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Results 301 - 350 of 1161
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Jose Rajan - - 2008
Dependence of photoluminescence (PL) efficiency (phiPL) of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on coordinating solvents, precursors, and dispersing solvents was investigated. The phiPL of CdSe QDs was approximately 0.05 when synthesized at 120 degrees C using the precursors, cadmium acetate (CdAc) and trioctylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) in trioctylphosphine (TOP). The phiPL was ...
Lin G Z - - 2009
After prohibitions on lead gasoline additives, which have proved to be a public health accomplishment world wide, many countries focus on other exposure source of children lead poisoning. Removing lead from paints is one of the important measures. Although there have been regulatory limits on lead in paints in China, ...
Kwun In-Sook - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969-1998) of unprecedented economic growth. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional food consumption data ...
Allinson G - - 2009
Samples of the muscle and liver of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were obtained from a single reservoir in each of three Sri Lankan catchments (Kaudulla, Rajanganaya, and Udawalawe reservoirs in the Mahaweli, Kala Oya, and Walawe Ganga river basins, respectively) in 2002. The concentrations of 12 elements were consistently ...
Song Dangyu - - 2008
Eleven raw coal samples were collected from Liuzhi, Suicheng, Zunyi, Xingren, Xingyi, and Anlong districts in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. The content of cadmium (Cd) in coal was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd contents ranged from 0.146 to 2.74 ppm (whole coal basis), with an average of ...
Ferreira Daniel - - 2008
The present study investigates how dissolved organic matter (DOM) alters copper bioavailability at environmentally relevant concentrations (1-5 microg/L of dissolved copper, 1-4 mg/L of dissolved organic copper). A methodology combining two biological endpoints (short-term and steady-state bioaccumulation of copper by the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica) and a sampling of labile ...
Zhang Junjie - - 2008
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop an aqueous ketoconazole (KET) eye drop in order to increase the corneal permeability and improve ocular bioavailability following topical application. METHODS: Hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) was used to formulate an aqueous eye drop to improve the aqueous solubility of KET. A single ...
Diamanti A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: TNFalpha seems to contribute to inflammation and malnutrition in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. In CD patients, the comparative effects on nutritional status of infliximab and traditional therapy have not yet been determined. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of infliximab as compared with those of ...
Wijnhoven Sander - - 2008
The ecotoxicological risk of heavy metal pollution in diffusely polluted floodplains is largely unclear, as field-based data are scarce. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) accumulation in the liver and kidneys of small mammal species (voles, mice and shrews) from a moderately polluted Dutch floodplain. The Cd and ...
Kim Jungsoo - - 2009
Iron, zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were measured in livers of three shorebird species from Okgu Mudflat, Korea in the East Asian-Australian migration flyways. Iron concentrations in red-necked stints (Calidris ruficollis) (geomean = 1,322 microg/g dw) were higher than in terek sandpipers (Xenus cinereus) (467 microg/g dw), and great knots ...
Melø Renate - - 2008
Adequate nutrition during infancy is essential for lifelong health and wellbeing. Breast-feeding is highly recommended for the first six month of life, but from then on complementary feeding is necessary. Industrially produced food is an important part of the diet for many infants and toddlers in developed countries. We have ...
Klavins M - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of heavy metal contamination of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from inland waters in Latvia. The level of metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Mn, Zn, Fe) accumulation in fish tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) relative to contamination level, gender, age, and ...
Pan Ke - - 2008
A transplantation experiment, using the scallop Chlamys nobilis as the model organism, was carried out to investigate variations in their bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn in different environmental conditions. The diffusive gradients in the thin films technique was employed to monitor in situ dissolved labile metal concentrations. The impact of ...
Tsuji Leonard J S - - 2008
Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected ...
Velasco-Reynold C - - 2008
The copper content of 225 food, 49 beverage and twelve potable water samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Analyses of NIST and BCR reference materials demonstrated the accuracy of this technique. The highest copper levels were found in dried fruit and legumes, followed by organ meats, molluscs and ...
Li Shun-Xing - - 2008
Octanol (n-C8H17OH), the configuration of which resembles a carbohydrate and lipid, was used as a biomembrane model, and an octanol-water system was adopted to study the distribution of copper in herbal decoctions under the acidity of saliva, gastric juice, bile and intestinal fluid. Octanol- and water-solubility were used for speciation ...
Salameh P - - 2008
Phase 1 of this cross-sectional study aimed to compare hair lead concentrations and establish the determinants of hair lead levels in 149 occupationally exposed individuals versus 177 non-occupationally exposed controls in the Lebanese population. In addition to a standardized questionnaire, lead concentration was measured by atomic spectrophotometry. A 5-6-fold difference ...
Huang Dan-Lian - - 2008
Lead, as one of the most hazardous heavy metals to the environment interferes with lignocellulosic biomass bioconversion and carbon cycles in nature. The degradation of lead-polluted lignocellulosic waste and the restrain of lead hazards by solid-state fermentation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium were studied. Phanerochaete chrysosporium effectively degraded lignocellulose, formed humus and ...
Chiang Wan-Fu - - 2008
One hundred fifty seven fifth-grade students (aged 10-12 years) from three elementary schools in three different towns in Taichung County, Taiwan were chosen as study subjects for the present arsenic and lead exposure study. The three towns--Longgang, Shalach, and Shuntain--are known to be highly, moderately, and lightly (control) polluted by ...
Márquez-Ferrando Rocío - - 2009
Quantification of heavy metal concentrations in biota is a common technique that helps environmental managers measure the level of pollutants circulating in ecosystems. Despite interest in heavy metals as indicators of localized pollution, few studies have assessed these pollutants in reptiles. In 1998, the tailing pond of a pyrite mine ...
Mohammed Najat K - - 2009
The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of essential elements in the two staple foods (rice and maize flour) consumed by children in Tanzania as a possible selection measure for high nutrient foods in order to combat malnutrition. Samples were analysed using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) at ...
Gabrielli P - - 2008
Knowledge of the occurrence of trace elements deposited in fresh alpine snow is very limited. Although current sources of major ionic inorganic species have been well established, this is not the case for many trace elements. This manuscript attempts to reconstruct the origin of Ag, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, ...
Soonthornnonda Puripus - - 2008
A washoff rate equation for stormwater pollutants is presented based on linear buildup of pollutant mass in the watershed. The expression was applied to residential and open land areas that have not previously been considered even though these areas are major sources of metals, nutrients, and bacteria in stormwater runoff. ...
González-Muñoz M J - - 2008
For most people the main route of exposure to the toxic elements is through the diet. Consequently, information concerning dietary intake is of the utmost importance in being able to assess risks to human health. The goal of this study was to intend to assess the usefulness of hair as ...
Chou Jing-Dong - - 2009
Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was frequently classified as hazardous materials as the metals' concentration of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) exceeded regulations. Many studies have focused on reducing the concentration of TCLP using thermal treatment and increasing the application of thermally treated slag. However, the metal patterns ...
Martí-Cid Roser - - 2008
The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in samples of food items widely consumed by the population of Catalonia, Spain. All samples were randomly acquired in 12 cities of Catalonia between March and June of 2006 and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass ...
Macedo-Sousa Joaquim A - - 2008
The drainage of abandoned mines leads to several ecological problems, particularly the acidification of surface freshwater systems and heavy metal contamination. In order to study the possibility of using the behavioural early warning responses of Portuguese indigenous benthic invertebrates to detect an acute short-term pulse of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), ...
Ma Wenli - - 2008
The freshwater crabs Sinopotamon henanense were exposed to different concentrations of waterborne cadmium (Cd). The relationship between tissue-specific Cd accumulation and metallothionein (MT) induction was investigated using the Cd saturation assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The results showed that Cd accumulation rose significantly in all tissues studied after Cd ...
Vlahović Milena - - 2009
Biochemical analyses can point to toxicant presence before its effects can be detected at higher organizational levels. We investigated responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to different cadmium treatments in 4th instar gypsy moth larvae from 20 full-sib families. Changes in trait values and trait plasticities as well ...
Ludwick Taylor P - - 2008
Beef cattle in the United States are often found to be deficient in essential trace minerals such as copper and zinc. Established reference ranges for mineral concentrations exist and usually designate a concentration as adequate, marginal, deficient, or excessive. This research investigates a new method of interpreting detected elemental concentrations ...
Lynch Robert - - 2008
Since the early 1990s, numerous studies in Mexico have demonstrated an association between the use of lead-glazed ceramic cooking ware (LGC) and elevated blood lead levels. We sought to determine whether ceramic ware collected from the Hispanic community in Oklahoma City contained lead and to quantify the amount of lead ...
Reeves Philip G - - 2008
The bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) from food is an important determinant of the potential risk of this toxic element. This review summarizes the effects of marginal deficiencies of the essential nutrients zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) on the enhancement of absorption and organ accumulation and retention of dietary ...
Couillard Y - - 2008
Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were deployed, in June-July 2003, along metal contamination gradients in two rivers affected by metal mining in the Abitibi-James Bay region, northwestern Québec. The amphipods were placed along with natural food items in small, acrylic cages and left in six riverine sites for 17 ...
Romero-Ruiz Antonio - - 2008
Metallothionein (MT) and other biomarker levels were measured in Scrobicularia plana clams to assess pollution of the Guadalquivir Estuary possibly affected by metals released from Aznalcóllar pyrite mine in 1998. After optimizing reagent concentrations for monobromobimane derivatization, MT levels were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection ...
Béchard K M - - 2008
The acute toxicities of waterborne Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn were determined in the first-instar larvae (generally considered to be the most sensitive) of Chironomus riparius, under standardized conditions. Toxicity tests were conducted in soft water (hardness, 8 mg/L as CaCO(3) equivalents) in the absence of food and were ...
Nnorom I C - - 2009
Waste plastic housing units (N=60) of mobile phones (of different models, and brands), were collected and analyzed for lead, cadmium, nickel and silver using atomic absorption spectrophotometry after acid digestion using a 1:1 mixture of H2SO4 and HNO3. The mean (+/-S.D.) and range of the results are 58.3+/-50.4mg/kg (5.0-340mg/kg) for ...
Cevik U - - 2008
The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The ...
Marcussen Helle - - 2008
Untreated industrial and domestic wastewater from Hanoi city is discharged into rivers that supply water for various agricultural and aqua-cultural food production systems. The aim of this study was to assess the content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in the sediment and pore water of the main wastewater receiving ...
Maleki Afshin - - 2008
The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), garden cress (Lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)] cultivated around Sanandaj City. The contributions of the vegetables to the ...
Perez Teresa Ramirez - - 2008
The combined effects of two food levels (0.5 x 10(6) and 1.5 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) of Chlorella vulgaris) and five concentrations (0, 0.000625, 0.00125, 0.0025, 0.005 mg l(-1) of HgCl2) of mercury on the population growth of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus was evaluated. The growth experiments were conducted for ...
Watanabe Kozo - - 2008
Analysis of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) stable isotopes provides an increasingly important means of understanding the complex trophic structure of macroinvertebrate communities in streams. We coupled a stable isotope approach with a contaminant analysis of six metals (Pb, Ag, Zn, Hg, Cu, As) to trace the accumulation and dilution ...
Amiard Jean-Claude - - 2008
Maximum acceptable concentrations of metals in food - based on total concentrations - have been established in many countries. To improve risk assessment, it would be better to take into account bioaccessible concentrations. A total of seven species of molluscs from France, UK and Hong Kong was examined in this ...
Soonthornnonda Puripus - - 2008
A load model for stormwater constituents is proposed that describes mass retained on the drainage area after previous storms, as a function of a weighted sum of previous antecedent dry periods. It was used to compute the event load for 14 constituents--zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, silver, total ...
Marín-Guirao Lázaro - - 2008
Two food webs from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, differing in the distance from the desert-stream through which mining wastes were discharged, were examined by reference to essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Pb and Cd) metal concentrations and stable isotopes content (C and N). The partial extraction technique applied, ...
Seldén Anders I - - 2008
Lead from glazed earthenware used for food storage is a well-known health hazard sporadically causing lead intoxication and may be a source of disseminating lead exposure in specific population groups. To obtain a contemporary scope of the problem a pilot survey was conducted in a random sample of 2000 households ...
Ng Tania Y-T - - 2008
Dietary toxicity of metals on fish is often studied using commercial pellet food, and there is a lack of investigation on the toxicity of metals that are biologically incorporated into the natural food from the aquatic environment. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of dietborne Cd from the oligochaete ...
Eränen J K - - 2008
Adaptations to pollution among long-lived trees have rarely been documented, possibly because of their long reproductive cycles and the evolutionarily short timescales of anthropogenic pollution. Here, I present the results of a greenhouse experiment that suggest rapid evolutionary adaptation of mountain birch [Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii (Orlova) Hämet-Ahti] to heavy ...
Janicki Bogdan - - 2008
The Zn and Pb concentration was determined in 45 samples of bull semen from three Artificial Insemination Stations (A,B,C) differing in degree of environmental pollution. Bull semen was diluted with Biociphos-Plus to such an extent as to obtain 16 million sperm cells in an insemination dose. The research aimed at ...
Hague Theresa - - 2008
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Considerable research has been directed towards the roles of metal ions in nutrition with metal ion toxicity attracting particular attention. The aim of this study is to measure the levels of metal ions found in selected beverages (red wine, stout and apple juice) and to determine their potential ...
Gellein Kristin - - 2008
Trace element analysis of human hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during the growth period. We have evaluated the ...
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