Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1175
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Tucker Marlee A MA Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia - - 2014
Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships ...
Lamport Daniel J DJ School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, - - 2014
Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice ...
Roudier B B ESIEE Cités Descartes/BP 99, 93162, Noisy Le Grand Cedex, Paris, France, - - 2014
The in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) (Food and Drug Administration 1997) aims to predict performances in vivo of a pharmaceutical formulation based on its in vitro characteristics. It is a complex process that (i) incorporates in a gradual and incremental way a large amount of information and (ii) requires information ...
Myhre Jannicke B JB Department of Nutrition,Institute for Basic Medical Sciences,University of Oslo,PO Box 1046 Blindern,0317 - - 2014
To study how different meals contribute to intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains in a group of Norwegian adults and in subgroups of this population. Moreover, to investigate the consequences of skipping the meal contributing most to the intake of each food group (main contributing meal). Cross-sectional dietary ...
Plastow Nicola Ann NA a Division of Occupational Therapy, Stellenbosch University , Cape Town , South - - 2014
Objectives: Services provided to older people should be developed based on active ageing policies. Nutrition is one aspect of active ageing, but little is known about how food activities contribute to psychological well-being in later life. This is a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research that answers the question ...
Ismail Adam A The Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3, 1075 Hollywood Avenue, Salt Lake City, UT - - 2014
The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA ...
Pfrimer Karina K Division of General Internal and Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14049-900, - - 2014
there are no accurate methods for the assessment of food intake in older populations, under-reporting of intake being highly prevalent. There is controversy about which dietary assessment method and what person's characteristics are associated with greater under-reporting rates. to assess the correlation between under-reporting of energy intake (EI) and different ...
Seed Barbara B Supreme Council of - - 2014
To present one of the first national dietary guidelines that incorporates food sustainability principles into its public health recommendations. The paper outlines recommendations and utilizes an ecological framework of policy analysis to examine context, drivers, consequences and future suggestions in establishing and maintaining sustainability principles within the Qatar Dietary Guidelines. ...
Kong Xiang-Yi XY Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, - - 2014
Objective To investigate the preventive effect of probiotics on pediatric food allergy. Methods From MEDLINE bibliographical database, we searched and reviewed all randomized controlled trials on the preventive effects of probiotics on pediatric food allergies up to September 2013 and excluded the studies that do not meet inclusion criteria and ...
Driessen C E CE School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Burwood, - - 2014
Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 ...
Gittelsohn Joel - - 2014
Childhood obesity rates in the U.S. have reached epidemic proportions, and an urgent need remains to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component interventions are needed due to the multi-factorial nature of obesity, and its proven links to both the social and built environment. However, there are huge ...
Liberato Selma C - - 2014
Point-of-sale is a potentially important opportunity to promote healthy eating through nutrition education and environment modification. The aim of this review was to describe and review the evidence of effectiveness of various types of interventions that have been used at point-of-sale to encourage purchase and/ or eating of healthier food ...
Durão Catarina C EPIUnit - Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to study the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years and body mass index (BMI) at 4 years, using a cross-lagged panel design. The present study included 589 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the birth cohort generation ...
Woods Julie J School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Vic. 3125, - - 2014
Issue addressed Since 2005, all states and territories across Australia have progressively introduced policy guidelines to promote nutritious food sales in school canteens. This study aimed to assess the compliance of school canteens with their state or territory canteen guidelines. Methods School canteen menus from a convenience sample of online ...
Mytton Oliver T - - 2014
Increased vegetable and fruit consumption is encouraged to promote health, including the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Population health strategies (e.g. 5-A-Day or similar campaigns and subsidies on vegetables or fruit) that emphasize increased consumption may theoretically lead to increased energy intake and weight gain. We undertook a systematic ...
Androutsos O O Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, - - 2014
Bioelectrical impedance analysis would be a more practical tool to measure body composition in clinical settings, dietetic practice and epidemiological studies if patients/subjects did not have to fast before measurements. The present study assessed whether the ingestion of food or drink had any biologically significant effect on bioimpedance measurements and ...
Lin Yi Y Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, UZ - 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent, - - 2014
To evaluate total, energy-adjusted dietary fiber (DF), water-soluble fiber (WSF), and water-insoluble fiber (WIF) intakes in European adolescents and to investigate their association with indicators of adiposity and serum biomarkers. This study, conducted from 2006 to 2007, included 1804 adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years (47 % males) from eight European cities completing two ...
Panahi Shirin S a Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine , University of Toronto , Toronto , Ontario , - - 2014
Background: The blood glucose-lowering effects of β-glucan from oats and barley depend on the amounts consumed and their rheological properties. This has been recently challenged with growing evidence that the food matrix may also be an important factor in predicting its physiological response. Objective: The objective of this study was ...
Pascual Juan M JM Rare Brain Disorders Program, Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas2Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas3Department of Pediatrics, The - - 2014
Disorders of brain metabolism are multiform in their mechanisms and manifestations, many of which remain insufficiently understood and are thus similarly treated. Glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D) is commonly associated with seizures and with electrographic spike-waves. The G1D syndrome has long been attributed to energy (ie, adenosine triphosphate synthetic) ...
Yu Lu - - 2014
Food-derived phytochemicals, many known for their health beneficial effects, often exist in conjugated forms containing sugar moieties such as glucose or rhamnose in foods. The uptake of these compounds requires colonic bacterial cleavage of sugar moieties. However, most studies involving screening extracts for biological activities do not take this process ...
Lau Kin Yan KY School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong - - 2014
Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. ...
Jin Yingliang Y Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, - - 2014
By synthesizing results from primary studies, systematic review can provide empirical information of concerned problems. This study aimed to review the available surveillance data from studies reporting the contamination surveillance of food lead in China. Relevant studies were identified by systematically searching Chinese Biological Medicine Database and China National Knowledge ...
Gibert Jean P JP School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 410 Manter Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0118, USA - - 2014
The increased temperature associated with climate change may have important effects on body size and predator-prey interactions. The consequences of these effects for food web structure are unclear because the relationships between temperature and aspects of food web structure such as predator-prey body-size relationships are unknown. Here, we use the ...
St-Onge M-P MP 1] College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA [2] New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center, St. Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY, - - 2014
Background:Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) enhance thermogenesis and may reduce food intake relative to long chain triglycerides (LCT). The goal of this study was to establish the effects of MCT on appetite and food intake and determine whether differences were due to differences in hormone concentrations.Methods:Two randomized, crossover studies were conducted ...
Dosz Edward B - - 2014
Isothiocyanates, generated from hydrolysis of glucosinolates in plants of the Brassicaceae family, promote health, including anti-cancer bioactivity. Hydrolysis requires the plant enzyme myrosinase, giving myrosinase a key role in health promotion by brassica vegetables. Myrosinase measurement typically involves isolating crude protein, potentially underestimating activity in whole foods. We estimated myrosinase ...
Barbour Jayne J Nutritional Physiology Research Centre, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia. Telephone +61 (08) 83022348. Electronic address: - - 2014
Snack foods can contribute a high proportion of energy intake to the diet. Peanuts are a snack food rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein and fibre which have demonstrated satiety effects and may reduce total energy intake, despite their high energy density. This study examined the effects of consuming Hi-oleic ...
Skillings Elizabeth A EA Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge Cambridge, CB2 3DY, - - 2014
In addition to their cognitive and motor deficits, R6/2 mice show a progressive disintegration in circadian rhythms that mirrors the problems associated with sleep-wake disturbances experienced by patients with Huntington's disease (HD). It has been shown previously that motor and cognitive performance, as well as survival, can be improved in ...
Melhorn Susan J SJ University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine; 325 Ninth Ave, Box 359780, Seattle, WA 98104 - - 2014
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has incretin effects that are well-documented, but the independent role of GLP-1 action in human satiety perception is debated. We hypothesized that blockade of GLP-1 receptors would suppress postprandial satiety and increase voluntary food intake. After an overnight fast, 8 normal weight participants (7 men, BMI ...
Zhang Shanshan S School of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, No. 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu, PR China; Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, #06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore - - 2014
High rate food consumption in urban cities causes vast amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus used in agriculture to end up in urban wastewaters. To substantially recover these nutrients, source-separated human urine should be targeted. The present study was to investigate the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus in urine via ...
Steinert Robert E RE From the Department of Biomedicine and Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland (RES, ACM-G, PK, HF, FS, and CB), and the Department of Internal Medicine II, Clinical Research Unit, Clinical Center of the Ludwig Maximilians University, Campus Grosshardern, Munich, Germany (JS and - - 2014
Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits eating in healthy, overweight, and diabetic subjects.OBJECTIVE: The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39)NH2 (ex9-39) was used to further explore the role of GLP-1 as an endogenous satiation signal.DESIGN: Two double-blind, 4-way crossover studies were performed, each of which included 10 healthy men. In study A, subjects ...
Jones Joshua B JB Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, - - 2014
Energy-yielding beverages reportedly contribute to positive energy balance uniquely. They are highly consumed and evoke weaker satiety signaling and dietary energy compensation than solid foods of the same energy content. This study measured the contribution of learning to appetitive sensations and adjustments of energy intake for preloads varying in energy ...
Zhu Yong Y Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United - - 2014
Little is known about the effect of macronutrient composition of foods on cephalic phase response of gastrointestinal hormones. In addition, metabolomics of cephalic phase response has not been studied before. The objective of the present study was to assess cephalic phase endocrinological and metabolomic responses following modified sham feeding (MSF) ...
Robinson Eric E Eleanor Rathbone Building, University of Liverpool,Liverpool L69 - - 2014
Attentional and memory processes underpin appetite control, but whether encouraging overweight individuals to eat more 'attentively' can promote reductions in energy consumption is unclear. In the present study with a between-subjects design, a total of forty-eight overweight and obese females consumed a fixed lunchtime meal. Their ad libitum energy intake ...
Rajagopal Rajinikanth R Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, NEWRI, Nanyang Technological University, #06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141, Singapore. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study explored a new approach to enhance VFA productivity from anaerobic co-digestion of food-waste (FW) with source-segregated brown-water (BW) [feces-without-urine]. Effort was made to separate urine and BW from the source (using no-mix-toilet) mainly to expedite further treatment and resource-recovery. Effect of alkaline-pH [B] and acclimatized acidogenic inoculum [C] ...
Mathew Sweety - - 2014
High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale ...
Begg Denovan P DP Metabolic Diseases Institute, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45237School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, UNSW Sydney, NSW, Australia, 2052 d.begg@unsw.edu.au - - 2014
Uroguanylin is a gastrointestinal hormone primarily involved in fluid and electrolyte handling. It has recently been reported that prouroguanylin, secreted postprandially, is converted to uroguanylin in the brain and activates the receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) to reduce food intake and prevent obesity. Here, we tested CNS administration of two GC-C ...
Hosseinpour-Niazi S S Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, - - 2014
The present study aimed to determine whether total fibre or specific fibre food sources are associated with the incidence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) after 3 years of follow-up in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This population-based prospective study, conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, ...
Scharnweber K - - 2014
Lake ecosystems are strongly linked to their terrestrial surroundings by material and energy fluxes across ecosystem boundaries. However, the contribution of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (tPOC) from annual leaf fall to lake food webs has not yet been adequately traced and quantified. In this study, we conducted whole-lake experiments to ...
Venn Bernard J - - 2014
Glycemic index (GI) is intended to be a property of food but some reports are suggestive that GI is influenced by participant characteristics when glucose is used as a reference. To examine the influence of different reference foods on observed GI. The GIs of five varieties of rice and a ...
Zhu Yong Y Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, United - - 2014
Aging is associated with a reduction in appetite. Older adults require a higher number of chews to form a bolus before swallowing. However, whether this ingestive behavior contributes to the reduced appetite in this population is unknown. Fifteen males aged 65years or older participated in this randomized cross-over trial and ...
Cedernaes Jonathan J Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, - - 2014
To investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses. Fourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one ...
Sumita Takashi T Saitama Medical - - 2014
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate and antagonizes PI 3-kinase. Insulin acts in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) not only to suppress food intake and weight gain, but also to improve glucose metabolism, via PI 3-kinase activation. Thus, blocking hypothalamic PTEN is a potential target for treating obesity as ...
Cappai G G University of Cagliari, DICAAR - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Cagliari, Italy; IGAG - CNR (Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Institute of the National Research Council), - - 2014
Batch dark fermentation experiments were performed on food waste and mixtures of food waste and wastewater activated sludge to evaluate the influence of pH on biological H2 production and compare the process performance with and without inoculum addition. The effect of a preliminary thermal shock treatment of the inoculum was ...
Zhou Qi Q Centre for Resource and Environmental Research, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan East Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, PR - - 2014
To investigate the existence of the asynchronism during the anaerobic co-digestion of different substrates, two typical substrates of food waste and corn stover were anaerobically digested with altering organic loadings (OL). The results indicated that the biodegradability of food waste and corn stover was calculated to be 81.5% and 55.1%, ...
White J S JS Nutritional Biochemistry, White Technical Research, IL - - 2014
Background/Objectives:The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that ...
Kelly Patrick T - - 2014
Inputs of terrestrial organic carbon (t-OC) into lakes are often considered a resource subsidy for aquatic consumer production. Although there is evidence that terrestrial carbon can be incorporated into the tissues of aquatic consumers, its ability to enhance consumer production has been debated. Our research aims to evaluate the net ...
Amato Katherine R KR Program in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois; Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, - - 2014
Food resources consumed by primates vary markedly in nutritional content. As a result, foragers must develop a feeding strategy to select resources that balance energy and macronutrient intake and reduce the consumption of fiber and toxins. In this study, we collected data on dietary patterns, rates of food consumption, and ...
Drennan Margaret F MF Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837, - - 2014
A pilot-scale study was completed to determine the feasibility of high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) of a mixture of food and landscape wastes at a university in central Pennsylvania (USA). HSAD was stable at low loadings (2g COD/L-day), but developed inhibitory ammonia concentrations at high loadings (15g COD/L-day). At low loadings, ...
Ferguson J F JF Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Consumption of foods that modulate inflammatory stress in genetically-prone individuals may influence development of cardiometabolic diseases. Isoflavones in soy-derived foods function as phytoestrogens, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, inhibit protein-tyrosine kinase activity, and may be atheroprotective. We examined the relationship between soy food consumption and inflammatory responses to endotoxemia, postprandial ...
Hayes Matthew R MR Translational Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email: - - 2014
Arguably the most fundamental physiological systems for all eukaryotic life are those governing energy balance. Without sufficient energy, an individual is unable to survive and reproduce. Thus, an ever-growing appreciation is that mammalian physiology developed a redundant set of neuroendocrine signals that regulate energy intake and expenditure, which maintains sufficient ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >