Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 616
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Wimberger Kirsten - - 2010
In South Africa, the most common primate in rehabilitation centres is the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops). Here we evaluated the efficacy of releasing two vervet monkey troops into the wild, using the standard methods employed by an established rehabilitation centre. Two troops were assembled over 2-3 years. Coloured ear tags ...
Range Friederike F Department of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, , 1090 Vienna, Austria. - - 2011
After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door ...
Cronin Katherine A - - 2010
The cooperative breeding hypothesis posits that cooperatively breeding species are motivated to act prosocially, that is, to behave in ways that provide benefits to others, and that cooperative breeding has played a central role in the evolution of human prosociality. However, investigations of prosocial behaviour in cooperative breeders have produced ...
Wolovich Christy K - - 2010
Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to ...
Watson Claire F I - - 2010
Researchers have demonstrated the neighbor effect for affiliative and agonistic neighbor vocalizations in captive chimpanzees. We extend the investigation of the neighbor effect to New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus. We collected data on vocalizations and behaviors of 31 focal individuals and concurrent neighbor vocalization within three behavioral categories: intragroup and ...
Peciña Susana S Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA. - - 2010
Food reward can be driven by separable mechanisms of hedonic impact (food 'liking') and incentive motivation (food 'wanting'). Brain mu-opioid systems contribute crucially to both forms of food reward. Yet, opioid signals for food 'liking' and 'wanting' diverge in anatomical substrates, in pathways connecting these sites, and in the firing ...
Brilot Ben O BO Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. - - 2010
Negative affect in humans and animals is known to cause individuals to interpret ambiguous stimuli pessimistically, a phenomenon termed 'cognitive bias'. Here, we used captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to test the hypothesis that a reduction in environmental conditions, from enriched to non-enriched cages, would engender negative affect, and hence ...
Egecioglu Emil E Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. - - 2010
We investigated whether ghrelin action at the level of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key node in the mesolimbic reward system, is important for the rewarding and motivational aspects of the consumption of rewarding/palatable food. Mice with a disrupted gene encoding the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) and rats treated peripherally ...
Anderson James R - - 2010
In two separate series of experiments four capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and four squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were given demonstration trials in which a human transferred six pieces of food, one by one, from out of each monkey's reach to within reach. On test trials the monkey could reach for ...
Ahern Amy L AL University of Liverpool, UK. Amy.Ahern@mrc-hnr.cam.ac.uk - - 2010
This study tested the hypotheses that dietary restraint scores are associated with greater reward sensitivity and cognitive bias for food-related cues, which might result in chronic overeating and efforts to curb this tendency through dietary restriction. Participants (N=63) with high versus low scores on the DEBQ-R did not differ on ...
Yager Lindsay M LM Department of Psychology (Biopsychology Program), The University of Michigan, East Hall, 530 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2010
Cues associated with food availability and consumption can evoke desire for food, sometimes leading to excessive intake. We have found, however, that food cues acquire incentive motivational properties (the ability to attract and to serve as conditional reinforcers) in some individuals (sign-trackers), but not others (goal-trackers). We asked, therefore, whether ...
Scheurink Anton J W AJ Department of Neuroendocrinology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. - - 2010
Restricted food intake is associated with increased physical activity, very likely an evolutionary advantage, initially both functional and rewarding. The hyperactivity of patients with anorexia nervosa, however, is a main problem for recovery. This seemingly paradoxical reward of hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa is one of the main aspects in our ...
Figlewicz Dianne P DP Metabolism/Endocrinology, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle Division, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. - - 2010
The hormones insulin, leptin, and ghrelin have been demonstrated to act in the central nervous system (CNS) as regulators of energy homeostasis, acting at medial hypothalamic sites. Here, we summarize research demonstrating that, in addition to direct homeostatic actions at the hypothalamus, CNS circuitry that subserves reward and is also ...
Choi D L DL Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. - - 2010
Consumption beyond homeostatic needs, referred to here as reward-based feeding behavior, is a central contributor to the current obesity epidemic worldwide. Importantly, reward-based feeding can be driven by palatability, the taste and texture of the food, as well as cues associated with the consumption of palatable foods. The hypothalamic orexin ...
Stevens Jeffrey R JR Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany. - - 2010
Helping others at no cost to oneself is a simple way to demonstrate other-regarding preferences. Yet, primates exhibit mixed results for other-regarding preferences: chimpanzees and tamarins do not show these effects, whereas capuchin monkeys and marmosets preferentially give food to others. One factor of relevance to this no-cost food donation ...
Dindo Marietta - - 2010
In the last two decades, it became largely accepted that monkeys show little, if any, copying fidelity. However, some recent studies have begun to challenge this notion. To explore reasons for such contrary findings, we designed a foraging apparatus so that in each of two experiments with capuchin monkeys (Cebus ...
Schwabe Lars - - 2010
Instrumental action can be controlled by two anatomically and functionally distinct systems: a goal-directed system that learns action-outcome associations and a habit system that learns stimulus-response associations without any link to the incentive value of the outcome. Recent evidence indicates that stress before learning modulates these two systems in favor ...
Ishihara Kohji - - 2010
Capsiate has a structure similar to capsaicin but no oral pungency. Furthermore, capsiate displayed antioxidant activity and inhibited angiogenesis and vascular permeability, and therefore, showed potential as a medicine and food supplement. Capsaicin is now commercially available, however capsiate is scarcely present in natural foods. We investigated the direct enzymatic ...
Yamada Aya - - 2010
Habitat use by crop-raiding Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) was studied in western Japan from December 2005 to February 2006, a food-scarce season. To examine how different vegetation types affect habitat use by monkeys, two crop-raiding troops were compared: the first troop inhabited a habitat involving more wild food resources; the ...
Potì Patrizia - - 2010
We examined the ability of capuchin monkeys to use video without immediate visual-kinaesthetic feedback as a source of information to guide their action in the 3-dimensional world. In experiment 1, 2 capuchins learned to retrieve food under 1 of 2 different objects in 1 cage after watching the experimenter hiding ...
Carter Gerald G - - 2010
Natural selection can shape specific cognitive abilities and the extent to which a given species relies on various cues when learning associations between stimuli and rewards. Because the flower bat Glossophaga soricina feeds primarily on nectar, and the locations of nectar-producing flowers remain constant, G. soricina might be predisposed to ...
Grueter Cyril C - - 2009
Only a few primate species thrive in temperate regions characterized by relatively low temperature, low rainfall, low species diversity, high elevation, and especially an extended season of food scarcity during which they suffer from dietary stress. We present data of a case study of dietary strategies and fallback foods in ...
Chudasama Yogita - - 2009
The present study attempted to distinguish the independent contributions of the amygdala and hippocampus to fear expression. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with bilateral excitotoxic amygdala lesions (n = 4), bilateral excitotoxic hippocampal lesions (n = 8) and unoperated controls (n = 9) were allowed to reach over a neutral junk ...
Jimura Koji K Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. - - 2009
In previous studies, researchers have found that humans discount delayed rewards orders of magnitude less steeply than do other animals. Humans also discount smaller delayed reward amounts more steeply than larger amounts, whereas animals apparently do not. These differences between humans and animals might reflect differences in the types of ...
Stice Eric E Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oreg., USA. - - 2010
Dopamine-based reward circuitry appears to play a role in encoding reward from eating and incentive sensitization, whereby cues associated with food reward acquire motivational value. Data suggest that low levels of dopamine D2 receptors and attenuated responsivity of dopamine-target regions (e.g. the striatum) to food and food cues are associated ...
Piech Richard M - - 2010
While effects of hunger on motivation and food reward value are well-established, far less is known about the effects of hunger on cognitive processes. Here, we deployed the emotional blink of attention paradigm to investigate the impact of visual food cues on attentional capture under conditions of hunger and satiety. ...
Phillips Webb - - 2009
A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) ...
Born J M JM Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht 6200MD, The Netherlands. - - 2010
Stress results in eating in the absence of hunger, possibly related to food reward perception. Stress decreases food reward perception. Determine the effect of acute stress on food choice and food choice reward-related brain activity. Nine females (BMI = 21.5 + or - 2.2 kg/m(2), age = 24.3 + or ...
Fulton Stephanie S CRCHUM and Montreal Diabetes Research Center, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. - - 2010
The tendency to engage in or maintain feeding behaviour is potently influenced by the rewarding properties of food. Affective and goal-directed behavioural responses for food have been assessed in response to various physiological, pharmacological and genetic manipulations to provide much insight into the neural mechanisms regulating motivation for food. In ...
Cronin Katherine A KA Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. - - 2009
This study tested the hypothesis that cooperative breeding facilitates the emergence of prosocial behavior by presenting cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) with the option to provide food rewards to pair-bonded mates. In Experiment 1, tamarins could provide rewards to mates at no additional cost while obtaining rewards for themselves. Contrary to ...
Schmitt Vanessa V Cognitive Ethology, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany. - - 2009
Apes use inferential reasoning by exclusion to locate food both in the visual and auditory domain. To test whether olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) show similar abilities as the apes object choice experiments with differing information about food located in 1 of 2 cups were conducted in the visual and ...
Takimoto Ayaka A Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, Japan. - - 2010
The issue whether non-human primates have other-regarding preference and/or inequity aversion has been under debate. We investigated whether tufted capuchin monkeys are sensitive to others' reward in various experimental food sharing settings. Two monkeys faced each other. The operator monkey chose one of two food containers placed between the participants, ...
Wassum K M KM Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. - - 2009
It generally is assumed that a common neural substrate mediates both the palatability and the reward value of nutritive events. However, recent evidence suggests this assumption may not be true. Whereas opioid circuitry in both the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum has been reported to mediate taste-reactivity responses to palatable ...
Hopewell Lucy J LJ School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. - - 2010
Previous laboratory studies on social learning suggest that some animals can learn more readily if they first observe a conspecific demonstrator perform the task unsuccessfully and so fail to obtain a food reward than if they observe a successful demonstrator that obtains the food. This effect may indicate a difference ...
Gumert Michael D - - 2009
Stone hammering in natural conditions has been extensively investigated in chimpanzees and bearded capuchins. In contrast, knowledge of stone tool use in wild Old World monkeys has been limited to anecdotal reports, despite having known for over 120 years that Macaca fascicularis aurea use stone tools to process shelled foods ...
Beard K Christopher - - 2009
The family Amphipithecidae is one of the two fossil primate taxa from Asia that appear to be early members of the anthropoid clade. Ganlea megacanina, gen. et sp. nov., is a new amphipithecid from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of central Myanmar. The holotype of Ganlea is distinctive in ...
Amici Federica - - 2009
Studies on tactical deception have reported that informed subordinates can withhold information from naive dominants, but they have not directly compared species' performance. Here, we compared the performance in two withholding-of-information tasks of three monkey species differing in the strictness of their dominance hierarchy and degree of fission-fusion dynamics: spider ...
Hattori Yuko - - 2010
Researchers have investigated to what extent non-human primates understand others' attentional states, as this ability is considered an important prerequisite for theory of mind. However, previous studies using food requesting tasks have failed to show that non-human primates attribute perception to others as a function of their attentional states. One ...
Sacrey Lori-Ann R - - 2009
Many animal species use their forelimbs to assist in eating, such as occurs in a reach-to-eat task (skilled reaching) in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food that is placed in the mouth for eating. It is unclear the extent to which the skilled reaching movements of different species ...
Wheeler Brandon C - - 2009
The use of 'tactical deception' is argued to have been important in the cognitive evolution of the order Primates, but systematic studies of active deception in wild non-human primates are scant. This study tests whether wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) use alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner ...
Shutts Kristin - - 2009
Adults, preschool children, and nonhuman primates detect and categorize food objects according to substance information, conveyed primarily by color and texture. In contrast, they perceive and categorize artifacts primarily by shape and rigidity. The present experiments investigated the origins of this distinction. Using a looking time procedure, Experiment 1 extended ...
Canale Gustavo Rodrigues - - 2009
Reports on use of stones as hammers and anvils to open hard nuts by wild capuchin monkeys are scarce and limited to Cebus libidinosus. Here, we report for the first time data on tool use-stones as hammer and anvils to open nuts-in wild C. xanthosternos and a description of new ...
Machado Christopher J - - 2009
The authors measured the effects of bilateral amygdaloid, orbital frontal, or hippocampal lesions on emotional reactivity and passive avoidance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animals were presented with 8 neutral or 8 aversive objects, each paired with a highly preferred food reward. Sham-operated control animals displayed heightened defensive behaviors and ...
Brosnan Sarah Frances SF Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, PO Box 5010, Atlanta, GA, 30302-5010, USA. - - 2009
Chimpanzees provide help to unrelated individuals in a broad range of situations. The pattern of helping within pairs suggests that contingent reciprocity may have been an important mechanism in the evolution of altruism in chimpanzees. However, correlational analyses of the cumulative pattern of interactions over time do not demonstrate that ...
Van Hulle Michael - - 2009
The effect of human development on six diurnal mammal species was studied using transects in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas, Costa Rica during the dry season months of March and April 2006. Individuals/km was recorded for each species in more developed (MD) (near paved roads, buildings, construction, or ...
Shiflett Michael W MW Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, - - 2009
The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been shown to regulate an animal's behavioral responsiveness to emotionally salient stimuli, and an increase in CREB phosphorylation in the NAc has been observed during exposure to rewarding stimuli, such as drugs of abuse. Here we ...
Mendez Ian A IA Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4235, USA. - - 2009
Exposure to psychostimulant drugs of abuse such as amphetamine can result in long-lasting "sensitization" of reward-directed behavior, such that subjects display enhancements in behavior directed by and toward rewards and reward-predictive cues (i.e. "incentive sensitization"). The purpose of these experiments was to determine the degree to which such sensitization resulting ...
Paukner Annika - - 2009
Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins' ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, ...
Visalberghi Elisabetta - - 2009
Selection and transport of objects to use as tools at a distant site are considered to reflect planning. Ancestral humans transported tools and tool-making materials as well as food items. Wild chimpanzees also transport selected hammer tools and nuts to anvil sites. To date, we had no other examples of ...
Silberberg Alan - - 2009
Brosnan and de Waal (Nature 425:297-299, 2003) reported that if a witness monkey saw a model monkey receive a high-value food, the witness was more inclined to reject a previously acceptable, but low-value food. Later work demonstrated that this alleged inequity aversion might be due to frustration induced by switching ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >