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Green Leonard L Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus Box 1125, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA. - - 2004
Temporal discounting refers to the decrease in the present, subjective value of a reward as the time to its receipt increases. Results from humans have shown that a hyperbola-like function describes the form of the discounting function when choices involve hypothetical monetary rewards. In addition, magnitude effects have been reported ...
Mottley Kieron - - 2003
Juvenile budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) observed thin film transistor video playback of a virtual conspecific demonstrator using its beak to remove a stopper from a food box, either by pulling the object upward or by pushing it downward. Simultaneously (Experiment 1) or subsequently (Experiment 2), the observers were offered a similar ...
Cleveland A - - 2003
Cannell [Journal of Archaeological Science 29:335-339, 2002] argued that sex-based differences among humans in terms of the mass of chosen throwing stones could be used to infer body mass and patterns of sexual dimorphism in early hominids from Olduvai and Koobi Fora by examining the mass distributions of unaltered stone ...
Egashira Toru - - 2003
The contaminants in deionized and distilled water (DDI water) boiled with polystyrene resin inhibited A-type monoamine oxidase (MAO, MAO-A preferentially deaminates serotonin and norepinephrine and regulates these amines concentration) activity in monkey brain mitochondria. To identify these contaminants, we attempted measurements by HPLC, FT-IR and NMR. The compound inhibiting MAO-A ...
Hauser Marc D - - 2003
Altruistic food giving among genetically unrelated individuals is rare in nature. The few examples that exist suggest that when animals give food to unrelated others, they may do so on the basis of mutualistic or reciprocally altruistic relationships. We present the results of four experiments designed to tease apart the ...
Mitchell Suzanne H. - - 2003
It has been suggested that when the delivery of several rewards is separated in time, e.g. one reward immediately and a second reward a few moments later, the value of an alternative that includes these "bundled" rewards will be the sum of the hyperbolic discount functions of the individual rewards. ...
Bugnyar Thomas - - 2004
Active misleading of conspecifics has been described as a social strategy mainly for primates. Here we report a raven leading a competitor away from food in a social foraging task. Four individuals had to search and compete for hidden food at color-marked clusters of artificial food caches. At the beginning ...
Call Josep - - 2003
This study investigated the ability of three chimpanzees and three orangutans to track the position of a reward after a series of displacements. The reward was placed under one of two opaque containers resting on a platform. Experiment 1 investigated rotational displacements in which the platform was rotated 0 degrees, ...
Westergaard Gregory C - - 2004
This research examined exchange and value attribution in tufted capuchin monkeys ( Cebus apella). We presented subjects with opportunities to obtain various foods and a tool from an experimenter in exchange for the foods or tool in the subjects' possession. The times elapsed before the first chow biscuits were expelled ...
Gilberto David B - - 2003
Models of chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection previously have been established for nonhuman primates and canines; many of these methods implement stainless-steel cannulas into the lateral or 4th ventricles or catheters into the cerebral or spinal subarachnoid space. These models have proved successful and reliable but unfortunately require invasive techniques ...
Fujita Kazuo - - 2003
Four tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were trained to choose from 2 hook-like tools, 1 of which successfully led to collecting food, whereas the other did not because of inappropriate spatial arrangement of the tool and the food. In Experiment 1, all of the monkeys successfully learned the basic task. ...
Vick Sarah-Jane - - 2003
The ability of 4 olive baboons (Papio anubis) to use human gaze cues during a competitive food task was investigated. Three baboons used head orientation as a cue, and 1 individual also used eye direction alone. As the baboons did not receive prior training with gestural cues, their performance suggests ...
Snowdon Charles T - - 2003
Many monkeys show social facilitation in sampling novel, palatable foods but not in avoiding unpalatable foods. Cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) socially learned to avoid a preferred food when it was made unpalatable but showed no aversion toward a food not made unpalatable. Only 33% sampled unpalatable tuna, and few sampled ...
Weldon Paul J - - 2003
Neotropical monkeys of the genus Cebus anoint themselves by rubbing arthropods and plants against their pelage. A recent study has shown that free-ranging wedge-capped capuchin monkeys (C. olivaceus) in Venezuela self-anoint with a benzoquinone-secreting millipede, an activity by which they are hypothesized to appropriate chemical deterrents of mosquitoes. To evaluate ...
Kondo Hiromu - - 2003
We investigated the gastrointestinal transit of liquids, as well as various gastric pH profiles, in fed cynomolgus monkeys. Twelve grams of a biscuit-type solid food were provided 1 h before the test. The acetaminophen method was used to determine the gastric half-emptying time (t(50%)), which provided an estimate of the ...
de Kort Selvino R - - 2003
Food sharing among unrelated same-sex individuals has received considerable interest from primatologists and evolutionary biologists because of its apparent altruistic nature and implications for the evolution of complex social cognition. In contrast to primates, food sharing in birds has received relatively little attention. Here we describe three types of food ...
Bos Ruud van den - - 2003
In rats (Rattus norvegicus) anticipation to an oncoming food reward in an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning procedure is expressed as an increase of behavioural transitions, i.e. hyperactivity. This behaviour might be related to the spontaneous appetitive behaviour of animals in relation to oncoming food rewards. To deepen our insight into anticipatory ...
Hihara Sayaka - - 2003
Vocal production and its usage in nonhuman primates may share common features with primitive human language. We trained two Japanese monkeys to use a rake-shaped tool to retrieve distant food. After the training, the monkeys spontaneously began vocalizing coo-calls in the tool-using context. We then trained one of the monkeys ...
Harris Glenda C GC Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 705 Stellar Chance/6100, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2003
Opiate abuse has been associated with cognitive deficits in human addicts. To determine if prior opiate exposure alters the ability to learn, we trained animals in an instrumental learning task for a food reward. During a 2-week period after withdrawal, morphine-abstinent rats were significantly slower at learning an escalating fixed-ratio ...
Green Leonard - - 2003
Rats were given a choice between a smaller, immediately available reward and a larger reward available after a delay. In one phase, the reward was food and in another phase, the reward was water. Constant delays were added between the choice presentation and the delivery of the reward alternatives. As ...
Ducoing A M - - 2003
The ability of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) to deceive partner about the location of hidden food was investigated in 4 males belonging to a group raised in a 2-acre park. Before releasing subjects in the search task, the experimenter prompted 1 of the subjects to observe where the bait was ...
Izawa Ei-Ichi E Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, - - 2003
Effects of bilateral chemical lesions of the medial basal ganglia [lobus parolfactorius (LPO)] were examined in 7- to 14-d-old domestic chicks. Chicks were trained in a color discrimination task, in which the subject had to peck one of the two colored beads associated with rewards that differed in quantity (amount ...
Constantino Maricela A - - 2003
We raised leatherback posthatchlings in the laboratory for up to 7 weeks to study the role of visual and chemical cues in food recognition and food-seeking behavior. Turtles were reared on a formulated (artificial gelatinous) diet and had no contact with test materials until experiments began. Subjects were presented with ...
McMahon L R - - 2002
This study used schedule-controlled responding to examine the acute and chronic effects of the neuroactive steroid and positive -aminobutyric acid A (GABA ) modulator pregnanolone. Pregnanolone, the positive GABA modulator triazolam, the GABA chloride channel site antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and the -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist ketamine were administered to monkeys ( ...
Nakagawa Naofumi - - 2003
Phytochemical or nutrient analyses of primate diets have revealed clues to their food selection in a single species. On the other hand, few interspecific comparisons of phytochemical or nutrient composition of primate diets have been made, although diets are considered to differ in phytochemical or nutrient content from primate species ...
Enstam Karin L - - 2002
We studied responses to alarm calls of sympatric patas (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure, with the intention of understanding the relationship between the environment and predator avoidance. Patas and vervet monkeys are phylogenetically closely related and overlap in body size. However, while patas ...
Hopkins William D WD Division of Psychobiology, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. - - 2002
Three experiments on grip morphology and hand use were conducted in a sample of chimpanzees. In Experiment 1, grip morphology when grasping food items was recorded, and it was found that subjects who adopted a precision grip were more right-handed than chimpanzees using other grips. In Experiment 2, the effect ...
Andrews Michael W - - 2002
Three individually housed bonnet macaque males were given 75 weeks of continuous access to a joystick task with a reward choice of either viewing live color video of a bonnet group or obtaining a banana-flavored food treat. Here we report data for weeks 44-75 following a change in the stimulus ...
Williams Frederick E. - - 2002
A series of studies was initiated to examine learning and memory function in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) by using a simple spatial alternation paradigm for a food reward. Fish were fed on alternating sides of a divided fish tank, with a red card displayed on one side serving as a ...
Volkow Nora D - - 2002
The drive for food is one of the most powerful of human and animal behaviors. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved with motivation and reward, its believed to regulate food intake in laboratory animals by modulating its rewarding effects through the nucleus accumbens (NA). Here we assess the involvement of dopamine in ...
Durier V - - 2002
We investigated whether exploratory behaviour of the cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), was modified by the introduction of a novel object, such as a bait station, into their familiar home range. In particular, we measured the attractiveness of boxes, as novel objects, in relation to their complexity and to ...
Fujita Kazuo - - 2002
A new laboratory procedure which allows the study of deceptive behavior in nonhuman primates is described. Pairs of tufted capuchin monkeys faced each other in a food-competition contest. Two feeder boxes were placed between the monkeys. A piece of food was placed in one of the boxes. The subordinate individual ...
Kuroshima Hika - - 2002
The ability of four tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to recognize the causal connection between seeing and knowing was investigated. The subjects were trained to follow a suggestion about the location of hidden food provided by a trainer who knew where the food was (the knower) in preference to a ...
Kralik Jerald D - - 2002
To explore the relationship between problem solving and inhibitory control, the authors present 4 experiments on cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) using a reverse-reward contingency task. In Experiment 1, 1 group of tamarins was given a choice between a small and a large quantity of food. Whichever quantity the tamarins reached ...
Small Dana M DM Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center, Northwestern University Medical School, 320 East Superior, Searle 11-465, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2002
A network of brain regions has been implicated in food-reward processing. now provide evidence that this network is differentially modulated by anticipation versus receipt of a food reward and suggest an additional effect of valence of the stimulus.
Vyssotski Alexei L - - 2002
Previous behavioral studies (Minichiello et al., Neuron 1999;24:401-414) showed that mice deficient for the TrkB receptor in the forebrain were unable to learn a swimming navigation task with an invisible platform and were severely impaired in finding a visible platform in the same setup. Likewise, additional behavioral deficits suggested a ...
Beran Michael J MJ Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur 30034, USA. - - 2002
Delay maintenance, which is the continuance over time of the choice to forgo an immediate, less preferred reward for a future, more preferred reward, was examined in 4 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and 1 orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). In the 1st experiment, the apes were presented with 20 chocolate pieces that were ...
Hopkins William D WD Berry College, Georgia, USA. - - 2002
This study examined the influence of experimenter position on hand use in gestural communication in a sample of 127 captive chimpanzees. Hand use in gestural communication was recorded while an experimenter was positioned either left, right, or directly in front of the subject. The type of gesture was also recorded ...
Bartolomucci A - - 2001
This study investigated how male tree shrews (Tupaia belangen) performed in a searching task while in their home cages and assessed whether different food distributions affected their performance. The animals were faced with a holeboard containing 9 food sources arranged in a 3 x 3 matrix or in 3 clusters, ...
Santos L R - - 2001
To survive, organisms must be able to identify edible objects. However, we know relatively little about how humans and other species distinguish food items from non-food items. We tested the abilities of semi-free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to learn rapidly that a novel object was edible, and to generalize their ...
Widholm J J - - 2001
Each of 2 monkeys typically earned their daily food ration by depositing tokens in one of two slots. Tokens deposited in one slot dropped into a bin where they were kept (token kept). Deposits to a second slot dropped into a bin where they could be obtained again (token returned). ...
Lelas S - - 2001
RATIONALE: The discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) differ from those of other typical benzodiazepine (BZ) agonists in that CDP does not always occasion full substitution for a BZ agonist DS. OBJECTIVES: The present study tested the hypothesis that the unusual DS effects of CDP may result from its ...
Mathy J W - - 2001
We conducted an experiment on a group of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in which we manipulated both food size and interfood distance independently to examine which factor was more important in causing aggressive competition. For each of 254 trials, the monkeys were offered simultaneously two apple pieces ranging in ...
Anderson J R - - 2001
Three squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) learned to reach toward a container that covered food if a cooperative trainer rewarded such reaches by giving the food. A competitive trainer kept any food found, but wrong selections by this trainer were also rewarded. The monkeys initially reached toward the baited container indiscriminately, ...
Ryan C A - - 2001
This article reports on lessons learned from using comparison and substitution tasks to assess consumers' ability to apply food guide messages. The study evaluated the usability of the Northeast Regional Food Guide (NERFG), which provides instruction on healthful diets of local foods in season. The tasks showed that the NERFG ...
Mitz A R - - 2001
Neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies in monkeys sometimes require an automated food-pellet dispenser. Commercially available dispensers typically sequester the pellet until delivery and, once delivered, the pellet's availability cannot be controlled. The custom-designed dispenser described here overcomes those two limitations. The device is composed of two separate units: a feeder and ...
Morris J S - - 2001
We used positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 10 healthy volunteers performing a recognition memory task with food and non-food items. The biological salience of the food stimuli was manipulated by requiring subjects to fast before the experiment and eat to satiation at fixed time ...
Hauser M D - - 2001
When food is launched down a vertically positioned S-shaped opaque tube, cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) search for the food in the position directly beneath the release point, even though over several trials it never appears in this position (B. M. Hood et al., 1999). Experiment 1 showed that when the ...
Armus H L HL Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, OH 43606, USA. - - 2001
This study was designed to test whether distinctively flavored food pellets, used as rewards for lever-pressing by rats, would acquire different reward values as a function of the differential effort involved in making the lever pressing response which would be predictable from the concept of cognitive dissonance. Subjects were seven ...
Yanagihara S S Laboratory for Animal Information Biology, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, - - 2001
We aimed to reveal what is coded in the basal ganglia of domestic chicks. In the water-reinforced 'go' task, chicks learned to peck selectively at a colored bead in order to obtain a drop of water. Out of 38 units obtained, seven showed excitatory activities specifically during the reward period. ...
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