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Ishihara Kohji - - 2010
Capsiate has a structure similar to capsaicin but no oral pungency. Furthermore, capsiate displayed antioxidant activity and inhibited angiogenesis and vascular permeability, and therefore, showed potential as a medicine and food supplement. Capsaicin is now commercially available, however capsiate is scarcely present in natural foods. We investigated the direct enzymatic ...
Yamada Aya - - 2010
Habitat use by crop-raiding Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) was studied in western Japan from December 2005 to February 2006, a food-scarce season. To examine how different vegetation types affect habitat use by monkeys, two crop-raiding troops were compared: the first troop inhabited a habitat involving more wild food resources; the ...
Potì Patrizia - - 2010
We examined the ability of capuchin monkeys to use video without immediate visual-kinaesthetic feedback as a source of information to guide their action in the 3-dimensional world. In experiment 1, 2 capuchins learned to retrieve food under 1 of 2 different objects in 1 cage after watching the experimenter hiding ...
Carter Gerald G - - 2010
Natural selection can shape specific cognitive abilities and the extent to which a given species relies on various cues when learning associations between stimuli and rewards. Because the flower bat Glossophaga soricina feeds primarily on nectar, and the locations of nectar-producing flowers remain constant, G. soricina might be predisposed to ...
Grueter Cyril C - - 2009
Only a few primate species thrive in temperate regions characterized by relatively low temperature, low rainfall, low species diversity, high elevation, and especially an extended season of food scarcity during which they suffer from dietary stress. We present data of a case study of dietary strategies and fallback foods in ...
Chudasama Yogita - - 2009
The present study attempted to distinguish the independent contributions of the amygdala and hippocampus to fear expression. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with bilateral excitotoxic amygdala lesions (n = 4), bilateral excitotoxic hippocampal lesions (n = 8) and unoperated controls (n = 9) were allowed to reach over a neutral junk ...
Jimura Koji K Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. - - 2009
In previous studies, researchers have found that humans discount delayed rewards orders of magnitude less steeply than do other animals. Humans also discount smaller delayed reward amounts more steeply than larger amounts, whereas animals apparently do not. These differences between humans and animals might reflect differences in the types of ...
Stice Eric E Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oreg., USA. - - 2010
Dopamine-based reward circuitry appears to play a role in encoding reward from eating and incentive sensitization, whereby cues associated with food reward acquire motivational value. Data suggest that low levels of dopamine D2 receptors and attenuated responsivity of dopamine-target regions (e.g. the striatum) to food and food cues are associated ...
Piech Richard M - - 2010
While effects of hunger on motivation and food reward value are well-established, far less is known about the effects of hunger on cognitive processes. Here, we deployed the emotional blink of attention paradigm to investigate the impact of visual food cues on attentional capture under conditions of hunger and satiety. ...
Phillips Webb - - 2009
A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) ...
Born J M JM Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht 6200MD, The Netherlands. - - 2010
Stress results in eating in the absence of hunger, possibly related to food reward perception. Stress decreases food reward perception. Determine the effect of acute stress on food choice and food choice reward-related brain activity. Nine females (BMI = 21.5 + or - 2.2 kg/m(2), age = 24.3 + or ...
Fulton Stephanie S CRCHUM and Montreal Diabetes Research Center, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. - - 2010
The tendency to engage in or maintain feeding behaviour is potently influenced by the rewarding properties of food. Affective and goal-directed behavioural responses for food have been assessed in response to various physiological, pharmacological and genetic manipulations to provide much insight into the neural mechanisms regulating motivation for food. In ...
Cronin Katherine A KA Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. - - 2009
This study tested the hypothesis that cooperative breeding facilitates the emergence of prosocial behavior by presenting cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) with the option to provide food rewards to pair-bonded mates. In Experiment 1, tamarins could provide rewards to mates at no additional cost while obtaining rewards for themselves. Contrary to ...
Schmitt Vanessa V Cognitive Ethology, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany. - - 2009
Apes use inferential reasoning by exclusion to locate food both in the visual and auditory domain. To test whether olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) show similar abilities as the apes object choice experiments with differing information about food located in 1 of 2 cups were conducted in the visual and ...
Takimoto Ayaka A Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, Japan. - - 2010
The issue whether non-human primates have other-regarding preference and/or inequity aversion has been under debate. We investigated whether tufted capuchin monkeys are sensitive to others' reward in various experimental food sharing settings. Two monkeys faced each other. The operator monkey chose one of two food containers placed between the participants, ...
Wassum K M KM Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. - - 2009
It generally is assumed that a common neural substrate mediates both the palatability and the reward value of nutritive events. However, recent evidence suggests this assumption may not be true. Whereas opioid circuitry in both the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum has been reported to mediate taste-reactivity responses to palatable ...
Hopewell Lucy J LJ School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. - - 2010
Previous laboratory studies on social learning suggest that some animals can learn more readily if they first observe a conspecific demonstrator perform the task unsuccessfully and so fail to obtain a food reward than if they observe a successful demonstrator that obtains the food. This effect may indicate a difference ...
Gumert Michael D - - 2009
Stone hammering in natural conditions has been extensively investigated in chimpanzees and bearded capuchins. In contrast, knowledge of stone tool use in wild Old World monkeys has been limited to anecdotal reports, despite having known for over 120 years that Macaca fascicularis aurea use stone tools to process shelled foods ...
Beard K Christopher - - 2009
The family Amphipithecidae is one of the two fossil primate taxa from Asia that appear to be early members of the anthropoid clade. Ganlea megacanina, gen. et sp. nov., is a new amphipithecid from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of central Myanmar. The holotype of Ganlea is distinctive in ...
Amici Federica - - 2009
Studies on tactical deception have reported that informed subordinates can withhold information from naive dominants, but they have not directly compared species' performance. Here, we compared the performance in two withholding-of-information tasks of three monkey species differing in the strictness of their dominance hierarchy and degree of fission-fusion dynamics: spider ...
Hattori Yuko - - 2010
Researchers have investigated to what extent non-human primates understand others' attentional states, as this ability is considered an important prerequisite for theory of mind. However, previous studies using food requesting tasks have failed to show that non-human primates attribute perception to others as a function of their attentional states. One ...
Sacrey Lori-Ann R - - 2009
Many animal species use their forelimbs to assist in eating, such as occurs in a reach-to-eat task (skilled reaching) in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food that is placed in the mouth for eating. It is unclear the extent to which the skilled reaching movements of different species ...
Wheeler Brandon C - - 2009
The use of 'tactical deception' is argued to have been important in the cognitive evolution of the order Primates, but systematic studies of active deception in wild non-human primates are scant. This study tests whether wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) use alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner ...
Shutts Kristin - - 2009
Adults, preschool children, and nonhuman primates detect and categorize food objects according to substance information, conveyed primarily by color and texture. In contrast, they perceive and categorize artifacts primarily by shape and rigidity. The present experiments investigated the origins of this distinction. Using a looking time procedure, Experiment 1 extended ...
Canale Gustavo Rodrigues - - 2009
Reports on use of stones as hammers and anvils to open hard nuts by wild capuchin monkeys are scarce and limited to Cebus libidinosus. Here, we report for the first time data on tool use-stones as hammer and anvils to open nuts-in wild C. xanthosternos and a description of new ...
Machado Christopher J - - 2009
The authors measured the effects of bilateral amygdaloid, orbital frontal, or hippocampal lesions on emotional reactivity and passive avoidance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animals were presented with 8 neutral or 8 aversive objects, each paired with a highly preferred food reward. Sham-operated control animals displayed heightened defensive behaviors and ...
Brosnan Sarah Frances - - 2009
Chimpanzees provide help to unrelated individuals in a broad range of situations. The pattern of helping within pairs suggests that contingent reciprocity may have been an important mechanism in the evolution of altruism in chimpanzees. However, correlational analyses of the cumulative pattern of interactions over time do not demonstrate that ...
Van Hulle Michael - - 2009
The effect of human development on six diurnal mammal species was studied using transects in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas, Costa Rica during the dry season months of March and April 2006. Individuals/km was recorded for each species in more developed (MD) (near paved roads, buildings, construction, or ...
Shiflett Michael W MW Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, - - 2009
The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been shown to regulate an animal's behavioral responsiveness to emotionally salient stimuli, and an increase in CREB phosphorylation in the NAc has been observed during exposure to rewarding stimuli, such as drugs of abuse. Here we ...
Mendez Ian A IA Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4235, USA. - - 2009
Exposure to psychostimulant drugs of abuse such as amphetamine can result in long-lasting "sensitization" of reward-directed behavior, such that subjects display enhancements in behavior directed by and toward rewards and reward-predictive cues (i.e. "incentive sensitization"). The purpose of these experiments was to determine the degree to which such sensitization resulting ...
Paukner Annika - - 2009
Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins' ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, ...
Visalberghi Elisabetta - - 2009
Selection and transport of objects to use as tools at a distant site are considered to reflect planning. Ancestral humans transported tools and tool-making materials as well as food items. Wild chimpanzees also transport selected hammer tools and nuts to anvil sites. To date, we had no other examples of ...
Silberberg Alan - - 2009
Brosnan and de Waal (Nature 425:297-299, 2003) reported that if a witness monkey saw a model monkey receive a high-value food, the witness was more inclined to reject a previously acceptable, but low-value food. Later work demonstrated that this alleged inequity aversion might be due to frustration induced by switching ...
Beran Michael J MJ Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. - - 2009
Many animals can repeatedly judge the larger of two sets of food items. However, it remains unclear as to what information might accrue regarding the relative rates of return from these repeated responses. Information about overall rates of return is, in fact, unnecessary to perform well at the task itself. ...
Simmons D A DA Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2009
The ability for incentive properties of reward stimuli to maintain motivated behavior in the absence of the rewards themselves may be reliant in part on a glutamatergic projection from the basolateral (BLA) amygdala to the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS). The present work examined this idea in regard to food reward. ...
Teichroeb Julie A - - 2009
For group-living mammals, the ecological-constraints model predicts that within-group feeding competition will increase as group size increases, necessitating more daily travel to find food and thereby constraining group size. It provides a useful tool for detecting scramble competition any time it is difficult to determine whether or not food is ...
Takai Masanaru - - 2009
The owl monkey, Aotus, is the only modern nocturnal anthropoid with monogamous social structure. It has been demonstrated by the fossil species, Aotus dindensis, discovered from La Venta, Colombia, that the Aotus lineage had emerged as early as the middle Miocene (12-15 Ma). The type specimen of A. dindensis, which ...
Paredes Raúl G RG Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 1-1141, Querétaro, Qro. 76001, México. email - - 2009
There is much evidence that naturally occurring behaviors (e.g., the ingestion of food and water) and social behaviors (e.g., play, maternal behavior) can induce a reward state. This review includes definitions to distinguish between "reward" and "reinforcement," and a description of methods to assess reward and demonstrate that social interactions ...
Range Friederike F Department of Neurobiology and Cognition Research, University of Vienna, A-1091 Wien, Austria. - - 2009
One crucial element for the evolution of cooperation may be the sensitivity to others' efforts and payoffs compared with one's own costs and gains. Inequity aversion is thought to be the driving force behind unselfish motivated punishment in humans constituting a powerful device for the enforcement of cooperation. Recent research ...
Schmidt Manuela - - 2008
The crouched limb posture of small mammals enables them to react to unexpected irregularities in the support. Small arboreal primates would benefit from these kinematics in their arboreal habitat but it has been demonstrated that primates display certain differences in forelimb kinematics to other mammals. The objective of this paper ...
Siep Nicolette N Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2009
Research indicates that dysfunctional food reward processing may contribute to pathological eating behaviour. It is widely recognized that both the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are essential parts of the brain's reward circuitry. The aims of this fMRI study were (1) to examine the effects of food deprivation and ...
Joshua Mati M Department of Physiology, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. - - 2008
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (DANs) typically increase their discharge rate in response to appetitive predictive cues and outcomes, whereas striatal cholinergic tonically active interneurons (TANs) decrease their rate. This may indicate that the activity of TANs and DANs is negatively correlated and that TANs can broaden the basal ganglia reinforcement teaching ...
Sabbatini G - - 2008
Increasing urbanization and deforestation have enhanced the opportunities of contact between humans and monkeys and the impact of human activities on primate behavior is receiving growing attention. This study explores whether activity budgets and diet of a group of capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) inhabiting the area of the swimming pools ...
Anderson James R JR Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland. - - 2008
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested on a reverse-reward task involving different quantities of the same food, or an identical quantity of different foods. All monkeys tested first on the qualitative version spontaneously mastered the task, whereas only one of four spontaneously mastered the quantitative version. No monkey reached criterion ...
Zellner Margaret R MR Graduate Center, City University of New York, United - - 2009
Mechanisms underlying reward-related learning presumably involve neural plasticity integrating signals representing unconditioned and conditioned stimuli in regions mediating reward. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) receives such signals and shows synaptic plasticity which is NMDA receptor-dependent. To test the hypothesis that NMDA receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the ...
Lee Jae-Il - - 2008
The majority of newly acquired nonhuman primates encounter serious problems adapting themselves to new environments or facilities. In particular, loss of appetite and abnormal behavior can occur in response to environmental stresses. These adaptation abnormalities can ultimately have an affect on the animal's growth and well-being. In this study, we ...
Laska Matthias - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine taste difference thresholds for monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sodium chloride (NaCl) in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Using a two-bottle preference test of brief duration, three animals of each species were presented with four different reference concentrations of ...
Visalberghi E - - 2008
Habitually, capuchin monkeys access encased hard foods by using their canines and premolars and/or by pounding the food on hard surfaces. Instead, the wild bearded capuchins (Cebus libidinosus) of Boa Vista (Brazil) routinely crack palm fruits with tools. We measured size, weight, structure, and peak-force-at-failure of the four palm fruit ...
Negus S S - - 2009
Cocaine blocks uptake of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, and monoamine uptake inhibitors constitute one class of drugs under consideration as candidate "agonist" medications for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. The pharmacological selectivity of monoamine uptake inhibitors to block uptake of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine is one ...
Evans Theodore A - - 2009
Recent assessments have shown that capuchin monkeys, like chimpanzees and other Old World primate species, are sensitive to quantitative differences between sets of visible stimuli. In the present study, we examined capuchins' performance in a more sophisticated quantity judgment task that required the ability to form representations of food quantities ...
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