. Male rats were injected with allopregnanolone 20 min prior to behavioral testing. The taste reactivity ...
Kampov-Polevoy Alexey B - - 2006
The purpose of the present study was to examine association between hedonic response to sweet taste and a mood altering effect associated with eating sweet foods and impaired control over eating sweets. Participants (n=163, 39% males) rated a series of sucrose solutions for intensity of sweetness and palatability and completed ...
Kataoka Masumi - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the palatability of 15 bottled nutritive drinks, all commercially available in the Japanese market, using data from artificial taste and odor sensors. In gustatory sensation tests, well-trained healthy volunteers were asked to score the drinks in terms of palatability and of the ...
Mantani N - - 2005
We report a case study of a 54-year-old Japanese woman who persistently suffered from a sour-taste sensation in her mouth for 10 years, and was treated with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI). She found sour-tasting meals irritable, and after eating such meals the sour-taste sensation worsened. She also complained of eructation ...
Dwyer D M - - 2005
Rats exposed to simultaneous compounds of 1 neutral flavor with dilute (2%) sucrose and a 2nd flavor with dilute (2%) maltodextrin subsequently consumed both flavors in preference to a 3rd flavor that was never paired with a palatable taste. Brief training exposure under ad lib food and water minimized the ...
Sadrieh Nakissa - - 2005
PURPOSE: These studies evaluated the ability of common household food and drink products to mask the bitter taste of three selected anti-terrorism drugs. METHODS: Three anti-terrorism drugs (doxycycline, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, and potassium iodide) were mixed with a variety of common household food and drinks, and healthy adult volunteers evaluated the ...
Sun Betty C - - 2005
Identifications (IDs) of paired retronasal and orthonasal odorants were studied, with stimuli limited to air phase. Odorants were liquid extracts of plant materials, sold as food flavorings, matched by each subject both for retronasal-only and orthonasal-only air phase intensities and then learned to 100% correct veridical name retronasal-only and orthonasal-only ...
Remis Melissa Jane - - 2006
Ripe fruit eating shapes the behavior of most of the apes. Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are very different sizes and, consequently, have been traditionally viewed as ecologically distinct, but few studies have explored the behavioral and physiological foundations of their diets. Debate continues on the extent that ...
Wansink Brian - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: It is often believed that people overeat the foods they like. We investigated whether environmental cues such as packaging and container size are so powerful that they can increase our intake of foods that are less palatable. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a 2 x 2 between-subjects design, 158 ...
Keast Russell S J - - 2005
PURPOSE: Zinc sulfate is known to inhibit the bitterness of the antimalarial agent quinine [R. S. J. Keast. The effect of zinc on human taste perception. J. Food Sci. 68:1871-1877 (2003)]. In the present work, we investigated whether zinc sulfate would inhibit other bitter-tasting compounds and pharmaceuticals. The utility of ...
Nisimura Tomoyosi - - 2005
In humans, appetite is affected by food experiences and food flavors. In the blowfly Phormia regina, we found that feeding threshold to sugar increased in the presence of the odor of D-limonene and decreased in the presence of the odor of dithiothreitol (DTT). Using these odors as representative nonappetitive and ...
Osorio Daniel - - 2005
Consumer perceptions of flavors are associated with the chemical composition of foods. However, consumer preferences change; therefore, it is necessary for food manufacturers to be able to adapt their products. Unlike in aged spirits, the chemical composition of young spirits is determined during distillation; therefore, this is where distillers must ...
Kumari Usha - - 2005
Gill arches and the gill rakers of a sluggish, carnivorous catfish, Rita rita, show significant differences of their surface ultrastructure, which are recognized adaptive modifications in relation to food and feeding ecology of fish. Gill rakers on the first and second pairs of gill arches are borne on the oral ...
Ley Jakob P - - 2005
Products made from Herba Santa (Eriodictyon californicum (H. & A.) Torr.) have been used as bitter remedies for some pharmaceutical applications for many years, but they are actually too aromatic to be useful for many food or pharmaceutical applications. In sensory studies flavanones homoeriodictyol (1), its sodium salt (1-Na), sterubin ...
Hofmann Thomas - - 2005
This study was done to obtain greater insight into the structures and sensory activities of those tastants that are not present in foods per se, but are generated during food processing by Maillard-type reactions from carbohydrates and amino acids and thus remain unknown. In order to rank the tastants according ...
Rolls Edmund T - - 2005
Complementary neurophysiological recordings in macaques and functional neuroimaging in humans show that the primary taste cortex in the rostral insula and adjoining frontal operculum provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture (including viscosity and fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus ...
Galef Bennett G BG - - 2005
Outside the laboratory, rats (Rattus norvegicus) are likely both to interact with several conspecifics that have eaten various foods and to eat a variety of foods themselves before they encounter any particular food for which they have a socially enhanced preference. Here the authors examine the stability of rats' socially ...
Cooke Lucy J - - 2005
The present study was conducted to examine the developmental patterning of food preferences in a large sample of British schoolchildren and to investigate possible gender differences. Using a cross-sectional survey design, the study was carried out in three primary and three secondary schools in West London, UK. A total of ...
Prescott M J - - 2005
For social species, being a member of a cohesive group and performing activities as a coordinated unit appear to provide a mechanism for the efficient transmission of information about food. Social learning about food palatability was investigated in two captive primates, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus, which form stable and ...
Hopkins William D - - 2005
We assessed the relationship between grip preference and hand use in chimpanzees in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, we evaluated consistency in hand use and grip preference across 4 food types. The chimpanzees showed population-level right-handedness and there are significant positive associations for both hand and grip use across food ...
Ratcliffe John M - - 2005
The short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, lives in groups in tree hollows and caves. To investigate whether these roosts might serve as information centres, we tested whether individuals' preferences for novel foods could be enhanced through social learning at the roost. We also determined whether socially learned preferences for novel ...
Aubert Arnaud - - 2005
Decrease in food intake is one of the most documented non-specific symptoms of inflammatory processes. However, attention has been mainly focused on quantitative analysis. The present paper reports studies undertaken to test the possible contribution of changes in taste processes in inflammatory-induced alteration of feeding behavior. In a first experiment, ...
Daniels Yasmine - - 2005
The gray short-tailed opossum has been a subject in behavioral and biomedical studies for the last quarter century, but researchers know little about its preferred diet. The authors describe a study designed to determine food preferences of this species for the purpose of identifying suitable rewards to be used in ...
Braesicke Katrin K Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3DY, - - 2005
Central to many emotional responses is the accompanying peripheral somatic and autonomic arousal, feedback from which has been hypothesized to enhance emotional memory and to contribute to appraisal processes and decision making, and dysfunction of which may contribute to antisocial behaviour. Whilst peripheral arousal may accompany both positive and negative ...
Halpern Mimi - - 2005
Although feeding deficits have been reported in snakes and lizards following vomeronasal system disruption, no deficit has been previously reported in a mammal. We tested gray short-tailed opossums with items from four different food categories prior to occluding access to the vomeronasal organ. Preoperatively, opossums preferred meat to fruit or ...
Yiin Yeh-Min - - 2005
The role of deprivation state in flavor preference conditioning by nutrients was investigated in rats fitted with intragastric (IG) catheters. In different experiments, food restricted (FR) and food ad libitum (AL) groups were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with IG infusions of maltodextrin, corn oil, or casein ...
Simmons W Kyle WK Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2005
Increasing research indicates that concepts are represented as distributed circuits of property information across the brain's modality-specific areas. The current study examines the distributed representation of an important but under-explored category, foods. Participants viewed pictures of appetizing foods (along with pictures of locations for comparison) during event-related fMRI. Compared to ...
Kent Adam - - 2005
A recent model of microtine cycles has hypothesized that plant chemical defences can drive the precipitous decline phase, through periodic lethal toxin production (PLTP) by non-preferred plant foods. Here we enumerate possible mechanisms using a previously published model of optimal foraging by one consumer (microtine rodent) of two types of ...
Lesschaeve Isabelle - - 2005
Bitterness and astringency are found in a variety of foods, including nuts, fruits, chocolate, tea, wine, and soymilk. In fruits and beverages, the taste of bitterness and the tactile sensation of astringency are elicited primarily by flavanol polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins). Variations in proanthocyanidin composition, such as polymer size, ...
Verma Punam - - 2005
It is well established that women experience food craving for particular foods and gain weight in relation to phases of menstrual cycle. In this study, the preference for different concentrations of salt sprayed on bland popcorn was assessed in 55 healthy women (age 18 to 22 yrs). Salt solutions of ...
Nordin S - - 2004
With the objectives to better understand gender-related differences in variables of importance for food intake, and interrelations between these variables, 100 healthy, young women and 100 healthy, young men responded to self-administrated questionnaires about general food rejection, learned illness-associated food aversions, disgust (the Disgust Scale), food neophobia (the Food Neophobia ...
Fessler Daniel M T - - 2004
Because nausea and vomiting play an important role in the formation of conditioned food aversions, individual differences in susceptibility to nausea and vomiting may contribute to interindividual variation in conditioned food aversion acquisition. Two surveys reveal that, among female participants, self-reported motion sickness susceptibility is positively correlated with the number ...
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