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Results 201 - 250 of 846
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Ishii A - - 2008
Perceptual interactions in a model of wine woody-fruity binary mixtures were previously reported in a psychophysical study performed through orthonasal stimulation only. However, recent studies suggested that the perception of food-like and nonfood-like odors may depend on the route of stimulation. The aim of the present study was two-fold: first ...
Prakash I - - 2008
Rebiana is the common name for high-purity rebaudioside A, a natural non-calorie sweetener 200-300 times more potent than sucrose. It provides zero calories and has a clean, sweet taste with no significant undesirable taste characteristics. It is functional in a wide array of beverages and foods and can be blended ...
Wobber Victoria - - 2008
The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown ...
Harris Gillian - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are concerns about the rising incidence of obesity in children and their acceptance of healthy foods. Many factors affect children's food acceptance, the most salient are those enabling early exposure to culturally appropriate foods in the weaning or pre-weaning period. Parents, however, have always observed individual ...
Katayama M - - 2008
Textured soy protein (TSP), an extruded and fibrous-structured product, is mainly used as meat analog or extender. Meat alternatives are third in sales in the U.S. soy food marketplace. A primary problem that limits the incorporation of more TSP into products is the undesirable "beany" flavor. The objective of this ...
de Araujo Ivan E IE Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. - - 2008
Food palatability and hedonic value play central roles in nutrient intake. However, postingestive effects can influence food preferences independently of palatability, although the neurobiological bases of such mechanisms remain poorly understood. Of central interest is whether the same brain reward circuitry that is responsive to palatable rewards also encodes metabolic ...
Andrews Zane B ZB Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, - - 2008
Food palatability acts on the dopaminergic reward system to override homeostatic control; however, whether postingestive calorie load in the absence of taste affects this system remains unclear. In this issue of Neuron, de Araujo et al. show that mice lacking functional "sweet" taste receptors (trpm5-/-) develop a preference for sucrose ...
Guitton Matthieu J - - 2008
Using a combination of the paradigm of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and of the paradigm of social interactions, we report here that in the rat, eating while anxious may result in long-term alterations in social behavior. In the conventional CTA, the subject learns to associate a tastant (the conditioned stimulus, ...
Subiaul Francys - - 2008
Can chimpanzees learn the reputation of strangers indirectly by observation? Or are such stable behavioral attributions made exclusively by first-person interactions? To address this question, we let seven chimpanzees observe unfamiliar humans either consistently give (generous donor) or refuse to give (selfish donor) food to a familiar human recipient (Experiments ...
Gatica, Carolina D. L.
It has been hypothesized that species belonging to the Sturnidae-Muscicapidae lineage, despite having generalist diets comprising fruits with sugars of diverse kinds, do not express intestinal sucrase. In order to increase the taxonomical range of species for which sucrase intestinal activity has been investigated, we analyzed the relationship between enzymatic ...
Bombelli Cecilia - - 2008
Chiral recognition was observed in a biomembrane model. Micellar aggregates formed by enantiopure N-alkyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(1-phenyl)ethylammonium bromide were in fact able to convert the racemic mixture of bilirubin-IXalpha into an enantiomerically enriched mixture. The stereochemical preference and the extent of enantiomeric enrichment depend on the length of the hydrophobic portion of the ...
Reverdy C - - 2008
As part of 'EduSens', a project aiming to measure the effect of a sensory education program developed in France on the food behaviour of school children, the present paper shows the results regarding neophobia. One hundred and eighty children (8-10 years old) were involved in the study. Half of them ...
Swithers Susan E - - 2008
Animals may use sweet taste to predict the caloric contents of food. Eating sweet noncaloric substances may degrade this predictive relationship, leading to positive energy balance through increased food intake and/or diminished energy expenditure. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that experiences that reduce the validity of sweet ...
Wardle Jane - - 2008
Omnivores have the advantage of a variety of food options but face a challenge in identifying foods that are safe to eat. Not surprisingly, therefore, children show a relative aversion to new foods (neophobia) and a relative preference for familiar, bland, sweet foods. While this may in the past have ...
Brug Johannes - - 2008
The present paper explores the relative importance of liking and taste preferences as correlates of fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes among schoolchildren in Europe. The paper first provides an overview of potential determinants of food choice among children and subsequently summarizes the results of two recent observational studies on determinants ...
Pliner Patricia - - 2008
Foods represent important stimuli for humans, especially for human children. After weaning, it is important that children quickly acquire knowledge about their food environment to avoid ingesting potentially dangerous substances. This paper discusses this process and its implications in terms of schemas. The effects of providing positive taste information to ...
Finger Thomas E TE Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Mail Stop 8108, PO Box 6511, Aurora, CO 80045-6511, USA. - - 2008
The sense of taste, although a relatively undistinguished sensory modality in most mammals, is a highly developed sense in many fishes, e.g., catfish, gadids, and carps including goldfish. In these species, the amount of neural tissue devoted to this modality may approach 20% of the entire brain mass, reflecting an ...
Luscombe-Marsh Natalie D - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to determine individuals' taste threshold for monosodium glutamate (MSG) alone and in combination with inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP-5) and to examine if this threshold was related to an increase in sensory properties (including pleasantness of taste) and/or to one's preference for dietary protein over ...
Tepper Beverly J - - 2008
Genetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of phenylthiocarbamide and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a well-studied human trait. It has been hypothesized that this phenotype is a marker for individual differences in taste perception that influence food preferences and dietary behavior with subsequent links to body weight and chronic disease risk. Steady ...
Navarro-Allende Alejandra - - 2008
Individual differences in the ability to detect bitter tasting compounds, such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) or its derivative, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has long been recognized as a common genetic trait. This observation has been proposed to explain some of the variability in the dietary habits of a population. Several members of the ...
Bellisle France - - 2008
In the Western world, consumers have only recently learned to discriminate the Umami taste, although they have enjoyed its contribution to the palatability of traditional dishes for centuries. The flavor enhancing properties of MSG have been scientifically investigated in European subjects. By adding MSG to such foods as soups, their ...
Halford Jason C G - - 2008
Objective. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. Design. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight ...
Duistermars Brian J - - 2008
It has been clear for many years that insects use visual cues to stabilize their heading in a wind stream. Many animals track odors carried in the wind. As such, visual stabilization of upwind tracking directly aids in odor tracking. But do olfactory signals directly influence visual tracking behavior independently ...
Russell Catherine Georgina - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationships between food preferences, food neophobia, and children's characteristics among a population-based sample of preschoolers. DESIGN: A parent-report questionnaire. SETTING: Child-care centers, kindergartens, playgroups, day nurseries, and swimming centers. SUBJECTS: 371 two- to five-year-old Australian children. OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations between food ...
Gaillard Dany - - 2008
The sense of taste informs the body about the quality of ingested foods. Tastant-mediated signals are generated by a rise in free intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i) in the taste bud cells and then are transferred to the gustatory area of brain via connections between the gustatory nerves (chorda tympani and ...
Yeomans Martin R - - 2008
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is known to enhance liking for the flavor of savory foods, but whether associations between flavors and effects of MSG lead to changes in subsequent liking and intake for the flavor alone is unclear. To test this, 32 volunteers evaluated and consumed a novel savory soup with ...
Silveira P P - - 2008
We have reported that neonatal handling leads to increased sweet food preference in adult life. Our aim was to verify if these differences in feeding behavior appear before puberty, and whether other types of intervention in periadolescence (such as exposure to toys) could interfere with sweet food consumption later in ...
Zhao Da-Peng - - 2008
Hand preferences were investigated during one unimanual action (food-reaching) and one bimanual action (mount-reaching) in a semi-free-ranging group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Zhouzhi National Nature Reserve, Qinling Mountains of China. Nine of 14 individuals tested on the unimanual food-reaching action and all six individuals tested on the ...
Keskitalo Kaisu - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Sweet taste preferences are measured by several often correlated measures. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relative proportions of genetic and environmental effects on sweet taste preference indicators and their mutual correlations. DESIGN: A total of 663 female twins (324 complete pairs, 149 monozygous and 175 dizygous pairs) aged 17-80 y ...
Nikitin E S - - 2008
Natural food odours elicit different behavioural responses in snails. The tentacle carries an olfactory organ, and it either protracts toward a stimulating carrot odour or retraces in a startle-like fashion away from a cucumber odour. The tentacle retraction to cucumber was still present after the snails were fed cucumber during ...
Clipperton Amy E AE Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, - - 2008
There is an evolutionary advantage to learning food preferences from conspecifics, as social learning allows an individual to bypass the risks associated with trial and error individual learning. The social transmission of food preferences (STFP) paradigm examines this advantage. Females in the proestrus and diestrus phases of the estrous cycle ...
Lim S W - - 2008
To examine the effect of pregnancy on food consumption, we surveyed the recall of past experience of two groups of women, those who had been pregnant (PY, n=188) and those who never had (PN, n=111), regarding their food consumption and related dietary behaviors. The questionnaire, answered with regard to potato ...
Lim Juyun - - 2008
Taste is always accompanied by tactile stimulation, but little is known about how touch interacts with taste. One exception is evidence that taste can be "referred" to nearby tactile stimulation. It was recently found (Lim J, and Green BG. 2007. The psychophysical relationship between bitter taste and burning sensation: evidence ...
Small Dana M - - 2007
The human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays an important role in representing taste, flavor, and food reward. The primary role of the OFC in taste is thought to be the encoding of affective value and the computation of perceived pleasantness. The OFC also encodes retronasal olfaction and oral somatosensation. During eating, ...
Teixeira Gerlinde - - 2008
Diet selection is a complex problem that animals in wildlife have to deal with daily. In their natural environment, these animals meet a great variety of foods some of which they are able and prepared to eat, yet, not all of it is eaten. In addition to the biological factors, ...
De Moura S L - - 2007
This study investigates the role of food preferences in food rejection amongst primary school children. A total of 17 children (9- and 10-year-old) took part in group discussions from which elicited their preferences from 35 photographs of different foods and dishes. They also discussed their reasons for rejecting a specific ...
Monneuse Marie-Odile - - 2008
The relationship between taste acuity and food neophobia, food familiarity and liking has been studied in the context of a residential weight reduction session (WRS; mean duration: 10 months) in 39 obese adolescents. Taste acuity was assessed using recognition thresholds for sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride and 6-n propylthiouracil (PROP) ...
Werner Scott J - - 2008
The relationship between food flavors and postingestive feedback enables mammalian herbivores to procure nutrients and avoid toxins within ever-changing environments. We conducted four experiments with red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) in captivity to determine the relative roles of color and flavor cues paired with negative postingestive feedback. We first conducted baseline ...
Paul Candace - - 2007
Repeated taste exposure has been used to introduce novel foods in several settings, but none of these efforts have targeted clinical populations. This study describes an intervention that combines repeated taste exposure and escape prevention in the treatment of extreme food selectivity in two children with autism. Future applications of ...
Kroth Jerry - - 2007
The authors investigated correlations between retrospective dream characteristics, food preferences, and eating attitudes. Graduate students (7 men, 42 women) at Santa Clara University were administered the MEGA food scale and the KJP Dream Inventory. High intake of organic food was positively correlated with reports of multiple dream factors. Conversely, high ...
Cooke L - - 2007
Children's food preferences are strongly associated with their consumption patterns. Identifying the factors that influence preferences is therefore crucial to the development of effective interventions to improve children's diets. Perhaps the most important determinant of a child's liking for a particular food is the extent to which it is familiar. ...
Pierce W David - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Childhood obesity is a prominent health problem that may involve early learning about tastes and the energy content of foods. We tested the hypothesis that food tastes predictive of low energy content cause overeating in young animals. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Juvenile and adolescent (4- and 8-week-old) male JCR:LA-cp ...
Drewnowski Adam A Nutritional Sciences Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-3410, USA. - - 2007
Genetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been reported to determine preferences for bitter, sweet, and fat-containing foods, affect dietary habits, influence body weight, and modify chronic disease risk. To examine associations between PROP responsiveness, food choices, dietary intakes, and plasma chemistries in a clinical sample of ...
Colomb Julien - - 2007
In mammals, the hedonic aspects (good versus bad) and sensory aspects (i.e., the molecular quality) of taste are associated with different brain regions. Anatomical data argue against such a separation in the primary taste center of Drosophila larvae. Is only one aspect of taste represented or do both co-exist at ...
Ritthiruangdej Pitiporn - - 2007
Twenty Thai commercial fish sauces were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The main objectives were i) to investigate the relationships between sensory attributes and NIR spectra of samples and ii) to characterize the sensory characteristics of fish sauces based on NIR data. A generic descriptive analysis ...
Keskitalo Kaisu - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Humans have an innate preference for sweet taste, but the degree of liking for sweet foods varies individually. OBJECTIVE: The proportion of inherited sweet taste preference was studied. A genome-wide linkage analysis was performed to locate the underlying genetic elements in the genome. DESIGN: A total of 146 subjects ...
Kremer Stefanie - - 2007
Differences between elderly subjects (n = 46, 61-86 years) and young subjects (n = 36, 18-25 years) in food perception and food liking were investigated. Intensity and liking ratings were assessed for custard dessert, in which flavor enrichment, textural change, and irritant addition were incorporated as strategies to compensate for ...
Mote Travis E - - 2007
The availability of different forages varies across landscapes, but little is known about how proportional consumption of different foods affects food intake and the use of landscapes. The relative amounts of nutrients and plant secondary metabolites (PSM) consumed by herbivores may influence forage intake and animal fitness in landscapes dominated ...
Ebbs Michelle L - - 2007
Taste is an essential sense for detection of nutrient-rich food and avoidance of toxic substances. The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system provides an excellent model to study taste perception and taste-elicited behaviors. "The fly" is unique in the animal kingdom with regard to available experimental tools, which include a wide repertoire ...
Mahler Stephen V SV Department of Psychology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2007
Cannabinoid drugs such as Delta9-THC are euphoric and rewarding, and also stimulate food intake in humans and animals. Little is known about how naturally occurring endogenous brain cannabinoids mediate pleasure from food or other natural sensory rewards. The taste reactivity paradigm measures effects of brain manipulations on affective orofacial reactions ...
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