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Results 251 - 300 of 638
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Weldon Douglas A DA Department of Psychology, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323, USA. - - 2008
Long-Evans hooded rats were trained to run an alternation pattern in a t-maze with low reward (1 pellet) in the food cup of one arm and high reward (3 pellets) in the food cup of the other arm. Single units in the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus ...
Sasaki Shigeto - - 2008
Monkeys learned to use forceps to pick up food. The learning progressed in two stages. After having understood the task to have to use forceps through guidance, they (1) brought forceps toward food without seeing food until it was reached (1st stage), and (2) made forceps reach accurately to food ...
Chudasama Yogita - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although the role of the hippocampus in emotional behavior has long been recognized, the extent to which the hippocampus plays a role in the regulation and expression of emotion in rhesus monkeys has not been systematically explored. METHODS: Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampal formation ...
Takahashi, Julia
This literature review summarizes and clarifies taxonomy, geographic distribution, status, habitat and food choice, threats, social organization and reproduction of spider monkeys, genus Ateles. The aim of the study is to asses why spider monkeys are vulnerable for extinction and discuss possible conservation actions. Spider monkeys live in subtropical and ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2008
Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence ...
Uslaner Jason M JM Department of Schizophrenia, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA. - - 2008
It is well known that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays an important role in regulating motor function, but recent studies suggest the STN is also involved in regulating motivated behavior. For example, bilateral lesions of the STN increase motivation for both food and cocaine as assessed by 'breakpoint' on a ...
Hovland David N DN - - 2007
Recombinant human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (r-metHuGDNF) is a potent neuronal growth and survival factor that has been considered for clinical use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we present results of a 6-month toxicology study in rhesus monkeys conducted to support clinical evaluation of chronic intraputamenal ...
Hernandez-Aguilar R Adriana - - 2007
It has been hypothesized that plant underground storage organs (USOs) played key roles in the initial hominin colonization of savanna habitats, the development of the distinctive skull and tooth morphology of the genus Australopithecus, and the evolution of the genus Homo by serving as "fallback foods" exploited during periods of ...
Pan Ruliang - - 2008
In order to understand how mandibular structure differs among the Chinese cercopithecoids (Rhinopithecus, Trachypithecus and Macaca), particularly the uniqueness of the snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus), we analysed ten mandibular measurements by principal components analysis (PCA), and examined scaling patterns. The results provided by the PCA illustrated differences due to size among ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2007
Neophobia, defined as showing caution toward novel features of the environment, is widespread in birds and mammals; it can be affected by ecology, early experience, and social context. In this study, we aimed to (i) investigate the response to novel food in adult common marmosets and Goeldi's monkeys and (ii) ...
Springer Danielle A - - 2007
Ketamine hydrochloride is frequently administered to non-human primates as a means of chemical restraint. This procedure can be a frequent source of stress to monkeys at research facilities, impacting animal health, well-being and research quality. This study was designed to measure ketamine's effect on daily food intake, a parameter that ...
Bianchi Rita De Cassia Rde - - 2007
This study demonstrates that ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) extensively use primates as a food resource at the Caratinga Biological Station (CBS) in Southeast Brazil. Analysis of 60 fecal samples collected over 4 years revealed predation upon the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba), the muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), and the brown capuchin monkey ...
Xiang Zuo-Fu - - 2007
The diet and feeding ecology of a wild subpopulation of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) were studied at Xiaochangdu in Honglaxueshan Nature Reserve, Tibet. This region is climatologically harsher than any other inhabited by non-human primates. Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys fed on 48 parts of 25 plant species, at least three ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2008
Quantity discrimination is adaptive in a variety of ecological contexts and different taxa discriminate stimuli differing in numerousness, both in the wild and in laboratory settings. Quantity discrimination between object arrays has been suggested to be more demanding than between food arrays but, to our knowledge, the same paradigm has ...
Schloegl Christian - - 2008
The ability of non-human animals to use experimenter-given cues in object-choice tasks has recently gained interest. In such experiments, the location of hidden food is indicated by an experimenter, e.g. by gazing, pointing or touching. Whereas dogs apparently outperform all other species so far tested, apes and monkeys have problems ...
Machado C J CJ Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, USA. - - 2007
Studying the neural mechanisms underlying complex goal-directed behaviors, such as social behavior, reward seeking or punishment avoidance, has become increasingly tractable in humans, nonhuman primates and rodents. In most experiments, however, goal-directed behaviors are measured in a laboratory setting, which is vastly different from the context in which these behaviors ...
Foti Francesca - - 2007
To analyze how search strategies are adapted according to the geometric distribution of food sources, the authors submitted rats to a search task in which they had to explore 9 food trays in an open field and avoid visiting already-depleted trays. Trays were spatially arranged in 4 independent configurations: a ...
Nargeot Romuald - - 2007
Motivated behaviors comprise appetitive actions whose occurrence results partly from an internally driven incentive to act. Such impulsive behavior can also be regulated by external rewarding stimuli that, through learning processes, can lead to accelerated and seemingly automatic, compulsive-like recurrences of the rewarded act. Here, we explored such behavioral plasticity ...
Flagel Shelly B SB Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, The University of Michigan, 205 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2008
When a discrete cue (a "sign") is presented repeatedly in anticipation of a food reward the cue can become imbued with incentive salience, leading some animals to approach and engage it, a phenomenon known as "sign-tracking" (the animals are sign-trackers; STs). In contrast, other animals do not approach the cue, ...
Bräuer Juliane - - 2008
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) know what others can and cannot see in a competitive situation. Does this reflect a general understanding the perceptions of others? In a study by Hare et al. (2000) pairs of chimpanzees competed over two pieces of food. Subordinate individuals preferred to approach food that was behind ...
Pizzimenti Marc A - - 2007
A modified "Klüver" or dexterity board was developed to assess fine control of hand and digit movements by nonhuman primates during the acquisition of small food pellets from wells of different diameter. The primary advantages of the new device over those used previously include standardized positioning of target food pellets ...
Duncan A J - - 2007
Ruminant herbivores have been shown to learn about food properties by associating food flavours with the food's post-ingestive consequences. Previous experimentation supporting the conditioned food aversion/preference hypothesis has generally employed very simple diet learning tasks which do not effectively represent the wide range of foods selected within single bouts typical ...
Prosser-Loose Erin J EJ College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, Sask., - - 2007
Our laboratory is investigating the effects of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) on cognitive outcome following global ischemia. Here, we investigated whether PEM independently impairs working memory in the T-maze and if the associated food reward reverses PEM. Gerbils were fed 12.5% (control diet) or 2% protein. A loss of body weight ...
Kim Hee-Seon HS Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Soonchunhyang University, Asan Chungnam, - - 2007
Strong predictors for the risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults include levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which can be modified by dietary behavioral changes and regular physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in perceived dietary behaviors, food intake, ...
Guo Songtao - - 2007
We collected data on diet and daytime activity budget, and investigated the phenology of food trees and food abundance for a group of Rhinopithecus roxellana on the East Ridge of Yuhuangmiao in the Qinling Mountains from November 2001 to December 2003. We calculated the seasonal activity budget using data collected ...
Vogel E R - - 2007
Food abundance and distribution have played a central role in the conceptual theory of primate socioecology [Janson, Behaviour 105:53-76, 1988; Isbell, Behavioral Ecology 2:143-155, 1991; Sterck et al., Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 41:291-309, 1997; van Schaik, In: Standen V, Foley RA, editors, Comparative Socioecology. Oxford: Blackwell. p 195-218, 1989]. This ...
Johnson Elizabeth C - - 2007
While we know that food neophobia in nonhuman primates is affected by social factors, little is known about how palatability, and specifically sugar content, might ameliorate a monkey's hesitancy to eat a novel food. It is likely that an innate preference for sweet substances would alter an animal's typical neophobic ...
Machado Christopher J CJ Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, USA. - - 2007
We examined the effects of bilateral amygdaloid, hippocampal or orbital frontal cortex lesions on reward assessment in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In Experiment 1, basic preferences for foods and inedible nonfoods were measured pre- and postsurgery. None of the lesions produced changes in animals' preferences for palatable foods or raw ...
Bräuer Juliane - - 2007
Chimpanzee's perspective-taking abilities are currently disputed. Here we show that in some food competition contexts, subordinate chimpanzees do take the visual perspective of dominant individuals, preferentially targeting a hidden piece of the food that the dominant cannot see over a piece that is visible to both individuals. However, the space ...
Dindo Marietta - - 2007
It has been claimed that capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) show inequity aversion in relation to food rewards for a simple exchange task. However, other factors may affect the willingness of a monkey to consume foods of high or low value in the presence of a conspecific. In this study, pairs ...
Evans Theodore A - - 2007
The authors tested the self-control of rhesus macaques by assessing if they could refrain from reaching into a food container to maximize the accumulation of sequentially delivered food items (a delay-maintenance task). Three different versions of the task varied the quantity and quality of available food items. In the first ...
Stevens Jeffrey R - - 2007
The capacity for non-linguistic, numerical discrimination has been well characterized in non-human animals, with recent studies providing careful controls for non-numerical confounds such as continuous extent, density, and quantity. More poorly understood are the conditions under which animals use numerical versus non-numerical quantification, and the nature of the relation between ...
Hare Brian - - 2007
To understand constraints on the evolution of cooperation, we compared the ability of bonobos and chimpanzees to cooperatively solve a food-retrieval problem. We addressed two hypotheses. The "emotional-reactivity hypothesis" predicts that bonobos will cooperate more successfully because tolerance levels are higher in bonobos. This prediction is inspired by studies of ...
Laska Matthias - - 2007
In order to optimize foraging efficiency and avoid toxicosis, animals must be able to detect, discriminate, and learn about the predictive signals of potential food. Primates are typically regarded as animals that rely mainly on their highly developed visual systems, and little is known about the role that the other ...
Spinozzi G - - 2007
The aim of this study was to analyze the manual patterns used by tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to retrieve a small food item from a narrow tube, with special attention focused on the independent use of single fingers, fine digit movements, hand preference, and intermanual differences in the time ...
Thomsen Liat R - - 2007
Tool use is rare amongst rodents and has never been recorded in connection with agonistic displays. We witnessed a behaviour, stick display (StD), involving tool use in free-living Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) that we conclude is a display behaviour. Two beavers were the main performers of the signal that was ...
Baldo Brian A BA Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 6001 Research Park Blvd., Madison, WI, 53719, USA. - - 2007
The idea that nucleus accumbens (Acb) dopamine transmission contributes to the neural mediation of reward, at least in a general sense, has achieved wide acceptance. Nevertheless, debate remains over the precise nature of dopamine's role in reward and even over the nature of reward itself. In the present article, evidence ...
Evans Christopher S - - 2007
Some animals give specific calls when they discover food or detect a particular type of predator. Companions respond with food-searching behaviour or by adopting appropriate escape responses. These signals thus seem to denote objects in the environment, but this specific mechanism has only been demonstrated for monkey alarm calls. We ...
de A Moura Antonio C - - 2007
Regeneration of the Brazilian Caatinga forest may be restricted by the naturally low diversity and density of fruit-eating animals, which has been aggravated by local faunal extinction induced by human activities. We made a preliminary evaluation of the potential seed-dispersal role of capuchin (Cebus apella libidinosus) and howler monkeys (Alouatta ...
Li Yiming - - 2007
Morphological characters allow the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to use multiple tree levels, but very few studies have quantified the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the species. I investigated the terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of the monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except ...
Anderson James R - - 2007
Gaze alternation (GA) is considered a hallmark of pointing in human infants, a sign of intentionality underlying the gesture. GA has occasionally been observed in great apes, and reported only anecdotally in a few monkeys. Three squirrel monkeys that had previously learned to reach toward out-of-reach food in the presence ...
Koike Chihiro - - 2007
A glycosyltransferase, alpha1,3galactosyltransferase, catalyzes the terminal step in biosynthesis of Galalpha1,3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R (alphaGal), an oligosaccharide cell surface epitope. This epitope or antigenically similar epitopes are widely distributed among the different forms of life. Although abundant in most mammals, alphaGal is not normally found in catarrhine primates (Old World monkeys and apes, ...
Miller Jennifer L JL Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, - - 2007
Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) exhibit severe disturbances in appetite regulation, including delayed meal termination, early return of hunger after a meal, seeking and hoarding food and eating of non-food substances. Brain pathways involved in the control of appetite in humans are thought to include the hypothalamus, frontal cortex (including ...
Ventura Raffaella - - 2006
Social primates spend a significant proportion of their time exchanging grooming with their group companions. Although grooming is mainly exchanged in kind, given its hygienic and tension-reducing functions, it is still debated whether grooming also provides some social benefits, such as preferential access to resources (e.g., food or mating partners). ...
Aureli Filippo - - 2006
Raids into neighboring territories may occur for different reasons, including the increase of foraging and mating opportunities directly or indirectly through the killing of neighboring rivals. Lethal raids have been mainly observed in humans and chimpanzees, with raiding males being reported to search purposefully for neighbors. Here we report on ...
Qin Jianhua - - 2007
The soil dwelling nematode, Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans, is a popular model system for studying behavioral plasticity. Noticeably absent from the C. elegans literature, however, are studies evaluating worm behavior in mazes. Here, we report the use of microfluidic mazes to investigate exploration and learning behaviors in wild-type C. elegans, as ...
Peciña Susana S Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1109, USA. - - 2006
Hedonic "liking" for sensory pleasures is an important aspect of reward, and excessive 'liking' of particular rewards might contribute to excessive consumption and to disorders such as obesity. The present review aims to summarize recent advances in the identification of brain substrates for food 'liking' with a focus on opioid ...
Figlewicz Dianne P DP VA Puget Sound Health Care System (151), Seattle WA 98108, USA. - - 2007
Extensive historical evidence from the drug abuse literature has provided support for the concept that there is functional communication between central nervous system (CNS) circuitries which subserve reward/motivation, and the regulation of energy homeostasis. This concept is substantiated by recent studies that map anatomical pathways, or which demonstrate that hormones ...
Naqshbandi Mariam - - 2006
The Bischof-Kohler hypothesis holds that nonhuman animals cannot anticipate a future event and take appropriate action when that event involves satisfaction of a need not currently experienced. Tests of the Bischof-Kohler hypothesis were performed with squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus). In experimental trials with both species, a ...
Hoffman Megan L - - 2006
Two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) had a direct view of an experimenter placing a food item beneath one of several cups within a horizontal spatial array. The chimpanzees then were required to move around the spatial array, shifting their orientation to the array by 180 degrees . Both chimpanzees remembered the ...
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