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Suzuki Hajime - - 2011
Zinc is required by humans and animals for many physiological functions, such as growth, immune function, and reproduction. Zinc deficiency induces a number of physiological problems, including anorexia, growth retardation, dermatitis, taste disorder, and hypogonadism. Although it is clear that zinc deficiency produces specific and profound anorexia in experimental animals, ...
Sarukura Nobuko - - 2011
In the present study, we first examined the dietary zinc intake from food groups in 109 healthy Japanese (24-82 years old, 45 male and 64 female) by means of the 72-h recall method. We then used the ratio of apo/holo-activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE ratio) that is a more ...
Juárez-Montiel Margarita - - 2011
In recent years the need has arisen to study and develop (or re-discover) foods that have nutritional characteristics as well as specific functions, such as improving health and/or reducing the risk of disease. For this reason knowledge of the nutritional value of food is important to promote greater consumer acceptance. ...
Ahlawat Kulveer Singh - - 2011
Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), ...
Fujita Kazuo K Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. - - 2011
We tested 4 captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) for their understanding of physical causality in variations of a 2-choice tool use task, 1 alternative of which allowed the monkeys easier access to food. Our monkeys, who had been adept at this task involving 2 items, that is, tool and ...
Tapper Katy K Department of Psychology, Swansea University. United Kingdom. - - 2010
Appraisal theories of emotion predict that the relevance of a stimulus to a person's needs and goals influences attentional allocation. We used a modified visual probe task to examine the influence of hunger and trait reward drive on food-related attentional bias. Both hunger and trait reward drive predicted degree of ...
Ulrich-Lai Yvonne M YM Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45237, USA. - - 2010
Individuals often eat calorically dense, highly palatable "comfort" foods during stress for stress relief. This article demonstrates that palatable food intake (limited intake of sucrose drink) reduces neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and behavioral responses to stress in rats. Artificially sweetened (saccharin) drink reproduces the stress dampening, whereas oral intragastric gavage of sucrose ...
Evans Theodore A - - 2010
It is unclear whether nonhuman animals can use physical tokens to flexibly represent various quantities by combining token values. Previous studies showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a macaque (Macaca mulatta) were only partly successful in tests involving sets of different-looking food containers representing different food quantities, while some capuchin ...
West Samantha - - 2010
We presented 7 Old World monkeys (Japanese macaques [Macaca fuscata], gray-cheeked mangabey [Lophocebus albigena], rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta], bonnet macaque [Macaca radiate], and olive baboon [Papio anubis]), 3 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 6 members of the parrot (Psittacinae) family, and 4 American black bears (Ursus americanus) with a cognitive dissonance paradigm ...
Choi Sang-Woon - - 2010
Nutrients can reverse or change epigenetic phenomena such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, thereby modifying the expression of critical genes associated with physiologic and pathologic processes, including embryonic development, aging, and carcinogenesis. It appears that nutrients and bioactive food components can influence epigenetic phenomena either by directly inhibiting enzymes ...
Frank Tamar C - - 2010
Food intake is decreased during the late follicular phase and increased in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. While a changing ovarian steroid milieu is believed to be responsible for this behavior, the specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Brain activity in response to visual food stimuli was compared ...
Young Erica J - - 2010
Emerging evidence from literature on humans suggests the valence of emotionally laden environmental stimuli may dictate whether amygdala activation is greater in one hemisphere relative to the contralateral side. However, only a paucity of animal studies attempt to unravel the mechanisms underlying the selective, valence-dependent initiation of activity in the ...
Stice Eric E Department of Psychology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA. - - 2010
Consistent with the theory that individuals with hypofunctioning reward circuitry overeat to compensate for a reward deficit, obese versus lean humans have fewer striatal D2 receptors and show less striatal response to palatable food intake. Low striatal response to food intake predicts future weight gain in those at genetic risk ...
Addessi Elsa E CNR, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Rome, Italy. - - 2011
In humans and apes, one of the most adaptive functions of symbols is to inhibit strong behavioural predispositions. However, to our knowledge, no study has yet investigated whether using symbols provides some advantage to non-ape primates. We aimed to trace the evolutionary roots of symbolic competence by examining whether tokens ...
Yamazaki Yumiko - - 2011
The understanding of physical causality in common marmosets was tested using support problems in which a pair of sheets was presented to determine whether subjects would choose the sheet that had a food item on it (i.e., the sheet was supporting the food item). In two experiments, the conditions were ...
Parathian Hannah E - - 2010
This study assesses the impact of hunting on the densities of nonhuman primates in two indigenous Tikuna territories (Mocagua and San Martín), overlapping Amacayacu National Park in the Colombian Amazon. Large-bodied primates were once favored prey by Tikunas, but are now rarely hunted owing to the diminishing primate populations. We ...
Jaeggi Adrian V - - 2010
Tolerant food sharing among human foragers can largely be explained by reciprocity. In contrast, food sharing among chimpanzees and bonobos may not always reflect reciprocity, which could be explained by different dominance styles: in egalitarian societies reciprocity is expressed freely, while in more despotic groups dominants may hinder reciprocity. We ...
McMahon Shannon S Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, - - 2010
The presence of metacognition in animals has been suggested by the observation that non-human primates will seek out information about the location of a hidden reward before responding. In experiment 1, dogs failed to make an information-seeking response that involved re-positioning themselves in space so that they could view a ...
Rolls E T ET Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience, Oxford, Oxon, UK. - - 2011
Complementary neuronal recordings and functional neuroimaging in humans, show that the primary taste cortex in the anterior insula provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature and texture (including fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, ...
Anderson James R - - 2010
Three squirrel monkeys, trained to make a requesting gesture, were tested in the presence of a human assistant whose visual attention varied across trials. When food was available in one dish and an empty dish was nearby, the monkeys pointed overwhelmingly toward the former, regardless of where the assistant was ...
Yocom Anna M AM Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. - - 2010
Three capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested on a 2-choice discrimination task designed to examine their knowledge of support, modeled after Hauser, Kralik, and Botto-Mahan's (1999) experiments with tamarins. This task involved a choice between 2 pieces of cloth, including 1 with a food reward placed on its surface, and ...
Wimberger Kirsten - - 2010
In South Africa, the most common primate in rehabilitation centres is the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops). Here we evaluated the efficacy of releasing two vervet monkey troops into the wild, using the standard methods employed by an established rehabilitation centre. Two troops were assembled over 2-3 years. Coloured ear tags ...
Range Friederike F Department of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, , 1090 Vienna, Austria. - - 2011
After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door ...
Cronin Katherine A - - 2010
The cooperative breeding hypothesis posits that cooperatively breeding species are motivated to act prosocially, that is, to behave in ways that provide benefits to others, and that cooperative breeding has played a central role in the evolution of human prosociality. However, investigations of prosocial behaviour in cooperative breeders have produced ...
Wolovich Christy K - - 2010
Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to ...
Watson Claire F I - - 2010
Researchers have demonstrated the neighbor effect for affiliative and agonistic neighbor vocalizations in captive chimpanzees. We extend the investigation of the neighbor effect to New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus. We collected data on vocalizations and behaviors of 31 focal individuals and concurrent neighbor vocalization within three behavioral categories: intragroup and ...
Peciña Susana S Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA. - - 2010
Food reward can be driven by separable mechanisms of hedonic impact (food 'liking') and incentive motivation (food 'wanting'). Brain mu-opioid systems contribute crucially to both forms of food reward. Yet, opioid signals for food 'liking' and 'wanting' diverge in anatomical substrates, in pathways connecting these sites, and in the firing ...
Brilot Ben O BO Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. - - 2010
Negative affect in humans and animals is known to cause individuals to interpret ambiguous stimuli pessimistically, a phenomenon termed 'cognitive bias'. Here, we used captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to test the hypothesis that a reduction in environmental conditions, from enriched to non-enriched cages, would engender negative affect, and hence ...
Egecioglu Emil E Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. - - 2010
We investigated whether ghrelin action at the level of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key node in the mesolimbic reward system, is important for the rewarding and motivational aspects of the consumption of rewarding/palatable food. Mice with a disrupted gene encoding the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) and rats treated peripherally ...
Anderson James R - - 2010
In two separate series of experiments four capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and four squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were given demonstration trials in which a human transferred six pieces of food, one by one, from out of each monkey's reach to within reach. On test trials the monkey could reach for ...
Ahern Amy L AL University of Liverpool, UK. Amy.Ahern@mrc-hnr.cam.ac.uk - - 2010
This study tested the hypotheses that dietary restraint scores are associated with greater reward sensitivity and cognitive bias for food-related cues, which might result in chronic overeating and efforts to curb this tendency through dietary restriction. Participants (N=63) with high versus low scores on the DEBQ-R did not differ on ...
Yager Lindsay M LM Department of Psychology (Biopsychology Program), The University of Michigan, East Hall, 530 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2010
Cues associated with food availability and consumption can evoke desire for food, sometimes leading to excessive intake. We have found, however, that food cues acquire incentive motivational properties (the ability to attract and to serve as conditional reinforcers) in some individuals (sign-trackers), but not others (goal-trackers). We asked, therefore, whether ...
Scheurink Anton J W AJ Department of Neuroendocrinology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. - - 2010
Restricted food intake is associated with increased physical activity, very likely an evolutionary advantage, initially both functional and rewarding. The hyperactivity of patients with anorexia nervosa, however, is a main problem for recovery. This seemingly paradoxical reward of hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa is one of the main aspects in our ...
Figlewicz Dianne P DP Metabolism/Endocrinology, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle Division, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. - - 2010
The hormones insulin, leptin, and ghrelin have been demonstrated to act in the central nervous system (CNS) as regulators of energy homeostasis, acting at medial hypothalamic sites. Here, we summarize research demonstrating that, in addition to direct homeostatic actions at the hypothalamus, CNS circuitry that subserves reward and is also ...
Choi D L DL Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. - - 2010
Consumption beyond homeostatic needs, referred to here as reward-based feeding behavior, is a central contributor to the current obesity epidemic worldwide. Importantly, reward-based feeding can be driven by palatability, the taste and texture of the food, as well as cues associated with the consumption of palatable foods. The hypothalamic orexin ...
Stevens Jeffrey R JR Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany. - - 2010
Helping others at no cost to oneself is a simple way to demonstrate other-regarding preferences. Yet, primates exhibit mixed results for other-regarding preferences: chimpanzees and tamarins do not show these effects, whereas capuchin monkeys and marmosets preferentially give food to others. One factor of relevance to this no-cost food donation ...
Dindo Marietta - - 2010
In the last two decades, it became largely accepted that monkeys show little, if any, copying fidelity. However, some recent studies have begun to challenge this notion. To explore reasons for such contrary findings, we designed a foraging apparatus so that in each of two experiments with capuchin monkeys (Cebus ...
Schwabe Lars - - 2010
Instrumental action can be controlled by two anatomically and functionally distinct systems: a goal-directed system that learns action-outcome associations and a habit system that learns stimulus-response associations without any link to the incentive value of the outcome. Recent evidence indicates that stress before learning modulates these two systems in favor ...
Ishihara Kohji - - 2010
Capsiate has a structure similar to capsaicin but no oral pungency. Furthermore, capsiate displayed antioxidant activity and inhibited angiogenesis and vascular permeability, and therefore, showed potential as a medicine and food supplement. Capsaicin is now commercially available, however capsiate is scarcely present in natural foods. We investigated the direct enzymatic ...
Yamada Aya - - 2010
Habitat use by crop-raiding Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) was studied in western Japan from December 2005 to February 2006, a food-scarce season. To examine how different vegetation types affect habitat use by monkeys, two crop-raiding troops were compared: the first troop inhabited a habitat involving more wild food resources; the ...
Potì Patrizia - - 2010
We examined the ability of capuchin monkeys to use video without immediate visual-kinaesthetic feedback as a source of information to guide their action in the 3-dimensional world. In experiment 1, 2 capuchins learned to retrieve food under 1 of 2 different objects in 1 cage after watching the experimenter hiding ...
Carter Gerald G - - 2010
Natural selection can shape specific cognitive abilities and the extent to which a given species relies on various cues when learning associations between stimuli and rewards. Because the flower bat Glossophaga soricina feeds primarily on nectar, and the locations of nectar-producing flowers remain constant, G. soricina might be predisposed to ...
Grueter Cyril C - - 2009
Only a few primate species thrive in temperate regions characterized by relatively low temperature, low rainfall, low species diversity, high elevation, and especially an extended season of food scarcity during which they suffer from dietary stress. We present data of a case study of dietary strategies and fallback foods in ...
Chudasama Yogita - - 2009
The present study attempted to distinguish the independent contributions of the amygdala and hippocampus to fear expression. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with bilateral excitotoxic amygdala lesions (n = 4), bilateral excitotoxic hippocampal lesions (n = 8) and unoperated controls (n = 9) were allowed to reach over a neutral junk ...
Jimura Koji K Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. - - 2009
In previous studies, researchers have found that humans discount delayed rewards orders of magnitude less steeply than do other animals. Humans also discount smaller delayed reward amounts more steeply than larger amounts, whereas animals apparently do not. These differences between humans and animals might reflect differences in the types of ...
Stice Eric E Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oreg., USA. - - 2010
Dopamine-based reward circuitry appears to play a role in encoding reward from eating and incentive sensitization, whereby cues associated with food reward acquire motivational value. Data suggest that low levels of dopamine D2 receptors and attenuated responsivity of dopamine-target regions (e.g. the striatum) to food and food cues are associated ...
Piech Richard M - - 2010
While effects of hunger on motivation and food reward value are well-established, far less is known about the effects of hunger on cognitive processes. Here, we deployed the emotional blink of attention paradigm to investigate the impact of visual food cues on attentional capture under conditions of hunger and satiety. ...
Phillips Webb - - 2009
A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) ...
Born J M JM Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht 6200MD, The Netherlands. - - 2010
Stress results in eating in the absence of hunger, possibly related to food reward perception. Stress decreases food reward perception. Determine the effect of acute stress on food choice and food choice reward-related brain activity. Nine females (BMI = 21.5 + or - 2.2 kg/m(2), age = 24.3 + or ...
Fulton Stephanie S CRCHUM and Montreal Diabetes Research Center, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. - - 2010
The tendency to engage in or maintain feeding behaviour is potently influenced by the rewarding properties of food. Affective and goal-directed behavioural responses for food have been assessed in response to various physiological, pharmacological and genetic manipulations to provide much insight into the neural mechanisms regulating motivation for food. In ...
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