Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 664
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Teichroeb Julie A - - 2009
For group-living mammals, the ecological-constraints model predicts that within-group feeding competition will increase as group size increases, necessitating more daily travel to find food and thereby constraining group size. It provides a useful tool for detecting scramble competition any time it is difficult to determine whether or not food is ...
Takai Masanaru - - 2009
The owl monkey, Aotus, is the only modern nocturnal anthropoid with monogamous social structure. It has been demonstrated by the fossil species, Aotus dindensis, discovered from La Venta, Colombia, that the Aotus lineage had emerged as early as the middle Miocene (12-15 Ma). The type specimen of A. dindensis, which ...
Paredes Raúl G RG Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 1-1141, Querétaro, Qro. 76001, México. email - - 2009
There is much evidence that naturally occurring behaviors (e.g., the ingestion of food and water) and social behaviors (e.g., play, maternal behavior) can induce a reward state. This review includes definitions to distinguish between "reward" and "reinforcement," and a description of methods to assess reward and demonstrate that social interactions ...
Range Friederike F Department of Neurobiology and Cognition Research, University of Vienna, A-1091 Wien, Austria. - - 2009
One crucial element for the evolution of cooperation may be the sensitivity to others' efforts and payoffs compared with one's own costs and gains. Inequity aversion is thought to be the driving force behind unselfish motivated punishment in humans constituting a powerful device for the enforcement of cooperation. Recent research ...
Schmidt Manuela - - 2008
The crouched limb posture of small mammals enables them to react to unexpected irregularities in the support. Small arboreal primates would benefit from these kinematics in their arboreal habitat but it has been demonstrated that primates display certain differences in forelimb kinematics to other mammals. The objective of this paper ...
Siep Nicolette N Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2009
Research indicates that dysfunctional food reward processing may contribute to pathological eating behaviour. It is widely recognized that both the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are essential parts of the brain's reward circuitry. The aims of this fMRI study were (1) to examine the effects of food deprivation and ...
Joshua Mati M Department of Physiology, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. - - 2008
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (DANs) typically increase their discharge rate in response to appetitive predictive cues and outcomes, whereas striatal cholinergic tonically active interneurons (TANs) decrease their rate. This may indicate that the activity of TANs and DANs is negatively correlated and that TANs can broaden the basal ganglia reinforcement teaching ...
Sabbatini G - - 2008
Increasing urbanization and deforestation have enhanced the opportunities of contact between humans and monkeys and the impact of human activities on primate behavior is receiving growing attention. This study explores whether activity budgets and diet of a group of capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) inhabiting the area of the swimming pools ...
Anderson James R JR Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland. - - 2008
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested on a reverse-reward task involving different quantities of the same food, or an identical quantity of different foods. All monkeys tested first on the qualitative version spontaneously mastered the task, whereas only one of four spontaneously mastered the quantitative version. No monkey reached criterion ...
Zellner Margaret R MR Graduate Center, City University of New York, United - - 2009
Mechanisms underlying reward-related learning presumably involve neural plasticity integrating signals representing unconditioned and conditioned stimuli in regions mediating reward. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) receives such signals and shows synaptic plasticity which is NMDA receptor-dependent. To test the hypothesis that NMDA receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the ...
Lee Jae-Il JI Department of Experimental Animal Research, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, - - 2008
The majority of newly acquired nonhuman primates encounter serious problems adapting themselves to new environments or facilities. In particular, loss of appetite and abnormal behavior can occur in response to environmental stresses. These adaptation abnormalities can ultimately have an affect on the animal's growth and well-being. In this study, we ...
Laska Matthias - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine taste difference thresholds for monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sodium chloride (NaCl) in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Using a two-bottle preference test of brief duration, three animals of each species were presented with four different reference concentrations of ...
Visalberghi E - - 2008
Habitually, capuchin monkeys access encased hard foods by using their canines and premolars and/or by pounding the food on hard surfaces. Instead, the wild bearded capuchins (Cebus libidinosus) of Boa Vista (Brazil) routinely crack palm fruits with tools. We measured size, weight, structure, and peak-force-at-failure of the four palm fruit ...
Negus S S SS Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, McLean Hospital-Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, United States. - - 2009
Cocaine blocks uptake of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, and monoamine uptake inhibitors constitute one class of drugs under consideration as candidate "agonist" medications for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. The pharmacological selectivity of monoamine uptake inhibitors to block uptake of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine is one ...
Evans Theodore A - - 2009
Recent assessments have shown that capuchin monkeys, like chimpanzees and other Old World primate species, are sensitive to quantitative differences between sets of visible stimuli. In the present study, we examined capuchins' performance in a more sophisticated quantity judgment task that required the ability to form representations of food quantities ...
Leca Jean-Baptiste - - 2008
By addressing the influence of food provisioning on stone handling (SH), a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques, this study contributes to the ongoing debate in cultural primatology by asking whether human intervention influences the emergence or propagation of behavioral traditions. SH is a form of object play consisting of the ...
Takahashi Taiki T Department of Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0810, Japan. - - 2008
This study was aimed to examine the relationships between salivary alpha-amylase (sAA, a non-invasive biological marker of adrenergic activities) levels and hyperbolic discounting for primary reward under simulated life-threatening condition, which is of interest in psychoneuroendocrinology and neuroeconomics of visceral influences on behavior. We assessed degrees to which delayed primary ...
Ari Csilla - - 2008
This study reports on the first experimental research designed specifically for Manta birostris behavior. The authors attempted to learn about the feeding behavior and environmental cues influencing this behavior, as well as general cognitive ability. The preconditioned Manta's ability to identify food, on the basis of a fraction of the ...
Nakagawa Naofumi - - 2008
The socio-ecological model predicts that the quality, distribution, and patch size of food resources determines the dominance hierarchy of female monkeys based on the type of food competition they experience. Comparative studies of closely related species have evaluated the socio-ecological model and confirmed its validity. For example, female patas monkeys ...
Mohanty Aprajita - - 2008
How does the human brain integrate information from multiple domains to guide spatial attention according to motivational needs? To address this question, we measured hemodynamic responses to central cues predicting locations of peripheral attentional targets (food or tool images) in a novel covert spatial attention paradigm. The motivational relevance of ...
Inoue Takao - - 2008
Macaque monkeys have a highly evolved visual system comparable to that of humans. One of the important visual functions is performing discriminations among biologically significant objects such as food or heterosexual partners. In the present study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys could categorize two-dimensional images related to food or gender ...
Maros Katalin - - 2008
Twenty domestic horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to rely on different human gesticular cues in a two-way object choice task. An experimenter hid food under one of two bowls and after baiting, indicated the location of the food to the subjects by using one of four different ...
Laćan Goran - - 2008
OBJECT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an effective therapy for an increasing number of brain disorders. Recently demonstrated DBS of the posterior hypothalamus as a safe treatment for chronic intractable cluster headaches has drawn attention to this target, which is involved in the regulation of diverse autonomic functions and ...
Beran Michael J - - 2008
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were presented with two sets of food items, identical in food type but differing in number. Animals selected one set and were permitted to consume their choice. Set sizes ranged from 1 to 6 items. In experiment 1, each set was uncovered and recovered before a ...
Zhang Zhen - - 2008
Food transfer happens regularly in a few nonhuman primates species that are also characterized by remarkable social tolerance. Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana), or golden monkeys, which exhibit high social tolerance in their social relationships are thus of interest to see whether tolerance would extend to food transfer. In this ...
Bostwick J Michael JM Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2008
Malfunctioning of the brain's reward center is increasingly understood to underlie all addictive behavior. Composed of mesolimbic incentive salience circuitry, the reward center governs all behavior in which motivation has a central role, including acquiring food, nurturing young, and having sex. To the detriment of normal functioning, basic survival activities ...
Weldon Douglas A DA Department of Psychology, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323, USA. - - 2008
Long-Evans hooded rats were trained to run an alternation pattern in a t-maze with low reward (1 pellet) in the food cup of one arm and high reward (3 pellets) in the food cup of the other arm. Single units in the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus ...
Sasaki Shigeto - - 2008
Monkeys learned to use forceps to pick up food. The learning progressed in two stages. After having understood the task to have to use forceps through guidance, they (1) brought forceps toward food without seeing food until it was reached (1st stage), and (2) made forceps reach accurately to food ...
Chudasama Yogita - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although the role of the hippocampus in emotional behavior has long been recognized, the extent to which the hippocampus plays a role in the regulation and expression of emotion in rhesus monkeys has not been systematically explored. METHODS: Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampal formation ...
Takahashi, Julia
This literature review summarizes and clarifies taxonomy, geographic distribution, status, habitat and food choice, threats, social organization and reproduction of spider monkeys, genus Ateles. The aim of the study is to asses why spider monkeys are vulnerable for extinction and discuss possible conservation actions. Spider monkeys live in subtropical and ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2008
Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence ...
Uslaner Jason M JM Department of Schizophrenia, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA. - - 2008
It is well known that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays an important role in regulating motor function, but recent studies suggest the STN is also involved in regulating motivated behavior. For example, bilateral lesions of the STN increase motivation for both food and cocaine as assessed by 'breakpoint' on a ...
Hovland David N DN - - 2007
Recombinant human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (r-metHuGDNF) is a potent neuronal growth and survival factor that has been considered for clinical use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we present results of a 6-month toxicology study in rhesus monkeys conducted to support clinical evaluation of chronic intraputamenal ...
Hernandez-Aguilar R Adriana - - 2007
It has been hypothesized that plant underground storage organs (USOs) played key roles in the initial hominin colonization of savanna habitats, the development of the distinctive skull and tooth morphology of the genus Australopithecus, and the evolution of the genus Homo by serving as "fallback foods" exploited during periods of ...
Pan Ruliang - - 2008
In order to understand how mandibular structure differs among the Chinese cercopithecoids (Rhinopithecus, Trachypithecus and Macaca), particularly the uniqueness of the snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus), we analysed ten mandibular measurements by principal components analysis (PCA), and examined scaling patterns. The results provided by the PCA illustrated differences due to size among ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2007
Neophobia, defined as showing caution toward novel features of the environment, is widespread in birds and mammals; it can be affected by ecology, early experience, and social context. In this study, we aimed to (i) investigate the response to novel food in adult common marmosets and Goeldi's monkeys and (ii) ...
Springer Danielle A - - 2007
Ketamine hydrochloride is frequently administered to non-human primates as a means of chemical restraint. This procedure can be a frequent source of stress to monkeys at research facilities, impacting animal health, well-being and research quality. This study was designed to measure ketamine's effect on daily food intake, a parameter that ...
Bianchi Rita De Cassia Rde - - 2007
This study demonstrates that ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) extensively use primates as a food resource at the Caratinga Biological Station (CBS) in Southeast Brazil. Analysis of 60 fecal samples collected over 4 years revealed predation upon the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba), the muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), and the brown capuchin monkey ...
Xiang Zuo-Fu - - 2007
The diet and feeding ecology of a wild subpopulation of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) were studied at Xiaochangdu in Honglaxueshan Nature Reserve, Tibet. This region is climatologically harsher than any other inhabited by non-human primates. Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys fed on 48 parts of 25 plant species, at least three ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2008
Quantity discrimination is adaptive in a variety of ecological contexts and different taxa discriminate stimuli differing in numerousness, both in the wild and in laboratory settings. Quantity discrimination between object arrays has been suggested to be more demanding than between food arrays but, to our knowledge, the same paradigm has ...
Schloegl Christian - - 2008
The ability of non-human animals to use experimenter-given cues in object-choice tasks has recently gained interest. In such experiments, the location of hidden food is indicated by an experimenter, e.g. by gazing, pointing or touching. Whereas dogs apparently outperform all other species so far tested, apes and monkeys have problems ...
Machado C J CJ Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, USA. - - 2007
Studying the neural mechanisms underlying complex goal-directed behaviors, such as social behavior, reward seeking or punishment avoidance, has become increasingly tractable in humans, nonhuman primates and rodents. In most experiments, however, goal-directed behaviors are measured in a laboratory setting, which is vastly different from the context in which these behaviors ...
Foti Francesca - - 2007
To analyze how search strategies are adapted according to the geometric distribution of food sources, the authors submitted rats to a search task in which they had to explore 9 food trays in an open field and avoid visiting already-depleted trays. Trays were spatially arranged in 4 independent configurations: a ...
Nargeot Romuald - - 2007
Motivated behaviors comprise appetitive actions whose occurrence results partly from an internally driven incentive to act. Such impulsive behavior can also be regulated by external rewarding stimuli that, through learning processes, can lead to accelerated and seemingly automatic, compulsive-like recurrences of the rewarded act. Here, we explored such behavioral plasticity ...
Flagel Shelly B SB Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, The University of Michigan, 205 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2008
When a discrete cue (a "sign") is presented repeatedly in anticipation of a food reward the cue can become imbued with incentive salience, leading some animals to approach and engage it, a phenomenon known as "sign-tracking" (the animals are sign-trackers; STs). In contrast, other animals do not approach the cue, ...
Bräuer Juliane - - 2008
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) know what others can and cannot see in a competitive situation. Does this reflect a general understanding the perceptions of others? In a study by Hare et al. (2000) pairs of chimpanzees competed over two pieces of food. Subordinate individuals preferred to approach food that was behind ...
Pizzimenti Marc A - - 2007
A modified "Klüver" or dexterity board was developed to assess fine control of hand and digit movements by nonhuman primates during the acquisition of small food pellets from wells of different diameter. The primary advantages of the new device over those used previously include standardized positioning of target food pellets ...
Duncan A J - - 2007
Ruminant herbivores have been shown to learn about food properties by associating food flavours with the food's post-ingestive consequences. Previous experimentation supporting the conditioned food aversion/preference hypothesis has generally employed very simple diet learning tasks which do not effectively represent the wide range of foods selected within single bouts typical ...
Prosser-Loose Erin J EJ College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, Sask., - - 2007
Our laboratory is investigating the effects of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) on cognitive outcome following global ischemia. Here, we investigated whether PEM independently impairs working memory in the T-maze and if the associated food reward reverses PEM. Gerbils were fed 12.5% (control diet) or 2% protein. A loss of body weight ...
Kim Hee-Seon HS Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Soonchunhyang University, Asan Chungnam, - - 2007
Strong predictors for the risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults include levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which can be modified by dietary behavioral changes and regular physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in perceived dietary behaviors, food intake, ...
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