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Results 201 - 250 of 638
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Fulton Stephanie S CRCHUM and Montreal Diabetes Research Center, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. - - 2010
The tendency to engage in or maintain feeding behaviour is potently influenced by the rewarding properties of food. Affective and goal-directed behavioural responses for food have been assessed in response to various physiological, pharmacological and genetic manipulations to provide much insight into the neural mechanisms regulating motivation for food. In ...
Cronin Katherine A KA Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. - - 2009
This study tested the hypothesis that cooperative breeding facilitates the emergence of prosocial behavior by presenting cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) with the option to provide food rewards to pair-bonded mates. In Experiment 1, tamarins could provide rewards to mates at no additional cost while obtaining rewards for themselves. Contrary to ...
Schmitt Vanessa V Cognitive Ethology, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany. - - 2009
Apes use inferential reasoning by exclusion to locate food both in the visual and auditory domain. To test whether olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) show similar abilities as the apes object choice experiments with differing information about food located in 1 of 2 cups were conducted in the visual and ...
Takimoto Ayaka A Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, Japan. - - 2010
The issue whether non-human primates have other-regarding preference and/or inequity aversion has been under debate. We investigated whether tufted capuchin monkeys are sensitive to others' reward in various experimental food sharing settings. Two monkeys faced each other. The operator monkey chose one of two food containers placed between the participants, ...
Wassum K M KM Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. - - 2009
It generally is assumed that a common neural substrate mediates both the palatability and the reward value of nutritive events. However, recent evidence suggests this assumption may not be true. Whereas opioid circuitry in both the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum has been reported to mediate taste-reactivity responses to palatable ...
Hopewell Lucy J LJ School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. - - 2010
Previous laboratory studies on social learning suggest that some animals can learn more readily if they first observe a conspecific demonstrator perform the task unsuccessfully and so fail to obtain a food reward than if they observe a successful demonstrator that obtains the food. This effect may indicate a difference ...
Gumert Michael D - - 2009
Stone hammering in natural conditions has been extensively investigated in chimpanzees and bearded capuchins. In contrast, knowledge of stone tool use in wild Old World monkeys has been limited to anecdotal reports, despite having known for over 120 years that Macaca fascicularis aurea use stone tools to process shelled foods ...
Beard K Christopher - - 2009
The family Amphipithecidae is one of the two fossil primate taxa from Asia that appear to be early members of the anthropoid clade. Ganlea megacanina, gen. et sp. nov., is a new amphipithecid from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of central Myanmar. The holotype of Ganlea is distinctive in ...
Amici Federica - - 2009
Studies on tactical deception have reported that informed subordinates can withhold information from naive dominants, but they have not directly compared species' performance. Here, we compared the performance in two withholding-of-information tasks of three monkey species differing in the strictness of their dominance hierarchy and degree of fission-fusion dynamics: spider ...
Hattori Yuko - - 2010
Researchers have investigated to what extent non-human primates understand others' attentional states, as this ability is considered an important prerequisite for theory of mind. However, previous studies using food requesting tasks have failed to show that non-human primates attribute perception to others as a function of their attentional states. One ...
Sacrey Lori-Ann R - - 2009
Many animal species use their forelimbs to assist in eating, such as occurs in a reach-to-eat task (skilled reaching) in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food that is placed in the mouth for eating. It is unclear the extent to which the skilled reaching movements of different species ...
Wheeler Brandon C - - 2009
The use of 'tactical deception' is argued to have been important in the cognitive evolution of the order Primates, but systematic studies of active deception in wild non-human primates are scant. This study tests whether wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) use alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner ...
Shutts Kristin K Department of Psychology, Harvard University, William James Hall, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. - - 2009
Adults, preschool children, and nonhuman primates detect and categorize food objects according to substance information, conveyed primarily by color and texture. In contrast, they perceive and categorize artifacts primarily by shape and rigidity. The present experiments investigated the origins of this distinction. Using a looking time procedure, Experiment 1 extended ...
Canale Gustavo Rodrigues - - 2009
Reports on use of stones as hammers and anvils to open hard nuts by wild capuchin monkeys are scarce and limited to Cebus libidinosus. Here, we report for the first time data on tool use-stones as hammer and anvils to open nuts-in wild C. xanthosternos and a description of new ...
Machado Christopher J - - 2009
The authors measured the effects of bilateral amygdaloid, orbital frontal, or hippocampal lesions on emotional reactivity and passive avoidance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animals were presented with 8 neutral or 8 aversive objects, each paired with a highly preferred food reward. Sham-operated control animals displayed heightened defensive behaviors and ...
Brosnan Sarah Frances SF Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, PO Box 5010, Atlanta, GA, 30302-5010, USA. - - 2009
Chimpanzees provide help to unrelated individuals in a broad range of situations. The pattern of helping within pairs suggests that contingent reciprocity may have been an important mechanism in the evolution of altruism in chimpanzees. However, correlational analyses of the cumulative pattern of interactions over time do not demonstrate that ...
Van Hulle Michael - - 2009
The effect of human development on six diurnal mammal species was studied using transects in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas, Costa Rica during the dry season months of March and April 2006. Individuals/km was recorded for each species in more developed (MD) (near paved roads, buildings, construction, or ...
Shiflett Michael W MW Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, - - 2009
The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been shown to regulate an animal's behavioral responsiveness to emotionally salient stimuli, and an increase in CREB phosphorylation in the NAc has been observed during exposure to rewarding stimuli, such as drugs of abuse. Here we ...
Mendez Ian A IA Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4235, USA. - - 2009
Exposure to psychostimulant drugs of abuse such as amphetamine can result in long-lasting "sensitization" of reward-directed behavior, such that subjects display enhancements in behavior directed by and toward rewards and reward-predictive cues (i.e. "incentive sensitization"). The purpose of these experiments was to determine the degree to which such sensitization resulting ...
Paukner Annika - - 2009
Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins' ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, ...
Visalberghi Elisabetta - - 2009
Selection and transport of objects to use as tools at a distant site are considered to reflect planning. Ancestral humans transported tools and tool-making materials as well as food items. Wild chimpanzees also transport selected hammer tools and nuts to anvil sites. To date, we had no other examples of ...
Silberberg Alan - - 2009
Brosnan and de Waal (Nature 425:297-299, 2003) reported that if a witness monkey saw a model monkey receive a high-value food, the witness was more inclined to reject a previously acceptable, but low-value food. Later work demonstrated that this alleged inequity aversion might be due to frustration induced by switching ...
Beran Michael J MJ Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. - - 2009
Many animals can repeatedly judge the larger of two sets of food items. However, it remains unclear as to what information might accrue regarding the relative rates of return from these repeated responses. Information about overall rates of return is, in fact, unnecessary to perform well at the task itself. ...
Simmons D A DA Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2009
The ability for incentive properties of reward stimuli to maintain motivated behavior in the absence of the rewards themselves may be reliant in part on a glutamatergic projection from the basolateral (BLA) amygdala to the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS). The present work examined this idea in regard to food reward. ...
Teichroeb Julie A - - 2009
For group-living mammals, the ecological-constraints model predicts that within-group feeding competition will increase as group size increases, necessitating more daily travel to find food and thereby constraining group size. It provides a useful tool for detecting scramble competition any time it is difficult to determine whether or not food is ...
Takai Masanaru - - 2009
The owl monkey, Aotus, is the only modern nocturnal anthropoid with monogamous social structure. It has been demonstrated by the fossil species, Aotus dindensis, discovered from La Venta, Colombia, that the Aotus lineage had emerged as early as the middle Miocene (12-15 Ma). The type specimen of A. dindensis, which ...
Paredes Raúl G RG Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 1-1141, Querétaro, Qro. 76001, México. email - - 2009
There is much evidence that naturally occurring behaviors (e.g., the ingestion of food and water) and social behaviors (e.g., play, maternal behavior) can induce a reward state. This review includes definitions to distinguish between "reward" and "reinforcement," and a description of methods to assess reward and demonstrate that social interactions ...
Range Friederike F Department of Neurobiology and Cognition Research, University of Vienna, A-1091 Wien, Austria. - - 2009
One crucial element for the evolution of cooperation may be the sensitivity to others' efforts and payoffs compared with one's own costs and gains. Inequity aversion is thought to be the driving force behind unselfish motivated punishment in humans constituting a powerful device for the enforcement of cooperation. Recent research ...
Schmidt Manuela - - 2008
The crouched limb posture of small mammals enables them to react to unexpected irregularities in the support. Small arboreal primates would benefit from these kinematics in their arboreal habitat but it has been demonstrated that primates display certain differences in forelimb kinematics to other mammals. The objective of this paper ...
Siep Nicolette N Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2009
Research indicates that dysfunctional food reward processing may contribute to pathological eating behaviour. It is widely recognized that both the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are essential parts of the brain's reward circuitry. The aims of this fMRI study were (1) to examine the effects of food deprivation and ...
Joshua Mati M Department of Physiology, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. - - 2008
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (DANs) typically increase their discharge rate in response to appetitive predictive cues and outcomes, whereas striatal cholinergic tonically active interneurons (TANs) decrease their rate. This may indicate that the activity of TANs and DANs is negatively correlated and that TANs can broaden the basal ganglia reinforcement teaching ...
Sabbatini G - - 2008
Increasing urbanization and deforestation have enhanced the opportunities of contact between humans and monkeys and the impact of human activities on primate behavior is receiving growing attention. This study explores whether activity budgets and diet of a group of capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) inhabiting the area of the swimming pools ...
Anderson James R JR Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland. - - 2008
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested on a reverse-reward task involving different quantities of the same food, or an identical quantity of different foods. All monkeys tested first on the qualitative version spontaneously mastered the task, whereas only one of four spontaneously mastered the quantitative version. No monkey reached criterion ...
Zellner Margaret R MR Graduate Center, City University of New York, United - - 2009
Mechanisms underlying reward-related learning presumably involve neural plasticity integrating signals representing unconditioned and conditioned stimuli in regions mediating reward. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) receives such signals and shows synaptic plasticity which is NMDA receptor-dependent. To test the hypothesis that NMDA receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the ...
Lee Jae-Il JI Department of Experimental Animal Research, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, - - 2008
The majority of newly acquired nonhuman primates encounter serious problems adapting themselves to new environments or facilities. In particular, loss of appetite and abnormal behavior can occur in response to environmental stresses. These adaptation abnormalities can ultimately have an affect on the animal's growth and well-being. In this study, we ...
Laska Matthias - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine taste difference thresholds for monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sodium chloride (NaCl) in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Using a two-bottle preference test of brief duration, three animals of each species were presented with four different reference concentrations of ...
Visalberghi E - - 2008
Habitually, capuchin monkeys access encased hard foods by using their canines and premolars and/or by pounding the food on hard surfaces. Instead, the wild bearded capuchins (Cebus libidinosus) of Boa Vista (Brazil) routinely crack palm fruits with tools. We measured size, weight, structure, and peak-force-at-failure of the four palm fruit ...
Negus S S SS Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, McLean Hospital-Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, United States. - - 2009
Cocaine blocks uptake of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, and monoamine uptake inhibitors constitute one class of drugs under consideration as candidate "agonist" medications for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. The pharmacological selectivity of monoamine uptake inhibitors to block uptake of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine is one ...
Evans Theodore A - - 2009
Recent assessments have shown that capuchin monkeys, like chimpanzees and other Old World primate species, are sensitive to quantitative differences between sets of visible stimuli. In the present study, we examined capuchins' performance in a more sophisticated quantity judgment task that required the ability to form representations of food quantities ...
Leca Jean-Baptiste - - 2008
By addressing the influence of food provisioning on stone handling (SH), a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques, this study contributes to the ongoing debate in cultural primatology by asking whether human intervention influences the emergence or propagation of behavioral traditions. SH is a form of object play consisting of the ...
Takahashi Taiki T Department of Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0810, Japan. - - 2008
This study was aimed to examine the relationships between salivary alpha-amylase (sAA, a non-invasive biological marker of adrenergic activities) levels and hyperbolic discounting for primary reward under simulated life-threatening condition, which is of interest in psychoneuroendocrinology and neuroeconomics of visceral influences on behavior. We assessed degrees to which delayed primary ...
Ari Csilla - - 2008
This study reports on the first experimental research designed specifically for Manta birostris behavior. The authors attempted to learn about the feeding behavior and environmental cues influencing this behavior, as well as general cognitive ability. The preconditioned Manta's ability to identify food, on the basis of a fraction of the ...
Nakagawa Naofumi - - 2008
The socio-ecological model predicts that the quality, distribution, and patch size of food resources determines the dominance hierarchy of female monkeys based on the type of food competition they experience. Comparative studies of closely related species have evaluated the socio-ecological model and confirmed its validity. For example, female patas monkeys ...
Mohanty Aprajita - - 2008
How does the human brain integrate information from multiple domains to guide spatial attention according to motivational needs? To address this question, we measured hemodynamic responses to central cues predicting locations of peripheral attentional targets (food or tool images) in a novel covert spatial attention paradigm. The motivational relevance of ...
Inoue Takao - - 2008
Macaque monkeys have a highly evolved visual system comparable to that of humans. One of the important visual functions is performing discriminations among biologically significant objects such as food or heterosexual partners. In the present study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys could categorize two-dimensional images related to food or gender ...
Maros Katalin - - 2008
Twenty domestic horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to rely on different human gesticular cues in a two-way object choice task. An experimenter hid food under one of two bowls and after baiting, indicated the location of the food to the subjects by using one of four different ...
Laćan Goran - - 2008
OBJECT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an effective therapy for an increasing number of brain disorders. Recently demonstrated DBS of the posterior hypothalamus as a safe treatment for chronic intractable cluster headaches has drawn attention to this target, which is involved in the regulation of diverse autonomic functions and ...
Beran Michael J - - 2008
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were presented with two sets of food items, identical in food type but differing in number. Animals selected one set and were permitted to consume their choice. Set sizes ranged from 1 to 6 items. In experiment 1, each set was uncovered and recovered before a ...
Zhang Zhen - - 2008
Food transfer happens regularly in a few nonhuman primates species that are also characterized by remarkable social tolerance. Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana), or golden monkeys, which exhibit high social tolerance in their social relationships are thus of interest to see whether tolerance would extend to food transfer. In this ...
Bostwick J Michael JM Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2008
Malfunctioning of the brain's reward center is increasingly understood to underlie all addictive behavior. Composed of mesolimbic incentive salience circuitry, the reward center governs all behavior in which motivation has a central role, including acquiring food, nurturing young, and having sex. To the detriment of normal functioning, basic survival activities ...
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