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Results 501 - 550 of 598
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Milliken G W - - 1989
Evaluated a free-ranging matriline of 13 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) from videotaped records for lateralized hand use with 2 tasks and 4 measures: food reaching, feeding posture, duration of food holding, and manipulation of food between mouth and hand while eating. Binomial z scores determined 7 lemurs to be left ...
Binienda Z - - 1989
We studied the hormonal responses in four pregnant rhesus monkeys between 112 and 149 days gestation. After 2 days, during which the monkeys were fed ad libitum, their food was withdrawn at 1500 h for 48 h while allowing free access to water. The food then was returned, and the ...
Kemnitz J W - - 1989
The influences of ovarian hormones on food intake, taste preferences, and glucoregulation were examined in intact and ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Intake of intact monkeys was lowest in the preovulatory stage of the cycle, when estrogen levels are elevated, and exogenous estradiol transiently suppressed food intake of ovariectomized monkeys in a ...
Marriott B M - - 1989
The food ingestion patterns of the rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of Group L on Cayo Santiago were quantitatively recorded during two months which coincided with the annual breeding season. Three methods of sampling were used concurrently: interval scan sampling, group location mapping and focal animal observation. These data generated time ...
Evans M A - - 1989
A field project was conducted to remove an introduced population of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from Desecheo Island National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico. A group of 57 monkeys from Cayo Santiago was released on Desecheo Island in 1966 to study processes of adaptation. Observations in 1969 and 1970 implicated the ...
Boysen S T - - 1989
A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), trained to count foods and objects by using Arabic numbers, demonstrated the ability to sum arrays of 0-4 food items placed in 2 of 3 possible sites. To address representational use of numbers, we next baited sites with Arabic numbers as stimuli. In both cases performance ...
Binienda Z - - 1989
Pregnant rhesus monkeys were studied between 109 and 149 days of gestation. Food withdrawal for 48 hours (with free access to water) was accompanied by a decrease in maternal whole blood glucose concentration and an increased maternal arterial plasma 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha concentration. On successive nights of the 48-hour period ...
Adamson R H - - 1989
Several compounds were evaluated in nonhuman primates for their potential to induce neoplasms, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The compounds can be classified into three groups: food contaminants, model rodent carcinogens, and nitrosamines. All three compounds in the food contaminants group, namely, aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin, and methylazoxymethanol acetate, induced HCC. None ...
Fonberg E - - 1988
Dominance is a complex phenomenon mediated by different mechanisms. Various motivations and their mutual correlations determine the tendency to dominate. A subject that is dominant in every situation (i.e., absolutely dominant) is rather an exceptional case. Dominance may be limited to particular situations and exhibited only with some definite partners. ...
Clifton P G - - 1988
Chicks trained to take a food reward at the end of a runway can be distracted by changes in the appearance of either the food dish towards which they are running or of the walls of the runway remote from the food dish. Testosterone (administered as a long lasting ester ...
Sunderland G - - 1988
The taste preferences of adult male squirrel monkeys and bonnet macaques for Polycose, maltose, and sucrose solutions were compared in 24 hr/day solution vs. water tests. Solution concentrations of 0.01 M, 0.05 M, 0.10 M, and 0.20 (Polycose) or 0.50 M (maltose and sucrose) were tested. The squirrel monkeys displayed ...
Hernandez L L Department of Psychology, Princeton University, New Jersey - - 1988
Dopamine was measured by microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats while they experienced rewarding food, brain stimulation and drugs. Extracellular dopamine increased 37% when the animals pressed a lever for food reward. Electrical stimulation of a lateral hypothalamic feeding-reward (self-stimulation) site caused a similar increase in dopamine, ...
Chamberlain B - - 1987
Social groups of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were given amino acid mixtures that were tryptophan-free (T-), nutritionally balanced (B), or contained excess tryptophan (T+). The T- mixture caused a marked decrease in plasma tryptophan and the T+ mixture a large increase. Behavioral observations were made on the animals after administration ...
Sinnott J M - - 1987
Humans and monkeys were compared in their differential sensitivity to various acoustic cues underlying voicing contrasts specified by voice-onset time (VOT) in utterance-initial stop consonants. A low-uncertainty repeating standard AX procedure and positive-reinforcement operant conditioning techniques were used to measure difference limens (DLs) along a VOT continuum from--70 ms (prevoiced/ba/) ...
Wilpizeski C R - - 1987
It has been suggested by numerous researchers that the development of conditioned food aversion (CFA) in experimental animals represents the presence of a subjective state of illness. Squirrel monkeys with proven susceptibility to rotation-induced vomiting were given surgical bilateral labyrinthectomies, a procedure known to abolish signs and symptoms of motion ...
Sinnott J M - - 1987
Auditory duration DLs at 2.0 kHz were measured in Old World monkeys (Macaca, Cercopithecus) and humans using a go, no-go repeating standard AX procedure and positive reinforcement operant conditioning techniques. For a 200-ms standard, monkey DLs were 45-125 ms, compared to 15-27 ms for humans. Weber fractions (delta T/T) for ...
Carroll M E - - 1987
Two experiments addressed the effects of food satiation and deprivation on oral self-administration of two concurrently available phencyclidine concentrations. In the first experiment, 8 rhesus monkeys self-administered either of two concentrations of phencyclidine ("PCP, angel dust") and water under concurrent fixed-ratio 16 schedules. One concentration was always held constant (0.25 ...
Rumbaugh D M - - 1987
In this research, we asked whether 2 chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) subjects could reliably sum across pairs of quantities to select the greater total. Subjects were allowed to choose between two trays of chocolates. Each tray contained two food wells. To select the tray containing the greater number of chocolates, it ...
Corwin R L - - 1987
The effects of the anorectics benzphetamine, chlorphentermine, clortermine, mazindol, phendimetrazine, and phenmetrazine on food intake were compared to the effects of d-amphetamine in rhesus monkeys given daily access to food pellets. The ability of these compounds to maintain intravenous self-administration under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule was also determined in rhesus ...
Nakano Y - - 1986
Feeding-related neuronal activity of monkey amygdalar glucose-sensitive and morphine-sensitive cells was investigated during a task that required bar-pressing to obtain food. Both glucose-sensitive and morphine-sensitive cells, located mostly in the centromedial part of the amygdala, decreased firing during the bar-press period more often than insensitive cells. Naloxone attenuated the decrease ...
Wilpizeski C R - - 1986
Using squirrel monkeys as experimental subjects, we reexamined the disputed role of the area postrema (AP) in motion-induced vomiting. After anesthetization, the obex and rhomboid fossa were exposed surgically, and the AP was ablated by thermal coagulation using either a battery cautery or a CO2 microsurgical laser. Sham operations were ...
Ruiz de Elvira M C - - 1986
A backpack system is described whereby osmotic minipumps are used to infuse gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) subcutaneously in a pulsatile manner into infertile socially subordinate female marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). This procedure enables long-term infusion of GnRH without the necessity of repeated subcutaneous implantation of pumps and GnRH reservoirs. The ...
Mue S - - 1986
The inhibitory effect of 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-alpha]pyridine (KC-404) on aerosolized methacholine- and histamine-induced increase in total respiratory resistance (Rrs) was determined in monkeys using the forced 3 Hz oscillation method and was compared with the effect of aminophylline. The effects of several derivatives of KC-404 on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction were also determined. All ...
Feistner A T - - 1986
In order to explore whether or not adult motivation influences transfer of food to infants in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 experiments were carried out with 3 large captive family groups. Examination of (a) natural changes in food motivation during feeding, and (b) elevated motivation toward food by giving ...
Hallonquist J D - - 1986
Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in 2 species of hibernator, dormice (Glis glis) and ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis), suggests that induced behaviors may reflect activation of specific neural systems, rather than merely activation of a single central mechanism interacting with internal and external cues and past experience (prepotency hypothesis). ...
Beighton D - - 1986
The rate of growth of the predominant bacterial strains of plaque from the developmental grooves of first deciduous molar teeth was determined. Median doubling times were 3.32, 3.45, 2.88 and 4.54 h for streptococci, lactobacilli, actinomyces and Neisseria mucosa respectively. Withdrawal of dietary food did not greatly influence the number ...
D'Mello G D - - 1985
In marmosets, the clinical signs of poisoning following the administration of sarin and the effects of sarin upon performance in three behavioral test models were investigated. The sensitivity of marmosets to the lethal action of sarin was shown to be greater than that of rodent species and rabbits but very ...
van Wolfswinkel L - - 1985
The involvement of endogenous opioids in self-stimulation reward was investigated by repeated administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone to rats during acquisition of a behavioral response pattern that was rewarded with electrical (self-)stimulation of the ventral tegmental area. A control experiment was performed using food deprived rats in which a ...
Pager J - - 1985
The activity of 26 olfactory bulb units, including 19 mitral, 5 granular and 2 external plexiform cells, was recorded in unrestrained rats associating food odor stimuli/isoamyl acetate to a food reward/no reward. The respiratory activity was transduced from the intranasal air pressure and used as a time-base to analyze the ...
Killeen P R - - 1985
Incentive theory is successfully applied to data from experiments in which the amount of food reward is varied. This is accomplished by assuming that incentive value is a negatively accelerated function of reward duration. The interaction of the magnitude of a reward with its delay is confirmed, and the causes ...
Sasaki K - - 1984
In some medial forebrain bundle (MFB) sites, self-stimulation is often modulated by hunger or satiety. With electrodes in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) such modulation rarely occurs. The influence of food deprivation on MFB self-stimulation is the main basis for the hypothesis that electrical stimulation of the MFB can mimic the ...
Foltin R W - - 1984
Food intake of rhesus monkeys was limited to a single daily 2 hr session of banana flavored pellet availability, seven days a week. Following stabilization of intake, the effects of liquid preload meals (0-80% of normal meal size) delivered through nasogastric tubes or chronic indwelling intragastric (IG) catheters were determined ...
Veluvolu P - - 1984
Fecal samples of 36 ground squirrels, Spermophilus beldingi, from Tioga Pass (elev. ca. 3315 m) in the Sierra Nevada, California, yielded oocysts of Eimeria beckeri in nine squirrels, E. citelli in four squirrels, E. beldingii n. sp. in two squirrels, and degenerated, unidentifiable oocysts in ten squirrels. Eimeria beldingii n. ...
Lee V C - - 1984
Five adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing 7.1-9.9 kg were given synthetic human beta-endorphin (800 micrograms) and [14C]methoxy-inulin (50 microCi) in 400 microliters of normal saline intrathecally. Serial samples of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn through a previously positioned indwelling spinal catheter and were assayed for concentrations of beta-endorphin (determined by ...
Carroll M E - - 1984
Orally-delivered methohexital was demonstrated to function as a reinforcer for rhesus monkeys with either phencyclidine or pentobarbital self-administration histories. The effects of food deprivation and food satiation were compared across a wide range of methohexital concentrations. Initially, three monkeys were trained to orally self-administer phencyclidine (0.25 mg/ml) and water, and ...
Kemnitz J W - - 1984
Food intake of control and streptozotocin-diabetic rhesus monkeys was measured during menstrual cycles and pregnancy. Intake of control monkeys was lower at the time of ovulation than during other phases of the menstrual cycle. Intake of control monkeys was also low during most of pregnancy, but this was accompanied by ...
Carroll M E - - 1984
Six monkeys were trained to self-administer orally delivered phencyclidine (0.25 mg/ml) under a fixed-ratio 16 (FR-16) schedule. Water was concurrently available under an FF-16 schedule. During initial phencyclidine training, three monkeys were allowed free access to food (food satiation) and three were maintained at 85% of their free-feeding body weights ...
McIlvane W J - - 1984
Two low-functioning mentally retarded subjects learned to name food items after receptive exclusion training, conducted as follows: The subjects first learned to select a small number of foods in a two-choice matching-to-sample task. For one subject, the samples were dictated names; for the other, the samples were manual signs. They ...
Rolls E T - - 1984
Investigations in non-human primates have provided evidence that the lateral hypothalamus and adjoining substantia innominata are involved in the control of feeding, for there is a population of neurons in these regions which respond to the sight and/or taste of food if the organism is hungry. The responses of these ...
Matsuzawa T - - 1983
We examined how Japanese monkeys in the wild formed an aversion to food which had been paired with poison. Ten monkeys of various ages and both sexes were chosen as subjects from 105 members of the Shiga-A1 troop at Jigokudani in Shiga Heights in Japan. We gave almond nuts to ...
Ternes J W - - 1983
In order to examine the development of tolerance to opioids, eight cynomolgus and two rhesus monkeys were trained to press a lever for food reinforcement and then were catheterized so that drugs could be infused. Three doses of hydromorphone and six different interdose intervals were studied. Hydromorphone infusions initially suppressed ...
Matsuzawa T - - 1983
Japanese monkeys consumed two kinds of food, the novel almonds and the familiar sweet potatoes, simultaneously, and then received a cyclophosphamide injection (20 mg/kg) intravenously. As the food-poison pairing was repeated, they first avoided the novel food completely, and then came to suppress eating the familiar one. During the subsequent ...
Corruccini R S - - 1982
Among 43 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) raised either on naturally tough or on artificially soft foods, there are significant differences in occlusal features. Animals raised on soft foods show more rotated and displaced teeth, crowded premolars, and absolutely and relatively narrower dental arches. Dietary consistency may be a determinant of ...
Menzel E W EW - - 1982
Confronted with a novel object, a social group of marmoset monkeys investigated it. If they found food on it they returned to it readily the next day; whoever had led in eating usually did so again. If they did not find food, day 2 responsiveness decreased. These untrained performances were ...
Cole S - - 1982
An ecological approach based on food distribution suggests that humming birds should more easily learn to visit a flower in a new location than to learn to return to a flower in a position just visited, for a food reward. Experimental results support this hypothesis as well as the general ...
Carroll M E - - 1982
Eight rhesus monkeys were trained to self-administer orally-delivered phencyclidine, with water concurrently available, under a fixed ratio (FR) schedule during daily 3-hr sessions. Liquid deliveries (0.55 ml) were contingent upon lip-contact responses on solenoid-operated drinking spouts. During the sessions, phencyclidine and water were available under FRs ranging from 1 to ...
Stary H C - - 1982
We studied the ultrastructure of the left anterior descending coronary artery in 6 female cynomolgus macaques fed atherogenic food containing 0.5% cholesterol for 6 months, and in 2 female cynomolgus macaques that had received food low in cholesterol. Animals given the atherogenic food had coronary artery lesions of a characteristic ...
Natelson B H - - 1982
To see whether plasma glucose or insulin changed in anticipation of feeding, we provided seven rhesus monkeys with four-hour access to food every other day. Blood was sampled before and during a 30-minute signal which ended with food availability and before and during a 30-minute signal which was not closely ...
Aggleton J P - - 1982
The reinforcing strengths of foods were assessed in rhesus monkeys before and after bilateral radio-frequency lesions of the lateral amygdala (n = 4), basolateral amygdala (n = 4), and total amygdala (n = 3). None of these lesions altered preoperative preferences between three highly palatable foods. Moreover, the lesions had ...
Kuehl T J - - 1982
First polar body expulsion in the squirrel monkey ovum occurred at an average of 13.1 h after hCG injection when observed in culture but could occur as early as 5 h after hCG. the mean time for extrusion of the second polar body was 4.7 h after insemination of the ...
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