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Boesveldt S - - 2010
Dissociating between 'good' or 'bad' odors is arguable of crucial value for human survival, since unpleasant odors often signal danger. Therefore, negative odors demand a faster response in order to quickly avoid or move away from negative situations. We know from other sensory systems that this effect is most evident ...
Naik B Sadananda - - 2010
Taste and smell are critical components to a person's overall sense of well-being and quality of life. Taste related problems can cause pain and discomfort and can hinder the maintenance of a satisfying and nutritious diet. Loss of taste interferes with pleasure derived from food and food-related activities. Many drugs ...
Krupp Joshua J - - 2010
The gustatory system allows the fly to assess food quality, eliciting either acceptance or avoidance behaviors. A new study demonstrates that circadian clocks in gustatory receptor neurons regulate rhythms in taste sensitivity, drive rhythms in appetitive behavior and influence feeding.
Tuorila Hely - - 2010
Six unfamiliar foods were introduced to children (8-11 years old, n=72) who responded (yes/no) to questions as to whether they (1) had earlier seen, (2) had earlier tasted, (3) were willing to try, and (4) actually tried each food when given the opportunity. Pleasantness (if not tasted, expected pleasantness) of ...
Swithers Susan E SE Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, United States. - - 2010
Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and ...
Crisinel Anne-Sylvie - - 2010
Sounds (high- and low-pitched) have been shown to be implicitly associated with basic tastes (sour and bitter-see Crisinel and Spence, 2009 Neuroscience Letters 464 39-42). In the present study, a version of the implicit association test was used to assess the strength of the association between high-pitched sounds and names ...
Boakes Robert A - - 2010
Food-deprived rats learned to avoid a flavor negatively correlated with access to a rich nutrient, 20% maltodextrin (20M) solution. This avoidance in two-bottle choice tests was produced by training consisting of either an unpaired condition where sessions of unflavored 20M were intermixed with sessions of 2 or 3% maltodextrin (2M ...
Saheki Takeyori - - 2010
In this paper, we describe the historical aspects of citrin and citrin deficiency, characteristic food preference and food aversion of citrin-deficient subjects, and carbohydrate toxicity in relation to ureogenesis and issues of the conventional treatment procedures for hyperammonemia in citrin deficiency, leading to current treatment concepts for citrin deficiency. We ...
Jung D W - - 2010
The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione (GSH) and/or monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated to examine the feasibility of GSH as a flavor enhancer. The sensory characteristics of beef soup samples, containing only GSH or MSG at different levels or a mixture of these, were ...
Jyotaki Masafumi - - 2010
The present study summarized recent findings on roles of leptin and endocannabinoids as modulators of the peripheral components of sweet taste. The positive effect of endocannabinoids on sweet sensitivity was opposed to that of leptin which suppresses sweet sensitivity. Leptin and endocannabinoids, therefore, not only regulate food intake via central ...
Manilla Barbara - - 2010
Purpose: The likelihood of experiencing poor nutrition status increases as people age. Sampling new foods may promote a continued interest in food and enjoyment of eating. This pilot study was designed to describe and provide a preliminary evaluation of food-tasting activities integrated into nutrition displays directed at community-living older adults. ...
Shin Yu-Kyong - - 2010
Proper nutrition, avoidance of ingesting substances that are harmful to the whole organism, and maintenance of energy homeostasis are crucial for living organisms. Additionally, mammals possess a sophisticated system to control the types and content of food that we swallow. Gustation is a vital sensory skill for determining which food ...
Reed Danielle Renee - - 2010
Eating is dangerous. While food contains nutrients and calories that animals need to produce heat and energy, it may also contain harmful parasites, bacteria, or chemicals. To guide food selection, the senses of taste and smell have evolved to alert us to the bitter taste of poisons and the sour ...
Veldhuizen Maria G - - 2010
Despite distinct peripheral and central pathways, stimulation of both the olfactory and the gustatory systems may give rise to the sensation of sweetness. Whether there is a common central mechanism producing sweet quality sensations or two discrete mechanisms associated independently with gustatory and olfactory stimuli is currently unknown. Here we ...
Shin Yu-Kyong YK National Institute on Aging/National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of - - 2010
The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved. Using immunohistochemical analyses, we ...
Mirotti Luciana - - 2010
Animals sensitized to allergens change their feeding behavior and avoid drinking the otherwise preferred sweetened solutions containing the allergens. This phenomenon, known as food aversion, appears to be mediated by allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Here we investigated food aversion in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, which differ in their allergic responses to ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2010
Humans and non-human animals often choose among different alternatives by seeking variety. Here we assessed whether variety-seeking, i.e. the tendency to look for diversity in services and goods, occurs in capuchin monkeys--South-American primates which--as humans--are omnivorous and susceptible to food monotony. Capuchins chose between a Variety-token, that allowed to select ...
La Mela Immacolata - - 2010
A major problem in the dietary treatment of disorders associated with excessive eating, such as obesity, is the high rate of relapse into maladaptive eating habits after withdrawal from consumption of palatable, energy-dense food. As olfaction has a major role in appetite and eating behavior, in this study we used ...
Bernal Sonia Y SY Neuropsychology Doctoral Subprogram, Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY, - - 2010
In our prior studies, systemic administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX) did not block flavor preference conditioning by the sweet taste or post-oral actions of sugar despite reducing intake. Because opioid signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is implicated in food reward, this study determined if NTX administered ...
Smith Clayton A CA Neuroscience Program, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, - - 2010
A role for prefrontal cortex has been proposed in systems consolidation of memory. The current study examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in rats on acquisition and remote recall of socially transmitted food preferences (STFP). Subjects received excitotoxic lesions of the OFC, and they were ...
Itobe Takafumi - - 2009
The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between the odorants in the model drink and the odorants reaching the olfactory epithelium using the Retronasal Flavor Impression Screening System (R-FISS). By application of the R-FISS to the odorants in the model drink, it was found that a methylthio ...
Becques Aurélie - - 2010
The ontogenesis of olfactogustatory preferences has been investigated in various mammals but surprisingly not in domestic cats Felis catus. In a first experiment, we examined how prenatal exposure (25 days prepartum) to a cheese flavor via the mother's diet can influence olfactory preferences of neonatal kittens. During 2-choice tests, 2-day-old ...
Marlowe Frank W - - 2009
The Hadza are hunter-gatherers in Tanzania. Their diet can be conveniently categorized into five main categories: tubers, berries, meat, baobab, and honey. We showed the Hadza photos of these foods and asked them to rank them in order of preference. Honey was ranked the highest. Tubers, as expected from their ...
Teff Karen L KL Monell Chemical Senses Center, Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania, PA 19104, United States. - - 2010
The hormone, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is postulated to be involved in body weight regulation. PP release is dependent on vagal activation and is a marker of vagal efferent activity. Because vagal activity plays a role in glucose homeostasis, elucidating the conditions of activation has important implications for nutrient metabolism. In ...
Folley Bradley S BS Department of Psychology, Wilson Hall, Vanderbilt University, 111, 21st Ave S. Nashville, TN 37240, USA. - - 2010
There is a well-documented disruption of the neural network associated with reward evaluation in schizophrenia. This same system is involved in coding the incentive value of food in healthy individuals, but few studies to date have examined anhedonia and its relation to food hedonicity and preference in schizophrenia. Relative preference ...
Boutros Nathalie - - 2010
Using data from two conditions of an experiment that arranged response-contingent foods and red keylight illuminations, we compared time-indexed and response-indexed preference pulses. The interpretation of red keylight effects (relative to food effects) differed according to whether time or behaviour was used to index choice in the post-event period: preference ...
Kanngiesser Patricia - - 2010
Animals commonly use feature and spatial strategies when remembering places of interest such as food sources or hiding places. We conducted three experiments with great apes to investigate strategy preferences and factors that may shape them. In the first experiment, we trained 17 apes to remember 12 different food locations ...
Czerny Michael - - 2009
The odor-active compounds of cardboard were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis and HRGC-MS analysis. In total, 36 compounds were detected with medium to high intensities during HRGC-olfactometry. The highest odor intensities were evaluated for vanillin, (E)-non-2-enal, (R/S)-gamma-nonalactone, 2-methoxyphenol, (R/S)-delta-decalactone, p-anisaldehyde, 3-propylphenol, and a woody-smelling unknown compound. Most of the ...
Faas Marijke M - - 2010
Many physiological and behavioral changes take place during pregnancy, including changes in taste and an increase in food intake. These changes are necessary to ensure growth and development of a healthy fetus. Both hyperphagia and taste changes during pregnancy may be induced by sex hormones estrogen and progesterone that are ...
Essed N H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Elderly people may benefit from sensory stimulation to increase food intake since anorexia of ageing is prevalent among them. An optimal MSG concentration may increase the palatability of foods but this depends on the food and chemosensory status of the taster. Currently, the results on taste enhancing to increase ...
Burne T H J - - 2010
Mice can learn a food preference from odor cues transmitted on the breath of a conspecific, even if the "demonstrator" is anesthetized. To our knowledge there are no studies examining the effect of anesthetizing the "observer" on development of memory for socially transmitted food preferences (STFP). In Experiment 1 we ...
Yarmolinsky David A DA Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2009
The sense of taste is a specialized chemosensory system dedicated to the evaluation of food and drink. Despite the fact that vertebrates and insects have independently evolved distinct anatomic and molecular pathways for taste sensation, there are clear parallels in the organization and coding logic between the two systems. There ...
Houston-Price Carmel - - 2009
This study explores the effects of exposure to pictures of fruits and vegetables on young children's willingness to taste the foods. The parents of 20 toddlers aged 21-24 months were asked to read a picture book about four foods with their child every day for two weeks. In a subsequent ...
Manabe Mariko - - 2009
The characteristic flavors, with the exception of umami, of dried bonito stock not only enhanced saltiness but also improved palatability, namely the acceptability, of salt-reduced foods. However, the respective effects of odorants and tastants of dried bonito stock on palatability have yet to be fully explained. Thus, the effect of ...
Grabenhorst Fabian F Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, - - 2010
The palatability and pleasantness of the sensory properties of foods drive food selection and intake and may contribute to overeating and obesity. Oral fat texture can make food palatable and pleasant. To analyze its neural basis, we correlated humans' subjective reports of the pleasantness of the texture and flavor of ...
Rapp Erika - - 2009
Dietary behaviour can modify the risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary fat contributes to the sensory characteristics of many foods, but there are individual differences in liking for regular and reduced fat products. Preference for dietary fat might differ between healthy individuals and those of diagnosed CHD status. Preference ...
Crisinel Anne-Sylvie - - 2009
Our evaluation of food is influenced by a variety of contextual information perceived via the senses. Here we investigated whether there are interactions between auditory stimuli and basic tastes (indicated by the names of typically sour and bitter foods). Participants took part in a version of the Implicit Association Test ...
Krebs John R - - 2009
This review explores the relation between evolution, ecology, and culture in determining human food preferences. The basic physiology and morphology of Homo sapiens sets boundaries to our eating habits, but within these boundaries human food preferences are remarkably varied, both within and between populations. This does not mean that variation ...
Lee Hye-Seong - - 2009
The accurate quantification of sensory difference/similarity between foods, as well as consumer acceptance/preference and concepts, is greatly needed to optimize and maintain food quality. The R-Index is one class of measures of the degree of difference/similarity, and was originally developed for sensory difference tests for food quality control, product development, ...
Yeomans Martin R - - 2009
Repeated pairings of novel food-related odours with sweet tastes can result in enduring changes in sweetness of the odour alone, but have less consistent effects on odour liking. Variation in ability to taste propylthiouracil (PROP) might account for this, since PROP supertasters (ST) have been reported both to experience stronger ...
Spector Alan C - - 2009
The act of eating and drinking brings food-related chemicals into contact with taste cells. Activation of these taste cells, in turn, engages neural circuits in the central nervous system that help animals identify foods and fluids, determine what and how much to eat, and prepare the body for digestion and ...
Kurihara Kenzo - - 2009
In 1908 Kikunae Ikeda identified the unique taste component of konbu (kelp) as the salt of glutamic acid and coined the term umami to describe this taste. After Ikeda's discovery, other umami taste substances, such as inosinate and guanylate, were identified. Over the past several decades, the properties of these ...
Kerkhof Inneke - - 2009
An important route through which food (dis)likes can be acquired is Evaluative Conditioning (EC). A simple and convenient EC procedure for studying food (dis)likes was described by Verhulst et al. [Verhulst, F., Hermans, D., Baeyens, F., Spruyt, A., & Eelen, P. (2006). Determinants and predictive validity of direct and indirect ...
Shay Laura E LE Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, United States. - - 2009
The more consistently someone records their food intake the more likely they are to lose weight. We hypothesized that subjects who kept track via their preferred method would demonstrate higher adherence and therefore improved outcomes compared to those who used a non-preferred method. Participants were randomly assigned to use a ...
Mennella Julie A JA Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. - - 2009
We identified a model system that exploits the inherent taste variation in early feedings to investigate food preference development. The objective was to determine whether exposure to differing concentrations of taste compounds in milk and formulas modifies acceptance of exemplars of the 5 basic taste qualities in a familiar food ...
Ipema Karin - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Dialysis patients frequently report a change of taste that is reversible after renal transplantation, suggesting that uremic toxins may negatively influence taste. Currently, frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) is the most effective method of hemodialysis, and is associated with the lowest levels of uremic toxins. We studied preferences for ...
Fudge Melissa A - - 2009
Estrogen receptor activation has been shown to reduce body weight and produce a conditioned reduction in food intake in male rats that is putatively mediated by estradiol's suggested aversive effects. Evidence has shown that the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen used in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer may ...
Tepper Beverly J - - 2009
The ability to taste bitter thiourea compounds and related chemicals is a well-known human trait. The majority of individuals perceive these compounds, typified by the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), as moderately-to-extremely bitter. Approximately 30% of the population is taste blind to these substances. It has been hypothesized ...
des Gachons Catherine Peyrot - - 2009
Perceptions of food vary as a function of an individual's genetic factors, such as the set of alleles coding for their taste, irritation, and olfaction receptor proteins. We established a direct link between individual differences in sensitivity to the glucosinolates, a family of bitter compounds in vegetables and roots, and ...
Hofmann Thomas - - 2009
In order to decode genetic variations affecting food choice and to determine whether to accept or to reject certain food products, it is a necessary prerequisite to deorphanize the hTAS2R/ligand pairs using the key bitter compounds in foods as stimuli rather than doing this either by using artificial molcules, to ...
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