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Results 251 - 300 of 612
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Johnson Elizabeth C - - 2007
While we know that food neophobia in nonhuman primates is affected by social factors, little is known about how palatability, and specifically sugar content, might ameliorate a monkey's hesitancy to eat a novel food. It is likely that an innate preference for sweet substances would alter an animal's typical neophobic ...
Machado Christopher J CJ Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, USA. - - 2007
We examined the effects of bilateral amygdaloid, hippocampal or orbital frontal cortex lesions on reward assessment in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In Experiment 1, basic preferences for foods and inedible nonfoods were measured pre- and postsurgery. None of the lesions produced changes in animals' preferences for palatable foods or raw ...
Bräuer Juliane - - 2007
Chimpanzee's perspective-taking abilities are currently disputed. Here we show that in some food competition contexts, subordinate chimpanzees do take the visual perspective of dominant individuals, preferentially targeting a hidden piece of the food that the dominant cannot see over a piece that is visible to both individuals. However, the space ...
Dindo Marietta - - 2007
It has been claimed that capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) show inequity aversion in relation to food rewards for a simple exchange task. However, other factors may affect the willingness of a monkey to consume foods of high or low value in the presence of a conspecific. In this study, pairs ...
Evans Theodore A - - 2007
The authors tested the self-control of rhesus macaques by assessing if they could refrain from reaching into a food container to maximize the accumulation of sequentially delivered food items (a delay-maintenance task). Three different versions of the task varied the quantity and quality of available food items. In the first ...
Stevens Jeffrey R - - 2007
The capacity for non-linguistic, numerical discrimination has been well characterized in non-human animals, with recent studies providing careful controls for non-numerical confounds such as continuous extent, density, and quantity. More poorly understood are the conditions under which animals use numerical versus non-numerical quantification, and the nature of the relation between ...
Hare Brian - - 2007
To understand constraints on the evolution of cooperation, we compared the ability of bonobos and chimpanzees to cooperatively solve a food-retrieval problem. We addressed two hypotheses. The "emotional-reactivity hypothesis" predicts that bonobos will cooperate more successfully because tolerance levels are higher in bonobos. This prediction is inspired by studies of ...
Laska Matthias - - 2007
In order to optimize foraging efficiency and avoid toxicosis, animals must be able to detect, discriminate, and learn about the predictive signals of potential food. Primates are typically regarded as animals that rely mainly on their highly developed visual systems, and little is known about the role that the other ...
Spinozzi G - - 2007
The aim of this study was to analyze the manual patterns used by tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to retrieve a small food item from a narrow tube, with special attention focused on the independent use of single fingers, fine digit movements, hand preference, and intermanual differences in the time ...
Thomsen Liat R - - 2007
Tool use is rare amongst rodents and has never been recorded in connection with agonistic displays. We witnessed a behaviour, stick display (StD), involving tool use in free-living Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) that we conclude is a display behaviour. Two beavers were the main performers of the signal that was ...
Baldo Brian A BA Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 6001 Research Park Blvd., Madison, WI, 53719, USA. - - 2007
The idea that nucleus accumbens (Acb) dopamine transmission contributes to the neural mediation of reward, at least in a general sense, has achieved wide acceptance. Nevertheless, debate remains over the precise nature of dopamine's role in reward and even over the nature of reward itself. In the present article, evidence ...
Evans Christopher S - - 2007
Some animals give specific calls when they discover food or detect a particular type of predator. Companions respond with food-searching behaviour or by adopting appropriate escape responses. These signals thus seem to denote objects in the environment, but this specific mechanism has only been demonstrated for monkey alarm calls. We ...
de A Moura Antonio C - - 2007
Regeneration of the Brazilian Caatinga forest may be restricted by the naturally low diversity and density of fruit-eating animals, which has been aggravated by local faunal extinction induced by human activities. We made a preliminary evaluation of the potential seed-dispersal role of capuchin (Cebus apella libidinosus) and howler monkeys (Alouatta ...
Li Yiming - - 2007
Morphological characters allow the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to use multiple tree levels, but very few studies have quantified the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the species. I investigated the terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of the monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except ...
Anderson James R - - 2007
Gaze alternation (GA) is considered a hallmark of pointing in human infants, a sign of intentionality underlying the gesture. GA has occasionally been observed in great apes, and reported only anecdotally in a few monkeys. Three squirrel monkeys that had previously learned to reach toward out-of-reach food in the presence ...
Koike Chihiro - - 2007
A glycosyltransferase, alpha1,3galactosyltransferase, catalyzes the terminal step in biosynthesis of Galalpha1,3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R (alphaGal), an oligosaccharide cell surface epitope. This epitope or antigenically similar epitopes are widely distributed among the different forms of life. Although abundant in most mammals, alphaGal is not normally found in catarrhine primates (Old World monkeys and apes, ...
Miller Jennifer L JL Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, - - 2007
Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) exhibit severe disturbances in appetite regulation, including delayed meal termination, early return of hunger after a meal, seeking and hoarding food and eating of non-food substances. Brain pathways involved in the control of appetite in humans are thought to include the hypothalamus, frontal cortex (including ...
Ventura Raffaella - - 2006
Social primates spend a significant proportion of their time exchanging grooming with their group companions. Although grooming is mainly exchanged in kind, given its hygienic and tension-reducing functions, it is still debated whether grooming also provides some social benefits, such as preferential access to resources (e.g., food or mating partners). ...
Aureli Filippo - - 2006
Raids into neighboring territories may occur for different reasons, including the increase of foraging and mating opportunities directly or indirectly through the killing of neighboring rivals. Lethal raids have been mainly observed in humans and chimpanzees, with raiding males being reported to search purposefully for neighbors. Here we report on ...
Qin Jianhua - - 2007
The soil dwelling nematode, Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans, is a popular model system for studying behavioral plasticity. Noticeably absent from the C. elegans literature, however, are studies evaluating worm behavior in mazes. Here, we report the use of microfluidic mazes to investigate exploration and learning behaviors in wild-type C. elegans, as ...
Peciña Susana S Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1109, USA. - - 2006
Hedonic "liking" for sensory pleasures is an important aspect of reward, and excessive 'liking' of particular rewards might contribute to excessive consumption and to disorders such as obesity. The present review aims to summarize recent advances in the identification of brain substrates for food 'liking' with a focus on opioid ...
Figlewicz Dianne P DP VA Puget Sound Health Care System (151), Seattle WA 98108, USA. - - 2007
Extensive historical evidence from the drug abuse literature has provided support for the concept that there is functional communication between central nervous system (CNS) circuitries which subserve reward/motivation, and the regulation of energy homeostasis. This concept is substantiated by recent studies that map anatomical pathways, or which demonstrate that hormones ...
Naqshbandi Mariam - - 2006
The Bischof-Kohler hypothesis holds that nonhuman animals cannot anticipate a future event and take appropriate action when that event involves satisfaction of a need not currently experienced. Tests of the Bischof-Kohler hypothesis were performed with squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus). In experimental trials with both species, a ...
Hoffman Megan L - - 2006
Two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) had a direct view of an experimenter placing a food item beneath one of several cups within a horizontal spatial array. The chimpanzees then were required to move around the spatial array, shifting their orientation to the array by 180 degrees . Both chimpanzees remembered the ...
Finlayson Graham G Biopsychology Group, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. - - 2007
Berridge's model (e.g. [Berridge KC. Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1996;20:1-25.; Berridge KC, Robinson T E. Parsing reward. Trends Neurosci 2003;26:507-513.; Berridge KC. Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience. Physiol Behav 2004;81:179-209]) outlines the brain substrates thought to mediate food reward with distinct 'liking' (hedonic/affective) ...
Barbano M Flavia MF Laboratoire de Neuropsychobiologie des Désadaptations, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5541, Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146, rue Léo Saignat-BP 31, 33076, Bordeaux Cedex, France. - - 2007
More than two decades ago, Wise proposed his "anhedonia hypothesis" to explain the role of dopamine in motivated behaviors. The hypothesis posits that dopamine mediates the pleasure experienced by reward obtainment. However, some experimental findings have contested this hypothesis and several authors have proposed alternative functions for dopamine with regard ...
Call Josep - - 2007
Four bonobos, seven gorillas, and six orangutans were presented with two small rectangular boards on a platform. One of the boards had a piece of food under it so that it acquired an inclined orientation whereas the other remained flat on the platform. Subjects preferentially selected the inclined board. In ...
Aoki Naoya - - 2006
Behavioral effects of handling cost (time and/or energetic cost for food consumption) on choice were examined using domestic chicks trained in operant task reinforced by delayed food rewards. When scattered sesame was delivered in more demanding conditions, a colored cue bead associated with six grains ('large' and 'costly' reward) was ...
Darmaillacq Anne-Sophie - - 2006
Imprinting provides precocial offspring with an efficient means to optimize their subsequent behaviours. We discovered food imprinting using a sophisticated invertebrate model: the cuttlefish. We showed that early juveniles preferred the prey to which they have been visually familiarized, when the amount of information was sufficient and only if such ...
Bauman M D - - 2006
As part of ongoing studies on the neurobiology of socioemotional behavior in the nonhuman primate, the authors examined the social dominance hierarchy of juvenile macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that received bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or the hippocampus or a sham surgical procedure at 2 weeks of age. ...
Beran Michael J MJ Language Research Center, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5010, Atlanta, GA 30303, United States. mjberan@yahoo.com - - 2006
Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that chimpanzees can delay gratification by inhibiting consumption of available food items for as long as 3 min as an experimenter transfers additional food items from a transparent container to a bowl placed in front of the subject. In this study, we examined ...
Southgate Victoria V University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland, UK. - - 2006
The reasons underpinning search biases in 2 species of macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Macaca arctoides) were explored over the course of 3 experiments requiring monkeys to search for a hidden food reward. The results reveal that monkeys are adept at exploiting perceptual cues to locate a food reward but ...
Wise Roy A RA Intramural Research Program, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. - - 2006
The ability of food to establish and maintain response habits and conditioned preferences depends largely on the function of brain dopamine systems. While dopaminergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens appears sufficient for some forms of reward, the role of dopamine in food reward does not appear to be restricted to ...
Davis Caroline C Department of Kinesiology & Health Sciences, York University, and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. - - 2007
The reinforcing effects of addictive drugs and palatable foods are regulated, at least in part, by a common biological mechanism. The reactivity or sensitivity of these brain reward regions have been found to correlate significantly with the risk for a variety of drug addictions. Sensitivity to Reward (STR) is conceptualised ...
Brosnan Sarah F SF Living Links Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. - - 2006
It was recently demonstrated that capuchin monkeys notice and respond to distributional inequity, a trait that has been proposed to support the evolution of cooperation in the human species. However, it is unknown how capuchins react to inequitable rewards in an unrestricted cooperative paradigm in which they may freely choose ...
Cohen Yale E - - 2006
In various aspects of linguistic analysis and human cognition, some forms of observed variation are ignored in the service of handling more abstract categories. In the absence of training, rhesus discriminate between different types of vocalizations based on the information conveyed as opposed to their acoustic morphologies. We hypothesized that ...
Dubreuil Diane - - 2006
It has been reported that capuchin monkeys reject a less preferred food (LPF) when they see a partner capuchin receive a more preferred food (PF) for performing the same task. This behaviour was taken as evidence of 'inequity aversion', but an alternative hypothesis is that capuchins reject the LPF because ...
Beaver John D JD Brain Sciences Unit, Medical Research Council Cognition, Cambridge CB2 2EF, United Kingdom. - - 2006
A network of interconnected brain regions, including orbitofrontal, ventral striatal, amygdala, and midbrain areas, has been widely implicated in a number of aspects of food reward. However, in humans, sensitivity to reward can vary significantly from one person to the next. Individuals high in this trait experience more frequent and ...
Jersáková Jana - - 2006
The orchid family is renowned for its enormous diversity of pollination mechanisms and unusually high occurrence of non-rewarding flowers compared to other plant families. The mechanisms of deception in orchids include generalized food deception, food-deceptive floral mimicry, brood-site imitation, shelter imitation, pseudoantagonism, rendezvous attraction and sexual deception. Generalized food deception ...
Burkart Judith - - 2006
A series of experiments investigating the degree of gaze understanding in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) is reported. Results show that marmosets follow the gaze of a human experimenter readily and also use the gaze to locate food in a modified version of the object choice task if influences of chance ...
Evans Theodore Avery TA Alpha Genesis, Inc., Yemassee, SC 29945, USA. - - 2006
Self-control is defined as forgoing immediate gratification to obtain a greater reward. Tool use may relate to self-control because both behaviors may require foresight and deliberate control over one's actions. The authors assessed 20 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) for the ability to delay gratification in a tool task. Subjects were ...
Buzzard Paul J - - 2006
Forest guenons (Cercopithecus spp.) are often found in polyspecific associations that may decrease predator risk while increasing interspecific competition for food. Cheek pouch use may mitigate interspecific competition and predator risk by reducing the time spent in areas of high competition/predator risk. I investigated these ideas in three forest guenons: ...
Lavenex Pamela Banta - - 2006
The role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory has been extensively studied in rodents. Comparable studies in nonhuman primates, however, are few, and findings are often contradictory. This may be attributable to the failure to distinguish between allocentric and egocentric spatial representations in experimental designs. For this experiment, ...
Elman Igor I Behavioral Psychopharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA. - - 2006
Obesity is highly prevalent among patients with schizophrenia and is associated with detrimental health consequences. Although excessive consumption of fast food and pharmacotherapy with such second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs) as clozapine and olanzapine has been implicated in the schizophrenia/obesity comorbidity, the pathophysiology of this link remains unclear. Here, we propose ...
Sastre Aristides A Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1007 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60607, - - 2006
Lesions of the gustatory thalamus (GT) prevent the occurrence of between-session contrast effects (i.e., anticipatory negative contrast and consummatory successive negative contrast [cSNC]) involving liquid rewards. These deficits are attributed to a disruption of the reward comparison mechanism that computes the value of the current reward relative to the expected ...
Roberts Seth S Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94708, USA. - - 2006
Instrumental learning involves both variation and selection: variation of what the animal does, and selection by reward from among the variation. Four experiments with rats suggested a rule about how variation is controlled by recent events. Experiment 1 used the peak procedure. Measurements of bar-press durations showed a sharp increase ...
White Norman M - - 2006
Learning to discriminate between spatial locations defined by two adjacent arms of a radial maze in the conditioned cue preference paradigm requires two kinds of information: latent spatial learning when the rats explore the maze with no food available, and learning about food availability in two spatial locations when the ...
Roma Peter G - - 2006
Each of 4 female capuchin monkeys ("model") was paired with another female capuchin ("witness") in an adjacent cage. In Phases 1 and 3, a model could remove a grape from the experimenter's hand while the witness watched. The witness was then offered a slice of cucumber, a less preferred food. ...
Ramseyer A - - 2006
Delayed reciprocity is a potentially important mechanism for cooperation to occur. It is however rarely reported among animals, possibly because it requires special skills like the ability to plan a loss. We tested six brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in such skills. Subjects were studied in exchange tasks in which ...
Vlamings Petra H J M - - 2006
S. T. Boysen and G. G. Berntson (1995) found that chimpanzees performed poorly on a reversed contingency task in which they had to point to the smaller of 2 food quantities to acquire the larger quantity. The authors compared the performance of 4 great ape species (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, ...
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