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Cheng S - - 2013
AIMS: To determine the characteristics of patients with diabetes who reported food insecurity at three diabetes clinics in western Kenya. METHODS: This study includes routinely collected demographic data at the first presentation of patients with diabetes at clinics in western Kenya from 1 January 2006 to 24 September 2011. A ...
Champagne Cory D - - 2013
Northern elephant seals endure prolonged periods of food deprivation at multiple life-history stages and simultaneous with energetically costly activities-including reproduction and development. Most mammals decrease their energy expenditure while fasting, with simultaneous reductions in gluconeogenesis and circulating glucose concentration. Paradoxically, elephant seals maintain high rates of both energy expenditure and ...
Gruber Franz F Max-Planck-Institut für Neurobiologie, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, - - 2013
Motivation controls behavior [1]. A variety of food-related behaviors undergo motivational modulation by hunger, satiety, and other states [2-4]. Here we searched for critical satiation factors modulating approach to an odor associated with sugar reward in Drosophila melanogaster. We selectively manipulated different parameters associated with feeding, such as internal glucose ...
Konishi Tetsuya - - 2013
Glucose oxidase (β-D-glucose:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.2.3.4) is used in the food and beverage industry as a preservative and stabilizer and is commonly derived from the fungus Aspergillus niger. Although the safety of glucose oxidase preparations from A. niger is well-established, the use of preparations derived from other fungal species is ...
Wilson-Pérez Hilary E HE Department of Internal Medicine, Metabolic Diseases Institute, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, - - 2013
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone that is released from the gut in response to nutrient ingestion and that has a range of metabolic effects, including enhancing insulin secretion and decreasing food intake. Postprandial GLP-1 secretion is greatly enhanced in rats and humans after some bariatric procedures, including ...
Rigamonti A E - - 2013
Eating slowly increases the postprandial responses of some anorexigenic gut hormones in healthy lean subjects. As the rate of food intake is positively associated with obesity, the aim of the study was to determine whether eating the same meal at different rates evokes different postprandial anorexigenic responses in obese adolescent ...
Tosh S M - - 2013
Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce human glycaemic response, compared to similar wheat foods or a glucose control. The strength of the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the soluble fibre, mixed linkage β-glucan, reduces glycaemic response was evaluated. A search of the literature was conducted to find ...
Nakamori Taizo - - 2013
Food quality affects the food consumption rate, flux through the gut, and exposure to contaminants in animals. This study evaluated the effects of food quality on cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. Animals were exposed to constant concentrations of cadmium for 38 h via artificial food consisting of an ...
Swoboda Christine - - 2013
Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2013
Biomagnification processes and the factors that govern them, including those for mercury (Hg), are poorly understood in streams. Total and methyl Hg concentrations and relative trophic position (using δ15N) were analyzed in biofilm and invertebrates from 21 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to assess food web biomagnification leading to the ...
Lou Xian Fang - - 2013
Published national and state reports have revealed that Australia deposits an average of 16 million Mg of solid waste into landfills yearly, of which approximately 12.6% is comprised of food. Being highly biodegradable and possessing high energy content, anaerobic digestion offers an attractive treatment option alternative to landfilling. The present ...
Peterson Michael E - - 2013
Xylitol is a prevalent sugar substitute found in a wide variety of foods, particularly those labeled as "low carb." It is found in many medicines and dental products both for its antibacterial activity and to increase palatability. Originally, this toxin was recognized as a problem in dogs following sugarless gum ...
Rokka Susanna - - 2013
Dietary fibre has a beneficial effect on metabolic syndrome, e.g. by influencing the absorption of glucose. The source and structure of fibre affect the glucose response. In this study, the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to oat bread, oat bread with lingonberry fibre, oat-buckwheat bread and buckwheat porridge were tested in ...
de Wild Victoire - - 2013
Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included ...
Quan Lin-Hu - - 2013
In this study, the major ginsenoside Rb1 was transformed into the more pharmacologically active minor compound K by food grade Lactobacillus paralimentarius LH4, which was isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food. The enzymatic reaction was analyzed by TLC, HPLC, and NMR. Using the cell-free enzyme of Lactobacillus paralimentarius ...
Burmeister Melissa A - - 2013
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (Glp1) suppresses food intake via activation of a central (i.e., brain) Glp1 receptor (Glp1r). Central AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake that is inhibited by anorectic signals. The anorectic effect elicited by hindbrain Glp1r activation is attenuated by the AMPK stimulator AICAR. This ...
Karunakaran Subashini - - 2013
The rising prevalence of obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing the world today. Discovery of genetic factors affecting obesity risk will provide important insight to its etiology that could suggest new therapeutic approaches. We have previously identified the Modifier of obese 1 (Moo1) quantitative trait locus (QTL) ...
Zhu Yong - - 2013
To understand the influence of food form on satiety, 19 male participants attended two separate test sessions to consume either a liquid-solid meal (LS), which consisted of whole pieces of vegetable in a broth, or a liquid version of the same ingredients [liquid meal (LM)]. Following this meal, appetite questionnaires ...
Jenkins Gareth B - - 2013
The secondary production of culturally acidified streams is low, with a few species of generalist detritivores dominating invertebrate assemblages, while decomposition processes are impaired. In a series of lowland headwater streams in southern England, we measured the rate of cellulolytic decomposition and compared it with values measured three decades ago, ...
Heni Martin - - 2013
Eating behavior is crucial in the development of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. To further investigate its regulation, we studied the effects of glucose versus water ingestion on the neural processing of visual high and low caloric food cues in 12 lean and 12 overweight subjects by functional magnetic resonance ...
Sheehy Tony - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Trinidad and Tobago has experienced an epidemiological transition over recent decades characterised by reduced rates of communicable diseases but rapidly increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes in energy and nutrient supply that have taken place in ...
Razzaq Hussam Aa - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Health outcomes associated with sustained elevated blood glucose may be better managed by limiting glucose availability for uptake. Glucose release from consumed starch may be altered using various methods, but many are not suitable for high-carbohydrate foods. This study describes an approach to protect starch granules, while generally maintaining ...
Beigy M - - 2013
Increased fructose consumption is linked to insulin resistance, weight gain, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Although the advantages of several dietary restriction regimens have been demonstrated, the effects of alternate-day fasting (ADF) on fructose-induced insulin resistance have not yet been studied. This study is based on a new modification on ADF by ...
Hogenkamp P S - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, and insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences ...
Mulder Kelly A - - 2013
Purpose: Amounts and sources of trans fatty acids (TFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were examined in the diets of children aged five to six years after changes in TFA in Canadian foods. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed for 100 Vancouver children, using three 24-hour recalls during parental interviews. Trans ...
Shirazi Rozita H - - 2013
Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut- and neuro-peptide with an important role in the regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are expressed in key mesolimbic reward areas (including the ventral tegmental area, VTA), innervated by hindbrain GLP-1 neurons. Recently GLP-1 has emerged as a potential regulator ...
Amagloh Francis Kweku - - 2013
Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is ...
Ciampolini Mario - - 2013
Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for ...
Thondre Pariyarath Sangeetha - - 2013
Maintenance of normal blood glucose levels is important for avoiding chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and obesity. Type 2 diabetes is one of the major health problems affecting the world population and this condition can be exacerbated by poor diet, low physical activity, and genetic abnormalities. ...
Milano Walter - - 2013
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, ...
Koosha Mona - - 2013
The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed) were dissected ...
Zhu Yong - - 2013
Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a ...
Marinho A R - - 2013
The ability of antibiotic resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from food to form biofilm at different temperatures in the absence or presence of 0.75% glucose was evaluated. A synergistic effect on biofilm at 10 °C, 28 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C and glucose was observed for E. ...
Lin Qian Q School of Life Science and Technology, Yulin Normal University, Yulin, Guangxi, P.R. - - 2013
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of γ-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation ...
Beale Kel K Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, London, - - 2013
Prokineticin 2 (PK2) has recently been shown to acutely reduce food intake in rodents. We aimed to determine the CNS sites and receptors that mediate the anorectic effects of peripherally administered PK2 and its chronic effects on glucose and energy homeostasis. We investigated neuronal activation following i.p. administration of PK2 ...
Lam Wan Chi WC School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. - - 2013
The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A ...
Domingos Ana I AI Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, United - - 2013
Sugars that contain glucose, such as sucrose, are generally preferred to artificial sweeteners owing to their post-ingestive rewarding effect, which elevates striatal dopamine (DA) release. While the post-ingestive rewarding effect, which artificial sweeteners do not have, signals the nutrient value of sugar and influences food preference, the neural circuitry that ...
Lyons Jacqueline J School of Food and Nutritional Sciences , University College Cork , Cork , Republic of - - 2013
The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The ...
Schwartz Gary J GJ Department of Medicine, Diabetes Research and Training Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. - - 2013
This article reviews recent studies identifying two key brain regions as two critical nodes in the neural network where central leucine sensing contributes to whole body energy homeostasis: the mediobasal hypothalamus and the dorsal vagal complex of the caudal brainstem. Activation of these leucine sensing sites engages multiple determinants of ...
Ho Jacqueline M JM Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 South Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. - - 2013
The neuropeptide oxytocin has emerged as an important anorexigen in the regulation of energy balance. Its effects on food intake have largely been attributed to limiting meal size through interactions in key regulatory brain regions such as the hypothalamus and hindbrain. Pharmacologic and pair-feeding studies indicate that its ability to ...
Janssen Sara - - 2012
The release of gut hormones involved in the control of food intake is dependent on the acute nutritional status of the body, suggesting that chemosensory mechanisms are involved in the control of their release. G protein-coupled taste receptors similar to those in the lingual system, that respond to sweet, bitter, ...
Jindal Manish - - 2013
Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Bael fruit, obtained from Aegle marmelos, is a rich source of pectin. Bael fruit pectin (BFP) was extracted from ripe Bael fruits. The process yielded 15% (w/w) pure BFP. The swelling index decreased ...
Dess Nancy K - - 2012
Rats' voluntary ethanol intake varies with dispositional factors and energy status. The joint influences of these were of interest here. We previously reported that rats selectively bred for high voluntary saccharin intake (HiS) consume more ethanol and express more robust conditioning of preference for flavors paired with voluntarily consumed ethanol ...
Yano Akira - - 2012
Many carbohydrates are involved in the biofilm formation and activities of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) of Streptococcus mutans, and the effects of various disaccharides and polysaccharides were investigated in this study, including the hot water-extracted glucan fraction of the Lentinula edodes fruiting body (HWG). HWG was found to inhibit the initial adhesion ...
Egecioglu Emil E Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Pharmacology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, - - 2013
Development of alcohol use disorders largely depends on the effects of alcohol on the brain reward systems. Emerging evidence indicate that common mechanisms regulate food and alcohol intake and raise the possibility that endocrine signals from the gut may play an important role for alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced reward and the ...
Grimpo Kirsten - - 2012
Golden spiny mice (Acomys russatus) living in the Judean desert are exposed to extended periods of food and water shortage. We investigated their thermal and metabolic response to three weeks of 50 % food reduction at ambient temperatures of 23, 27, 32 and 35 °C by long term records of metabolic rate and ...
Ethan Danna - - 2012
With the rising rates of diabetes and obesity in New York City's poorest communities, efforts to assist low-income residents in spending money to promote nutritious food consumption have increased. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which Bronx-based grocery stores offered nutritious foods on sale through ...
Caudwell Phillipa - - 2012
BACKGROUND: There are strong logical reasons why energy expended in metabolism should influence the energy acquired in food-intake behavior. However, the relation has never been established, and it is not known why certain people experience hunger in the presence of large amounts of body energy. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect ...
Ryan Karen K KK The University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Cincinnati, OH 45237, USA. - - 2013
Fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and its rodent ortholog, FGF15, are hormones produced in the distal small intestine and secreted into the circulation after a meal. In addition to controlling the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, FGF15/19 also regulates systemic lipid and glucose metabolism. In these experiments we investigated the hypothesis ...
Antiochia Riccarda - - 2013
This paper describes the development and performance of a new rapid amperometric biosensor for fructose monitoring in food analysis. The biosensor is based on the activity of fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) immobilised into a carbon nanotube paste electrode according to two different procedures. The direct wiring of the FDH in a ...
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