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Results 401 - 450 of 612
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Enstam Karin L - - 2002
We studied responses to alarm calls of sympatric patas (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure, with the intention of understanding the relationship between the environment and predator avoidance. Patas and vervet monkeys are phylogenetically closely related and overlap in body size. However, while patas ...
Hopkins William D - - 2002
Three experiments on grip morphology and hand use were conducted in a sample of chimpanzees. In Experiment 1, grip morphology when grasping food items was recorded, and it was found that subjects who adopted a precision grip were more right-handed than chimpanzees using other grips. In Experiment 2, the effect ...
Andrews Michael W - - 2002
Three individually housed bonnet macaque males were given 75 weeks of continuous access to a joystick task with a reward choice of either viewing live color video of a bonnet group or obtaining a banana-flavored food treat. Here we report data for weeks 44-75 following a change in the stimulus ...
Williams Frederick E. - - 2002
A series of studies was initiated to examine learning and memory function in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) by using a simple spatial alternation paradigm for a food reward. Fish were fed on alternating sides of a divided fish tank, with a red card displayed on one side serving as a ...
Volkow Nora D - - 2002
The drive for food is one of the most powerful of human and animal behaviors. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved with motivation and reward, its believed to regulate food intake in laboratory animals by modulating its rewarding effects through the nucleus accumbens (NA). Here we assess the involvement of dopamine in ...
Durier V - - 2002
We investigated whether exploratory behaviour of the cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), was modified by the introduction of a novel object, such as a bait station, into their familiar home range. In particular, we measured the attractiveness of boxes, as novel objects, in relation to their complexity and to ...
Fujita Kazuo - - 2002
A new laboratory procedure which allows the study of deceptive behavior in nonhuman primates is described. Pairs of tufted capuchin monkeys faced each other in a food-competition contest. Two feeder boxes were placed between the monkeys. A piece of food was placed in one of the boxes. The subordinate individual ...
Kuroshima Hika - - 2002
The ability of four tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to recognize the causal connection between seeing and knowing was investigated. The subjects were trained to follow a suggestion about the location of hidden food provided by a trainer who knew where the food was (the knower) in preference to a ...
Kralik Jerald D - - 2002
To explore the relationship between problem solving and inhibitory control, the authors present 4 experiments on cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) using a reverse-reward contingency task. In Experiment 1, 1 group of tamarins was given a choice between a small and a large quantity of food. Whichever quantity the tamarins reached ...
Small Dana M DM Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center, Northwestern University Medical School, 320 East Superior, Searle 11-465, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2002
A network of brain regions has been implicated in food-reward processing. now provide evidence that this network is differentially modulated by anticipation versus receipt of a food reward and suggest an additional effect of valence of the stimulus.
Hopkins William D - - 2002
This study examined the influence of experimenter position on hand use in gestural communication in a sample of 127 captive chimpanzees. Hand use in gestural communication was recorded while an experimenter was positioned either left, right, or directly in front of the subject. The type of gesture was also recorded ...
Vyssotski Alexei L - - 2002
Previous behavioral studies (Minichiello et al., Neuron 1999;24:401-414) showed that mice deficient for the TrkB receptor in the forebrain were unable to learn a swimming navigation task with an invisible platform and were severely impaired in finding a visible platform in the same setup. Likewise, additional behavioral deficits suggested a ...
Beran Michael J MJ Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur 30034, USA. - - 2002
Delay maintenance, which is the continuance over time of the choice to forgo an immediate, less preferred reward for a future, more preferred reward, was examined in 4 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and 1 orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). In the 1st experiment, the apes were presented with 20 chocolate pieces that were ...
Bartolomucci A - - 2001
This study investigated how male tree shrews (Tupaia belangen) performed in a searching task while in their home cages and assessed whether different food distributions affected their performance. The animals were faced with a holeboard containing 9 food sources arranged in a 3 x 3 matrix or in 3 clusters, ...
Santos L R - - 2001
To survive, organisms must be able to identify edible objects. However, we know relatively little about how humans and other species distinguish food items from non-food items. We tested the abilities of semi-free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to learn rapidly that a novel object was edible, and to generalize their ...
Widholm J J - - 2001
Each of 2 monkeys typically earned their daily food ration by depositing tokens in one of two slots. Tokens deposited in one slot dropped into a bin where they were kept (token kept). Deposits to a second slot dropped into a bin where they could be obtained again (token returned). ...
Lelas S - - 2001
RATIONALE: The discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) differ from those of other typical benzodiazepine (BZ) agonists in that CDP does not always occasion full substitution for a BZ agonist DS. OBJECTIVES: The present study tested the hypothesis that the unusual DS effects of CDP may result from its ...
Mathy J W - - 2001
We conducted an experiment on a group of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in which we manipulated both food size and interfood distance independently to examine which factor was more important in causing aggressive competition. For each of 254 trials, the monkeys were offered simultaneously two apple pieces ranging in ...
Anderson J R - - 2001
Three squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) learned to reach toward a container that covered food if a cooperative trainer rewarded such reaches by giving the food. A competitive trainer kept any food found, but wrong selections by this trainer were also rewarded. The monkeys initially reached toward the baited container indiscriminately, ...
Ryan C A - - 2001
This article reports on lessons learned from using comparison and substitution tasks to assess consumers' ability to apply food guide messages. The study evaluated the usability of the Northeast Regional Food Guide (NERFG), which provides instruction on healthful diets of local foods in season. The tasks showed that the NERFG ...
Mitz A R - - 2001
Neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies in monkeys sometimes require an automated food-pellet dispenser. Commercially available dispensers typically sequester the pellet until delivery and, once delivered, the pellet's availability cannot be controlled. The custom-designed dispenser described here overcomes those two limitations. The device is composed of two separate units: a feeder and ...
Morris J S - - 2001
We used positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 10 healthy volunteers performing a recognition memory task with food and non-food items. The biological salience of the food stimuli was manipulated by requiring subjects to fast before the experiment and eat to satiation at fixed time ...
Hauser M D - - 2001
When food is launched down a vertically positioned S-shaped opaque tube, cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) search for the food in the position directly beneath the release point, even though over several trials it never appears in this position (B. M. Hood et al., 1999). Experiment 1 showed that when the ...
Armus H L HL Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, OH 43606, USA. - - 2001
This study was designed to test whether distinctively flavored food pellets, used as rewards for lever-pressing by rats, would acquire different reward values as a function of the differential effort involved in making the lever pressing response which would be predictable from the concept of cognitive dissonance. Subjects were seven ...
Yanagihara S S Laboratory for Animal Information Biology, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, - - 2001
We aimed to reveal what is coded in the basal ganglia of domestic chicks. In the water-reinforced 'go' task, chicks learned to peck selectively at a colored bead in order to obtain a drop of water. Out of 38 units obtained, seven showed excitatory activities specifically during the reward period. ...
Sulkowski G M - - 2001
Animals, including pigeons, parrots, raccoons, ferrets, rats, New and Old World monkeys, and apes are capable of numerical computations. Much of the evidence for such capacities is based on the use of techniques that require training. Recently, however, several studies conducted under both laboratory and field conditions have employed methods ...
Wallis J D - - 2001
To gain insight into the nature and neural specificity of the relationship between simple problem solving, inhibitory control and prefrontal cortex, comparison of the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal cortex were examined on the performance of common marmosets on a detour reaching task. Monkeys were ...
Laska M - - 2001
I assessed the occurrence of food preferences in captive squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques and analyzed whether their preferences correlate with nutrient composition. Using a two-alternative choice test, I repeatedly presented six Saimiri sciureus and six Macaca nemestrina with all possible binary combinations of 12 types of food that are ...
LaBar K S - - 2001
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to determine whether visual responses to food in the human amygdala and related corticolimbic structures would be selectively altered by changes in states of hunger. Participants viewed images of motivationally relevant (food) and motivationally irrelevant (tool) objects while undergoing fMRI in alternately hungry ...
Gharib A A Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley 94720-1650, - - 2001
Two rat experiments shed light on how variation in behavior is regulated. Experiment 1 used the peak procedure. On most trials, the 1st bar press more than 40 s after signal onset ended the signal and produced food. Other trials lasted much longer and ended without food. On those trials, ...
Fernandez-Duque E - - 2001
Owl monkeys are small monogamous primates ranging over a wide area extending from Panama to the Chaco region of northern Argentina. The Chaco, an alluvial plain covering over one million km2 of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay, consists of a mosaic of grasslands, savannas, xeric thorn forests, and gallery forests. ...
Hare Brian - - 2001
We conducted three experiments on social problem solving by chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. In each experiment a subordinate and a dominant individual competed for food, which was placed in various ways on the subordinate's side of two opaque barriers. In some conditions dominants had not seen the food hidden, or food ...
Lyons D M DM Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stanford University School of Medicine, MSLS Room P111, Stanford, CA 94305-5485, USA. - - 2000
Little is known about frustration-induced changes in stress physiology in humans and nonhuman primates. Here we assess in two experiments with squirrel monkeys plasma levels of pituitary-adrenal stress hormones in conditions designed to provoke frustrative nonreward. In the first experiment 18 prepubertal monkeys were trained to feed from one of ...
Morgan D - - 2000
The present study used a concurrent schedule of food and drug delivery in socially housed male cynomolgus monkeys (Macacafascicularis; N = 15) to study variables that influence cocaine acquisition. Each monkey was implanted with subcutaneous vascular access ports, and responding was maintained under a concurrent food, saline schedule with the ...
Ishibashi H - - 2000
Four Japanese macaques were trained in the use of a T-shaped rake. Use the tool and development of the level of the skill of tool-use took place in three distinct stages. During stage 1, two of the monkeys seemed to use insight for initial solution, while fortuitous experiences led the ...
Westlund K - - 2000
Post-conflict (PC) affiliation has been demonstrated in a number of Old World monkeys and apes, but very little is known about the occurrence of the phenomenon in New World monkeys. This study examined 282 PC interactions after spontaneous conflicts around feeding time in two family groups (N = 12) of ...
Valsecchi P - - 2000
Search abilities of mice (Mus musculus domesticus) were evaluated using an arena closed by a ceiling in which 9 food sources (which mice could reach standing on their hind legs) could be arranged according to 2 configurations: a 3 x 3 square matrix and 3 clusters each containing 3 food ...
de Waal - - 2000
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) share food even if separated by a mesh restraint. Pairs of capuchins were moved into a test chamber in which one of them received apple pieces for 20 min, and the other received carrot pieces for the next 20 min. Previous research had shown a correlation ...
Kirshenbaum AP - - 2000
The literature on risk-sensitive foraging theory provides several accounts of species that fluctuate between risk-averse and risk-prone strategies. The daily energy budget rule suggests that shifts in foraging strategy are precipitated by changes in the forager's energy budget. Researchers have attempted to alter the organism's energy budget using a variety ...
Kieu N T NT Department of Gastroenterology, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, 1-21-1, Toyama, Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo 162-8655, - - 2000
This study was conducted to investigate the concentrations of serum fatty acids, lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein of three populations in North Vietnam: rural area with low income (n = 101), suburban with average income (n = 97), and urban with high income (n = 95). The results showed the suburban and ...
Olthof A A Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, - - 2000
In each of 3 experiments, different sets of 4 pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to discriminate between 2 visual symbols that covered wells containing food items that varied in number, mass, or both. In Experiment 1, the symbols were associated with 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 pieces of ...
Dickinson A A Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2000
The administration of the dopamine antagonists, pimozide and alpha-flupenthixol, to rats reduced Pavlovian-instrumental transfer when a conditioned stimulus (CS) that had been paired with a noncontingent food reward was tested on instrumental performance. The administration of the antagonists during Pavlovian conditioning and/or testing abolished the enhancement of instrumental performance by ...
Hare B - - 2000
We report a series of experiments on social problem solving in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. In each experiment a subordinate and a dominant individual were put into competition over two pieces of food. In all experiments dominants obtained virtually all of the foods to which they had good visual and physical ...
Schieber M H MH Department of Neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA. - - 2000
The visual, tactile, and motor properties of neurons in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) suggest that the PMv plays an important role in the interaction of the face and upper extremities with visual objects, a function that might be disrupted by inactivation of the PMv. The behavior of three rhesus ...
Visalberghi E - - 2000
Palatability of plant foods may change over time in relation to the concentration of toxic secondary metabolites. We investigated the behavioural response of capuchin monkeys to this type of change and assessed the influence of social conditions. Twenty-seven tufted capuchin monkeys were presented in Social or Individual conditions with a ...
Johnson E - - 2000
This study characterizes food neophobia in semi-free ranging rhesus macaques. In experiment one, monkeys received novel and familiar foods during periods of normal provisioning and when provisioning was suspended. The monkeys did discriminate between novel and familiar foods and continued to exhibit neophobia when provisioning was suspended. In experiment two, ...
Roush RS - - 1999
We examined the effects of social environment on food-asociated calling of cotton-top tamarins, Saguinus oedipus, in two experiments. In experiment 1, we compared the food-associated calling behaviour of six juvenile tamarins living in their natal groups with their calling behaviour 9 months after being removed from family groups and paired. ...
Nakagawa N - - 1999
In order to obtain reliable evidence for differences in habitat preferences between two closely related savanna-dwelling primate species, namely, patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus), I collected data on vegetation and patterns of range use concurrently at a single study site, Kala Maloue, Cameroon, in a ...
Hauser MD - - 1999
In any problem-solving situation, there are features associated with the problem that are relevant from a functional perspective and other features that are irrelevant. To determine whether animals are sensitive to the distinction between functionally relevant and irrelvant features of a problem, we conducted two main experiments with a New ...
Beran M J MJ Language Research Center, Georgia State University Decatur 30034, - - 1999
Delay of gratification in 3 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was examined by using a paradigm based on research with children. The chimpanzees either pressed a door-bell button during a trial and received one reward (the immediate reward) or did not press the doorbell and received another reward (the delayed reward). Two ...
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