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Burmeister Melissa A - - 2013
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (Glp1) suppresses food intake via activation of a central (i.e., brain) Glp1 receptor (Glp1r). Central AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake that is inhibited by anorectic signals. The anorectic effect elicited by hindbrain Glp1r activation is attenuated by the AMPK stimulator AICAR. This ...
Karunakaran Subashini - - 2013
The rising prevalence of obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing the world today. Discovery of genetic factors affecting obesity risk will provide important insight to its etiology that could suggest new therapeutic approaches. We have previously identified the Modifier of obese 1 (Moo1) quantitative trait locus (QTL) ...
Zhu Yong - - 2013
To understand the influence of food form on satiety, 19 male participants attended two separate test sessions to consume either a liquid-solid meal (LS), which consisted of whole pieces of vegetable in a broth, or a liquid version of the same ingredients [liquid meal (LM)]. Following this meal, appetite questionnaires ...
Jenkins Gareth B - - 2013
The secondary production of culturally acidified streams is low, with a few species of generalist detritivores dominating invertebrate assemblages, while decomposition processes are impaired. In a series of lowland headwater streams in southern England, we measured the rate of cellulolytic decomposition and compared it with values measured three decades ago, ...
Heni Martin - - 2013
Eating behavior is crucial in the development of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. To further investigate its regulation, we studied the effects of glucose versus water ingestion on the neural processing of visual high and low caloric food cues in 12 lean and 12 overweight subjects by functional magnetic resonance ...
Sheehy Tony - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Trinidad and Tobago has experienced an epidemiological transition over recent decades characterised by reduced rates of communicable diseases but rapidly increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes in energy and nutrient supply that have taken place in ...
Razzaq Hussam Aa - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Health outcomes associated with sustained elevated blood glucose may be better managed by limiting glucose availability for uptake. Glucose release from consumed starch may be altered using various methods, but many are not suitable for high-carbohydrate foods. This study describes an approach to protect starch granules, while generally maintaining ...
Beigy M - - 2013
Increased fructose consumption is linked to insulin resistance, weight gain, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Although the advantages of several dietary restriction regimens have been demonstrated, the effects of alternate-day fasting (ADF) on fructose-induced insulin resistance have not yet been studied. This study is based on a new modification on ADF by ...
Hogenkamp P S - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, and insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences ...
Mulder Kelly A - - 2013
Purpose: Amounts and sources of trans fatty acids (TFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were examined in the diets of children aged five to six years after changes in TFA in Canadian foods. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed for 100 Vancouver children, using three 24-hour recalls during parental interviews. Trans ...
Shirazi Rozita H - - 2013
Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut- and neuro-peptide with an important role in the regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are expressed in key mesolimbic reward areas (including the ventral tegmental area, VTA), innervated by hindbrain GLP-1 neurons. Recently GLP-1 has emerged as a potential regulator ...
Amagloh Francis Kweku - - 2013
Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is ...
Ciampolini Mario - - 2013
Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for ...
Thondre Pariyarath Sangeetha - - 2013
Maintenance of normal blood glucose levels is important for avoiding chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and obesity. Type 2 diabetes is one of the major health problems affecting the world population and this condition can be exacerbated by poor diet, low physical activity, and genetic abnormalities. ...
Milano Walter - - 2013
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, ...
Koosha Mona - - 2013
The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed) were dissected ...
Zhu Yong - - 2013
Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a ...
Marinho A R - - 2013
The ability of antibiotic resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from food to form biofilm at different temperatures in the absence or presence of 0.75% glucose was evaluated. A synergistic effect on biofilm at 10 °C, 28 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C and glucose was observed for E. ...
Lin Qian Q School of Life Science and Technology, Yulin Normal University, Yulin, Guangxi, P.R. - - 2013
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of γ-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation ...
Beale Kel K Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, London, - - 2013
Prokineticin 2 (PK2) has recently been shown to acutely reduce food intake in rodents. We aimed to determine the CNS sites and receptors that mediate the anorectic effects of peripherally administered PK2 and its chronic effects on glucose and energy homeostasis. We investigated neuronal activation following i.p. administration of PK2 ...
Lam Wan Chi WC School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. - - 2013
The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A ...
Domingos Ana I AI Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, United - - 2013
Sugars that contain glucose, such as sucrose, are generally preferred to artificial sweeteners owing to their post-ingestive rewarding effect, which elevates striatal dopamine (DA) release. While the post-ingestive rewarding effect, which artificial sweeteners do not have, signals the nutrient value of sugar and influences food preference, the neural circuitry that ...
Schwartz Gary J GJ Department of Medicine, Diabetes Research and Training Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. - - 2013
This article reviews recent studies identifying two key brain regions as two critical nodes in the neural network where central leucine sensing contributes to whole body energy homeostasis: the mediobasal hypothalamus and the dorsal vagal complex of the caudal brainstem. Activation of these leucine sensing sites engages multiple determinants of ...
Ho Jacqueline M JM Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 South Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. - - 2013
The neuropeptide oxytocin has emerged as an important anorexigen in the regulation of energy balance. Its effects on food intake have largely been attributed to limiting meal size through interactions in key regulatory brain regions such as the hypothalamus and hindbrain. Pharmacologic and pair-feeding studies indicate that its ability to ...
Janssen Sara - - 2012
The release of gut hormones involved in the control of food intake is dependent on the acute nutritional status of the body, suggesting that chemosensory mechanisms are involved in the control of their release. G protein-coupled taste receptors similar to those in the lingual system, that respond to sweet, bitter, ...
Jindal Manish - - 2013
Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Bael fruit, obtained from Aegle marmelos, is a rich source of pectin. Bael fruit pectin (BFP) was extracted from ripe Bael fruits. The process yielded 15% (w/w) pure BFP. The swelling index decreased ...
Dess Nancy K - - 2012
Rats' voluntary ethanol intake varies with dispositional factors and energy status. The joint influences of these were of interest here. We previously reported that rats selectively bred for high voluntary saccharin intake (HiS) consume more ethanol and express more robust conditioning of preference for flavors paired with voluntarily consumed ethanol ...
Yano Akira - - 2012
Many carbohydrates are involved in the biofilm formation and activities of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) of Streptococcus mutans, and the effects of various disaccharides and polysaccharides were investigated in this study, including the hot water-extracted glucan fraction of the Lentinula edodes fruiting body (HWG). HWG was found to inhibit the initial adhesion ...
Egecioglu Emil E Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Pharmacology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, - - 2013
Development of alcohol use disorders largely depends on the effects of alcohol on the brain reward systems. Emerging evidence indicate that common mechanisms regulate food and alcohol intake and raise the possibility that endocrine signals from the gut may play an important role for alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced reward and the ...
Grimpo Kirsten - - 2012
Golden spiny mice (Acomys russatus) living in the Judean desert are exposed to extended periods of food and water shortage. We investigated their thermal and metabolic response to three weeks of 50 % food reduction at ambient temperatures of 23, 27, 32 and 35 °C by long term records of metabolic rate and ...
Ethan Danna - - 2012
With the rising rates of diabetes and obesity in New York City's poorest communities, efforts to assist low-income residents in spending money to promote nutritious food consumption have increased. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which Bronx-based grocery stores offered nutritious foods on sale through ...
Caudwell Phillipa - - 2012
BACKGROUND: There are strong logical reasons why energy expended in metabolism should influence the energy acquired in food-intake behavior. However, the relation has never been established, and it is not known why certain people experience hunger in the presence of large amounts of body energy. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect ...
Ryan Karen K KK The University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Cincinnati, OH 45237, USA. - - 2013
Fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and its rodent ortholog, FGF15, are hormones produced in the distal small intestine and secreted into the circulation after a meal. In addition to controlling the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, FGF15/19 also regulates systemic lipid and glucose metabolism. In these experiments we investigated the hypothesis ...
Antiochia Riccarda - - 2013
This paper describes the development and performance of a new rapid amperometric biosensor for fructose monitoring in food analysis. The biosensor is based on the activity of fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) immobilised into a carbon nanotube paste electrode according to two different procedures. The direct wiring of the FDH in a ...
Gahete Manuel D MD Research and Development Division, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2013
In mice, GH levels rise in response to short-term fasting or starvation (food restriction to 40% of ad libitum intake), similar to that which occurs in humans in response to fasting or anorexia. Recent studies using acyl-ghrelin knockout mice have suggested that the rise in GH during food restriction is ...
Zhang Cunsheng - - 2012
This study assessed the anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manure, in order to identify the key parameters that determine the biogas and methane yield. Results of both batch and semi-continuous tests indicated that the total methane production is enhanced in co-digestion, with an optimum food waste (FM) to ...
Stephens Lena D - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to have poor dietary intakes, some manage to eat healthily. Understanding how some disadvantaged adolescents restrict high-energy foods and beverages may inform initiatives promoting healthier diets among this population. The present investigation aimed to: (i) identify disadvantaged adolescents' high-energy food and beverage intakes; and ...
Dona Anthony C - - 2012
The glycaemic index (GI) characterises foods by using the incremental area under the glycaemic response curve relative to the same amount of oral glucose. Its ability to differentiate between curves of different shapes, the peak response and other aspects of the glycaemic response is contentious. The present pilot study aimed ...
Branch Trevor A TA School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Box 355020, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. - - 2013
Ocean acidification is a series of chemical reactions due to increased CO(2) emissions. The resulting lower pH impairs the senses of reef fishes and reduces their survival, and might similarly impact commercially targeted fishes that produce most of the seafood eaten by humans. Shelled molluscs will also be negatively affected, ...
Bauer Katherine W - - 2012
Within the past decade, there has been increasing attention to the role of fast food in the American diet, including a rise in legislative and media-based efforts that address the healthfulness of fast food. However, no studies have been undertaken to evaluate changes in the energy content of fast-food chain ...
Kant Ashima K AK Department of Family, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences, Queens College of the City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367, USA. - - 2012
Laboratory studies suggest that food form (beverages compared with solid foods) evokes behavioral and physiologic responses that modify short-term appetite and food intake. Beverage energy may be less satiating and poorly compensated, which leads to higher energy intake. We examined associations between 24-h energy consumed in beverages and a variety ...
Finkelstein Eric A - - 2012
Using the 2006 Homescan panel, we estimate the changes in energy, fat and sodium purchases resulting from a tax that increases the price of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by 20% and the effect of such a tax on body weight. In addition to substitutions that may arise with other beverages, we ...
Ayala-Berdon Jorge - - 2012
Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing ...
Kim Jahan - - 2013
Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most popular foods in Asia and is widely cultivated in many countries for the production of lightly fermented vegetables. In this study, metabolomic analysis was performed to distinguish two cultivars of cabbage grown in different geographical areas, Korea and China, using ...
Vázquez-Sánchez Daniel - - 2012
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic bacterium capable of developing biofilms on food-processing surfaces, a pathway leading to cross contamination of foods. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of environmental stress factors found during seafood production on the adhesion and biofilm-forming properties of S. aureus. Adhesion and ...
Alam Al-Mahmnur - - 2012
Chemiluminescence (CL) emission from luminol-tetrachloroaurate ([AuCl(4)](-)) system studied in presence of monosaccharide sugars such as glucose and fructose was investigated on a microfluidic chip fabricated by the soft lithography technique. CL emission from the luminol-[AuCl(4)](-) system at 430 nm was intensified remarkably by the catalytic activity of glucose and fructose at ...
Panahi Shirin S Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, - - 2013
The objective was to compare the effects of pre-meal consumption of familiar beverages on appetite, food intake, and glycemic response in healthy young adults. Two short-term experiments compared the effect of consumption at 30 (experiment 1) or 120 min (experiment 2) before a pizza meal of isovolumetric amounts (500 mL) ...
Hunsberger Monica - - 2012
Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are less time consuming and inexpensive instruments for collecting dietary intake when compared with 24-h dietary recalls or double-labelled water; however, the validation of FFQ is important as incorrect information may lead to biased conclusions about associations. Therefore, the relative validity of the Block Kids Food ...
Liu Weixi - - 2012
Melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) is employed in the manufacture of plastics, laminates and glues, yet, it has been found sometimes added illegally to dairy products to artificially inflate foods' protein content. In 2008, dairy products adulterated with melamine were blamed for the death of several infants in China, a situation that forced ...
Ramel A - - 2012
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:The aim was to investigate the effects of a conventional and an unconventional fast-food meal on postprandial metabolism in normal and in overweight subjects.SUBJECTS/METHODS:Twenty-five healthy normal (n=12) and overweight (n=13) volunteers (21-39 years) participated in this randomized, dietary cross-over study and received two test meals (matched in energy and energy ...
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