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Gibbs Michelle - - 2013
Glycaemic index testing is conducted in the morning, however postprandial glycaemia has a diurnal rhythm. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of glycaemic index on glucose tolerance at different times during the day. A randomised controlled crossover study was conducted in ten healthy participants after a standardised premeal and ...
Eerola K - - 2013
Melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH) derived from the pro-hormone pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) have potent effects on metabolism and feeding that lead to reduced body weight in the long-term. In order to elucidate the individual roles of POMC derived peptides and their sites of action we created a method for the delivery of ...
Simmons W Kyle - - 2013
Prevailing theories hold that the insula is functionally organized along its caudal-to-rostral axis, with posterior regions coding lower-level sensory information and anterior regions coding higher-level stimulus significance relative to the body's homeostatic needs. Contrary to predictions of this model, the response of the taste-sensitive region of the caudal, but not ...
Carden Trevor J - - 2013
Obesity rates in the United States have risen consistently over the last four decades, increasing from about 13% of the population in 1970 to more than 34% in 2009. Dietary fructose has been blamed as a possible contributor to the obesity increase, although the consumption pattern of fructose and other ...
Li Xiao Min - - 2013
Microbial fuel cells are a promising technology for simultaneous treatment and energy recovery from food waste leachate. This study evaluates the effects of NaCl (0-150mM) and pH on the treatment of food waste leachate using microbial fuel cells. The food waste leachate amended with 100mM NaCl enabled the highest maximum ...
Wanders A J - - 2013
BackgroundViscous or gel-forming dietary fibers can increase satiety by a more firm texture and increased eating time. Effects of viscous or gel-forming fibers on satiety by post ingestive mechanisms such as gastric emptying, hormonal signals, nutrient absorption or fermentation are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether effects persist after repeated ...
Moreau Jason M - - 2013
This study was done to investigate the effects of acute intermittent hypoxia (IH) on metabolic factors associated with energy balance and body weight, and on hypothalamic satiety-inducing pathways. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 8 h IH or normoxic control conditions. Food intake, locomotion and body weights were ...
Mizuno Tooru M - - 2013
Hypothalamic glucose sensing plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake and metabolism. Glucose injection, either centrally or peripherally suppresses food intake. However, the mechanism of glucose-induced feeding suppression is not fully understood. It has been demonstrated that hypothalamic interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) mRNA levels are altered by ...
Zhao Xinrui - - 2013
Rice wine is a popular traditional alcoholic drink with a long history in China. However, the presence of potential carcinogenic ethyl carbamate (EC) raises a series of food safety concerns. Although the metabolic pathway of urea (the major precusor of EC) has been characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the regulation of ...
Zou Ye - - 2013
Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary mineral and Radix puerariae (RP) is a botanical supplement widely used as a nutraceutical. Food enriched with Se provides a feasible and economic approach for production of organic Se compounds. However, little is known about Se-enriched RP and the structure of Se-containing polysaccharides and ...
Regnault Trh - - 2013
Fructose is an increasingly common constituent of the Westernized Diet due to cost and production efficiencies. Although an integral component of our pre-industrial revolution diet, over the past two decades human and animal studies have highlighted that excessive fructose intake appears to be associated with adverse metabolic effects. Excessive intake ...
Pedreschi Franco - - 2013
Acrylamide (AA) is known as a neurotoxin in humans and it is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC, 1994). AA is produced as by-product of Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at high temperatures (> 120 °C). This review includes the investigation ...
Zukerman Steven S Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York; and Cognition, Brain, and Behavior Doctoral Subprogram, Graduate School, City University of New York, New York, New - - 2013
Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. ...
Boonyavarakul Apussanee - - 2013
To determine the glycemic index of Gen-Premium. Ten healthy volunteers were included for testing glycemic index of Gen-Premium. After the overnight fast, the subjects consumed 50 grams of glucose (reference food) within five minutes. The blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes for measuring of ...
Loeber Sabine - - 2013
Overeating, weight gain and obesity are considered as a major health problem in Western societies. At present, an impairment of response inhibition and a biased salience attribution to food-associated stimuli are considered as important factors associated with weight gain. However, recent findings suggest that the association between an impaired response ...
Wang Xuan - - 2013
One of the main problems of food waste composting is the intensive acidification due to initial rapid fermentation that retards decomposition efficiency. Lime addition overcame this problem, but resulted in significant loss of nitrogen as ammonia that reduces the nutrient contents of composts. Therefore, this study investigated the feasibility of ...
Sungur Sana - - 2014
The determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in foods and beverages sold in Turkish markets was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography. In this research, foods packed in packages with an inner surface covered with plastic film, such as milk, fruit juice, cream, pudding and tuna samples were used. Furthermore, ...
Das Deeplina - - 2013
Exopolysaccharide produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of an increasing number of studies for their potential applications in food industry as stabilizing, bio-thickening and immunostimulating agents. In this regard, the authors isolated an exopolysaccharide producing probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented beverage Marcha of north eastern Himalayas. The ...
Ott Volker V Department of Neuroendocrinology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, - - 2013
Experiments in animals suggest that the neuropeptide oxytocin acts as an anorexigenic signal in the central nervous control of food intake. In humans, however, research has almost exclusively focused on the involvement of oxytocin in the regulation of social behavior. We investigated the effect of intranasal oxytocin on ingestion and ...
Wilms Britta - - 2013
Context:The mechanisms of weight loss after Roux-en gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are incompletely understood.Objective:To investigate changes in metabolic processing of ingested food that may contribute to the weight-reducing of RYGB surgery.Design:Cross-sectional case-control study.Setting:Interdisciplinary Obesity Center, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Switzerland.Patients:10 formerly obese women (mean±SEM; BMI: 26.6±0.9 kg/m(2)) who had undergone ...
Li Liang - - 2013
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties ...
Nausheen Saima - - 2013
Bariatric surgeries are hypothesized to produce weight loss and improve diabetes control by multiple mechanisms including gastric restriction and lower gut stimulation; the relative importance of these mechanisms remains poorly understood. We compared the effects of a typical foregut procedure - Sleeve Gastrectomy, (SG) with a primarily hindgut surgery - ...
Jiang Jianguo - - 2013
The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were ...
Obinna-Echem Patience C - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Akamu is a lactic acid fermented cereal-based food that constitutes a major infant complementary food in most West Africa countries. Identity of LAB population from DGGE analysis and conventionally isolated LAB and yeasts from traditionally fermented akamu were confirmed by PCR-sequencing analysis. The relationship between pH, acidity and lactic ...
Reed Michael O - - 2013
 This study aimed to understand effects of different cooking methods, including steamed, pilaf, and traditional stir-fried, on starch hydrolysis rates of rice. Rice grains of 3 varieties, japonica, indica, and waxy, were used for the study. Rice starch was isolated from the grain and characterized. Amylose contents of starches from ...
Naville Danielle - - 2013
Environmental contaminants are suspected to be involved in the epidemic incidence of metabolic disorders, food ingestion being a primarily route of exposure. We hypothesized that life-long consumption of a high-fat diet that contains low doses of pollutants will aggravate metabolic disorders induced by obesity itself. Mice were challenged from preconception ...
de Lourdes García-Magaña María - - 2013
Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of ...
Khan Mohammad Rizwan - - 2013
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which are formed during the cooking of protein-rich foods, are potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers. Levels of HCAs have been extensively investigated in meat products but not in fish products. Here, we report levels of HCAs in fried salmon, tuna, hake, sardine, angler ...
Levitsky David A - - 2013
The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design , the first study, examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) ...
Kanaya Noriko - - 2013
To better understand how elevated androgen levels regulate food intake and obesity in females, we treated ovariectomized female mice with dihydrotestosterone (non-aromatazable androgen), measured food intake and body weight, and evaluated physiological changes in liver function, glucose tolerance, and leptin resistance. Ovariectomized mice were treated with DHT or placebo. Mice ...
McDonald Robert J - - 2013
Humans exposed to shiftwork conditions have been reported to have increased susceptibility to various health problems including various forms of dementia, cancer, heart disease, and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The present experiments assessed the effects of circadian disruption on learning and memory function and various food related processes including ...
Veloso R R RR - - 2013
Considering the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases in caged psittacines, the effect of fibre and food processing was evaluated in the Blue-and-gold macaw. Four food formulations (0%, 7%, 14% and 21% of sugarcane fibre) processed by pelleting or extrusion were studied, resulting in eight diets. To study digestibility, ...
de Araujo Ivan E - - 2013
Identification of energy sources depends upon the ability to form associations between food cues and nutritional value. As such, cues previously paired with calories elicit neuronal activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), which reflects the reinforcing value of food [1-4]. The identity of the physiological signals regulating this response remains ...
Stenblom Eva-Lena - - 2013
Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. ...
Hingston Patricia A - - 2013
This study investigated the effect of initial contamination levels, biofilm maturity and presence of salt and fatty food soils on desiccation survival of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel (SS) coupons. L. monocytogenes cultures grown (at 15 °C for 48 h) in Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSB-glu) containing either 0.5 or 5% ...
Hostetler Gregory L - - 2013
Flavones isolated from celery varied in their stability and susceptibility to deglycosylation during thermal processing at pH 3, 5, or 7. Apigenin 7-O-apiosylglucoside was converted to apigenin 7-O-glucoside when heated at pH 3 and 100°C. Apigenin 7-O-glucoside showed little conversion or degradation at any pH after 5h at 100°C. Apigenin, ...
Schoeller Dale A - - 2013
Light element isotope signatures have been used to study food webs in many ecological niches, including those of ancient humans, but to a far lesser extent in modern humans. A recent paper presented results from a pilot study testing the utility of carbon isotope ratio analysis of alanine to measure ...
Berry Susan A - - 2013
Purpose:Treatment of inherited metabolic disorders is accomplished by use of specialized diets employing medical foods and medically necessary supplements. Families seeking insurance coverage for these products express concern that coverage is often limited; the extent of this challenge is not well defined.Methods:To learn about limitations in insurance coverage, parents of ...
Bahadoran Z - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Phytochemicals are natural non-nutritive bioactive compounds found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, as well as other plant foods. In the present study, we assessed the dietary phytochemical index (PI) in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted within the ...
You Chun - - 2013
The global demand for food could double in another 40 y owing to growth in the population and food consumption per capita. To meet the world's future food and sustainability needs for biofuels and renewable materials, the production of starch-rich cereals and cellulose-rich bioenergy plants must grow substantially while minimizing ...
Weidlich Sandy - - 2013
The secretion of amylase and cellulase in Gryllus bimaculatus is determined by increased food intake, whereby shortly after molting food consumption increases. About half of the standing amylase concentration (activity) in the endothelial cells can be secreted within 30 min. The peak of amylase and cellulase secretion that occurs in ...
Wang Qingfeng - - 2013
The characteristics of the long term (90d) anaerobic semi-continuous digestion of food wastes/animal slurry wastewater with different C/N ratio were investigated. The research demonstrates that, in the semi-continuous digestion process, different C/N ratios of substrate led to a significant effect to the characteristic of anaerobic digestion (AD). It is undoubtedly ...
Myers Kevin P - - 2013
MYERS, K.P., TADDEO, M.S. AND RICHARDS, E.K. Sensory-specific appetition: postingestive detection of glucose rapidly promotes continued consumption of a recently encountered flavor. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2013. - It is generally thought that macronutrients stimulate intake when sensed in the mouth (e.g., sweet taste) but as food enters the GI ...
El Khoury Dalia - - 2013
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to compare the effects of protein to carbohydrate ratio and physical form in dairy on glucose homeostasis and food intake. METHODS: In a crossover design, 20 healthy males consumed 250 g of one of five treatments, plain yogurt, plain yogurt with honey, strawberry yogurt, skim milk ...
Pleissner Daniel - - 2013
Glucose, free amino nitrogen (FAN), and phosphate were recovered from food waste by fungal hydrolysis using Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae. Using 100g food waste (dry weight), 31.9g glucose, 0.28g FAN, and 0.38g phosphate were recovered after 24h of hydrolysis. The pure hydrolysate has then been used as culture medium ...
Cheng S - - 2013
AIMS: To determine the characteristics of patients with diabetes who reported food insecurity at three diabetes clinics in western Kenya. METHODS: This study includes routinely collected demographic data at the first presentation of patients with diabetes at clinics in western Kenya from 1 January 2006 to 24 September 2011. A ...
Champagne Cory D - - 2013
Northern elephant seals endure prolonged periods of food deprivation at multiple life-history stages and simultaneous with energetically costly activities-including reproduction and development. Most mammals decrease their energy expenditure while fasting, with simultaneous reductions in gluconeogenesis and circulating glucose concentration. Paradoxically, elephant seals maintain high rates of both energy expenditure and ...
Gruber Franz F Max-Planck-Institut für Neurobiologie, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, - - 2013
Motivation controls behavior [1]. A variety of food-related behaviors undergo motivational modulation by hunger, satiety, and other states [2-4]. Here we searched for critical satiation factors modulating approach to an odor associated with sugar reward in Drosophila melanogaster. We selectively manipulated different parameters associated with feeding, such as internal glucose ...
Konishi Tetsuya - - 2013
Glucose oxidase (β-D-glucose:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.2.3.4) is used in the food and beverage industry as a preservative and stabilizer and is commonly derived from the fungus Aspergillus niger. Although the safety of glucose oxidase preparations from A. niger is well-established, the use of preparations derived from other fungal species is ...
Wilson-Pérez Hilary E HE Department of Internal Medicine, Metabolic Diseases Institute, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, - - 2013
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone that is released from the gut in response to nutrient ingestion and that has a range of metabolic effects, including enhancing insulin secretion and decreasing food intake. Postprandial GLP-1 secretion is greatly enhanced in rats and humans after some bariatric procedures, including ...
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