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Results 451 - 500 of 847
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Villalba J J - - 2000
Ruminants select foods higher in nutrients and lower in toxins than the average of what is available whether fed in confinement or foraging on pastures or wild lands. Our objective was to better understand how sheep learn to select the most nutritious foods when they concurrently ingest different foods. We ...
Queyras A - - 2000
In this paper, we investigate the role of sociality in changing an induced food preference in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), in the particular case of interactions between animals with contrasting information. After modifying a food preference by making a preferred food unpalatable for pairs of individuals (labelled as conditioned ...
Azzara A V - - 2000
The effects of naltrexone on the expression and acquisition of flavor preferences conditioned by the postingestive actions of carbohydrates were investigated. Food-restricted rats (Experiment 1) were given one-bottle training with one flavored saccharin solution (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) infusions of 16% sucrose, and another flavored saccharin solution (CS-) paired ...
Galef BG - - 2000
To determine whether Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, could use socially acquired information to track recurrences of an intermittently available food (experiment 1), we allowed observer rats to interact every 2-3 days with demonstrator rats fed one of two diets, then determined the amount of each diet eaten by observers. We ...
Schiffman S S - - 2000
Oral habituation is a relatively long-lasting decrease in oral responsiveness that results from the repeated presentation of a single stimulus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of habituation to sweet-tasting foods and to determine whether there are differences in the rate of habituation between African Americans ...
Pelchat M L - - 2000
It can be difficult to document effects of age-related olfactory loss on eating behavior. However, we have reported that elders, especially those with poor olfaction, were more willing to accept novel foods than were younger adults. It was also found that elderly subjects were more willing to accept foods with ...
Söderpalm A H AH Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Box 500, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. - - 2000
Benzodiazepines have been reported to induce eating when administered into the brainstem of rats (either the fourth ventricle or the parabrachial nucleus). Benzodiazepines in the brainstem also have been reported to enhance the hedonic impact of taste, as measured by hedonic/aversive taste reactivity patterns, when administered to the fourth ventricle. ...
Collier G - - 2000
The avid consumption of pure carbohydrate solutions, which often results in a distortion of nutrient balance, is generally presumed to be driven by their taste. In the first of two experiments, we examined the effect of consumption cost on rats' intake of three concentrations of sucrose solution (8%, 16%, and ...
Engel E - - 2000
The aim of this work was to determine the relative impact of water-soluble compounds on the gustatory properties of a goat cheese water-soluble extract (WSE). Using a semisynthetic model mixture (MWSE) previously elaborated in physicochemical and gustatory accordance with the cheese WSE (see part 1, Engel et al. J. Agric. ...
Liu X D - - 2000
The taste and flavor of spray-dried powdered products are the most important quality factors. In the present study, molecular encapsulation in cyclodextrin was applied to prevent the loss of a hydrophobic flavor compound (l-menthol) during the drying of a droplet. beta-Cyclodextrin appeared to be a better encapsulant for menthol than ...
Bartoshuk L M - - 2000
Modern psychophysics has traveled considerably beyond the threshold measures that dominated sensory studies in the first half of this century. Current methods capture the range of perceived intensity from threshold to maximum and promise to provide increasingly accurate comparisons of perceived intensities across individuals. The application of new psychophysical tools ...
Guthrie C A - - 2000
Food preferences are widely agreed to be important determinants of eating behaviour in young children. Existing studies of methods of assessing preferences have suggested tasting and ranking foods can generate reliable responses with young children, but there have been few attempts to assess other methods which might provide a more ...
Schiffman S S - - 2000
The losses in taste and smell that occur with advancing age can lead to poor appetite, inappropriate food choices, as well as decreased energy consumption. Decreased energy consumption can be associated with impaired protein and micronutrient status and may induce subclinical deficiencies that directly impact function. Most nutritional interventions in ...
Kaneda H - - 2000
It is important to learn about changes in both taste and odor perceptions with increasing age, because the taste of foods we encounter in our daily life is strongly affected by their smell. This study discusses the difference in qualitative taste and odor discrimination between the elderly and the young. ...
Duffy V B - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine if individuals who taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), one marker of genetic variation in taste, as exceptionally bitter can also perceive sugars as sweeter, other bitters as more intense, and dietary fats as more creamy and/or viscous than do individuals who taste PROP as weakly bitter. This study examined ...
Halpern B P - - 2000
Investigations of the effects of glutamic acid or its salts on the flavor, hedonic characteristics or acceptance of foods have emphasized a sodium salt of L-glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate (MSG). Food palatability increased with appropriate concentrations of MSG, and could be represented f(MSG and NaCl) as points on the surface ...
Yamaguchi S - - 2000
Umami is the term that identifies the taste of substances such as L-glutamate salts, which were discovered by Ikeda in 1908. Umami is an important taste element in natural foods; it is the main taste in the Japanese stock "dashi," and in bouillon and other stocks in the West. The ...
Lam M - - 2000
Daily consumption of xylitol (5-10 g/day) added to chewing gum and confectionary foods has been previously shown to prevent dental caries in children. METHODS: Snack foods containing xylitol were developed and tested for acceptability in a convenience sample of 31 children ages 3 to 6 years. In order to mimic ...
Schiffman S S - - 2000
Taste and smell losses in the elderly can reduce appetite and lead to inadequate dietary intake. Although these chemosensory deficits are generally not reversible, sensory interventions including intensification of taste and odor can compensate for perceptual losses. One method for "treatment" of chemosensory losses involves sensory enhancement of foods with ...
Dukas R - - 2000
To quantify the adaptive significance of insect learning, we documented the behavior and growth rate of grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) in an environment containing two artificial food types, one providing a balanced diet of protein and carbohydrate, which maximizes growth, and the other being carbohydrate-deficient, which is unsuitable for growth. Grasshoppers ...
Arzuffi R - - 2000
The ability of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to develop a food aversion learning was examined. For this purpose, in crayfishes fed with trout, a novel food (chicken) was associated in a single trial with a well-known toxic substance, lithium chloride (LiCl), and food intake was recorded for 10 days afterward ...
Kaminski L C - - 2000
This study examined links between taste responsiveness to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), a heritable trait, and sensory responses to six common foods. Sixty-three young women subjects were divided into PROP tasters (n = 25) and nontasters (n = 25), based on their responses to PROP-impregnated filter paper and mean bitterness intensity ratings ...
Pliner P - - 2000
Rozin & Rozin (1981) have suggested that the addition of flavour principles (the distinctive combinations of seasonings which characterize many cuisines) may facilitate the introduction of a new staple food into a culture. That is, the reluctance of omnivores to approach novel foods can be reduced by adding the familiar ...
Theunissen M J - - 2000
Taste adaptation, a gradual decline of taste intensity with prolonged stimulation, is frequently observed in laboratory experiments. However, during normal eating the taste of food does not seem to decrease or disappear. During eating, the presence of saliva, the interactions between tastants and odorants, and mouth movements can influence the ...
Mayeux-Portas V - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Thy-1 is a major cell-surface glycoprotein of mature neurons and certain other cells, including those of the lymphoreticular system. Despite being the simplest member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, the biological role of Thy-1 has proved elusive. Analysis of Thy-1 null mice has shown the presence of excessive GABAergic inhibition ...
Lähteenmäki, Liisa
VTT Symposium 203. Developing & Marketing Future Foods. The Challenge of Communication. Helsinki, FI, 7 - 9 June 2000. Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Poutanen, Kaisa; Bergqvist, Paula (eds.), 39
Cook RT - - 2000
The field slug, Deroceras reticulatum, a common pest of agricultural and horticultural crops, is a generalist herbivore with distinct preferences for particular food items. However, these preferences are not fixed, but are influenced by the recent dietary history of the slugs. In particular, slugs tend to select novel food items ...
Kotrschal K - - 2000
Evidence from comparative morphology and electrophysiology suggests that both, olfaction and taste in fish serve different ecological roles. The lateral olfactory system (dorsolateral olfactory bulb glomeruli and lateral olfactory tract) and the external taste buds are probably specialized for food search and amino acid discrimination. The medial olfactory system (basomedial ...
Chiwona-Karltun L - - 2000
In a cassava-growing area in Malawi, where roots are processed by soaking and water is available throughout the year, we interviewed 176 women farmers regarding their preferences for cassava cultivars and frequency of cassava consumption. Dietary cyanogen exposure was estimated from urinary levels of linamarin, the cyanogenic glycoside in cassava, ...
Drewnowski A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate links between taste responses, self-reported food preferences and selected dietary outcomes in young women. METHODS: Subjects were 159 women, with a mean age of 27.0 years. Taste responses were measured using aqueous solutions of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and sucrose. All subjects completed a 171-item food preference checklist, using ...
Ristvey A - - 1999
The rock crab, Cancer irroratus Say, uses chemically mediated learning in the search for food. Rock crabs are opportunistic benthic predators and scavengers. Observations indicate that although they eat a variety of items, they are more sensitive to, and prefer, odors of food items that they have been eating. We ...
Stevenson R J - - 1999
This study investigated the relationship between perception of an odour when smelled and the taste of a solution to which the odour is added as a flavorant. In Experiment 1 (E1) sweetness, sourness, liking and intensity ratings were obtained for 20 odours. Taste ratings were then obtained for sucrose solutions ...
Winkler S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Geriatric patients have a number of dental care problems that younger patients do not encounter. The oral changes associated with aging can have a significant effect on the efficacy of dental treatment. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors reviewed studies dealing with the causes of depressed sense of taste ...
Drewnowski A - - 1999
Identifying major influences on food choice is an important component of nutrition intervention research. Sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and self-reported preferences for meats, fats, vegetables, and fruit were examined in 329 female breast care patients. Intakes of fat, saturated fat, fiber, folate, and vitamin C, established ...
Warwick Z S - - 1999
Following training with distinctively flavored nutritive solutions that differ in concentration and thus in caloric value, rats demonstrate flavor-postingestive consequence learning by preferentially consuming one of the flavors in two-bottle tests (both flavors in nutrient-identical solutions.) Experiment 1 investigated whether the relative familiarity of the flavor-nutrient combinations encountered in two-bottle ...
Stallberg-White C - - 1999
E. Rozin and P. Rozin have suggested that one of the functions of "flavor principles" (the distinctive seasoning combinations which characterize many cuisines) is to facilitate the introduction of novel staple foods into a culture by adding sufficient familiarity to decrease the neophobia ordinarily produced by a new food. We ...
Scott L L - - 1999
In studies of behavior and nutrition, we typically determine nutritional needs and formulate diets for the average member of the herd, not for specific individuals within a herd. Nevertheless, variation among individuals could affect productivity of the group if the diet diverges too much from what individuals at the extremes ...
Lien C W - - 1999
Food preference in individual animals is regulated by brain activity. Two murine model systems for investigating food preference were developed by focusing on fruit juices. In a home-cage, two-bottle test, the volume of apple juice consumed was found to be much larger than that of orange juice. In a two-nozzle ...
Saito M - - 1999
Taste acceptability of ground Polymyxin B sulfate and Bactramin C tablets was examined when flavored BMI-60, a food additive, was added. Both adult and child volunteers found the bitter taste of the two drugs markedly inhibited, making it clinically useful. Noncompliance, due to this bitterness, was improved using flavored BMI-60. ...
Bretteville-Jensen A L - - 1999
In 1988, Becker and Murphy [Becker, G.S., Murphy, K.M., 1988. A theory of rational addiction. Journal of Political Economy, 96, 675-700.] launched a theory in which they proposed that the perspective of rational decision-making could be applied also to cases of addictive behaviour. This paper discusses the theory's assumptions of ...
Burne TH - - 1999
There is increasing evidence that odorants are important in the formation of attachments by the domestic chick, Gallus gallus domesticus. We investigated whether early exposure to nonaversive odorants altered the responses of 1-day-old chicks to a number of odorants from naturalistic sources, including feathers and faeces of adult chickens, wood ...
Loewen R - - 1999
In two studies, 7- to 9-year-old and 10- to 12-year-old children received taste exposure to four good-tasting familiar, four good-tasting novel or four bad-tasting novel foods. Following this exposure phase, they saw a series of different foods, familiar and novel, and rated their willingness to taste them. For older children, ...
Possidente B - - 1999
Seven isogenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster were assayed for oviposition preference on food with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) versus plain food. There was significant variation among strains for the percentage of eggs oviposited on each medium, ranging from 70 +/- 4% (SE) preference for plain food to no significant preference. Reciprocal hybrid, ...
Bernstein I L - - 1999
Food aversions that are acquired as a result of unpleasant experiences with foods represent a potent defense mechanism against poisoning. However, this powerful and durable form of conditioning can also contribute to avoidance of foods that are not poisonous, and are, in fact, quite nutritious. This is because such foods ...
Nagata C - - 1999
Style of breakfast (western- or Japanese-style) and taste preferences were associated with various diseases in some epidemiological studies in Japan. To evaluate what are measured by asking these dietary behaviors, we administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) and asked style of breakfast and taste preferences to a subsample of residents ...
Nagao Y - - 1999
A lowered subjective evaluation of the taste and flavor of beer due to staleness or to the addition of an unpleasant taste and flavor was found to be closely correlated with the urination rate. Beer in the same lot was compared immediately after shipment from the brewery and after leaving ...
Fisher D S - - 1999
Plants vary diurnally in concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates. If ruminants prefer forages with higher total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), then the preference for hays harvested within the same 24-h period may vary. An established field of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was harvested six times in the vegetative stage. Harvests were ...
Hudson R - - 1999
Despite the importance of chemosensation in the regulation of ingestive behavior, we still know surprisingly little about the development of the olfactory, trigeminal and gustatory systems. All three, however, are functional to some degree prenatally, and by birth infants are able to respond to a wide range of odors and ...
Reilly S - - 1999
The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) surrounds the brachium conjunctivum in the dorsolateral pons. Although composed of numerous subnuclei, the PBN is typically organized into medial and lateral subdivisions according to their location relative to the brachium. In rodents, the medial PBN is part of the central gustatory system, whereas the lateral ...
Bojak S L - - 1999
Previous studies have demonstrated that when food and leisure stimuli are combined in multiple-stimulus preference assessments, individuals typically select food more often, although the leisure stimuli also have known reinforcing properties. The purpose of the current study was to replicate this effect and determine its durability by examining the effect ...
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