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Gonzalez M - - 1997
Mexico city has a very high pollution index. Based on the view 'that salivary monitoring can be extended to environmental pollutants', we performed this study in order to determine not only the concentrations of lead and cadmium in human saliva, but also to establish their possible association with some socio-demographic ...
Elsenhans B - - 1997
1 Although food intake is among the most important routes of Cd exposure, not many details are known about the intestinal absorption mechanisms of Cd. In this respect Cd is representative of most other nonessential, merely toxic metals. 2 Based on a concept of two distinguishable steps, intestinal absorption of ...
Gomot A - - 1997
The effects on survival and growth of exposure to cadmium (Cd) in the food were analyzed in juvenile snails (age one month, mean weight 1 g) of the two subspecies Helix aspersa aspersa (H.a.a.) and H. aspersa maxima (H.a.m.). The experiments lasted for four weeks and the animals were fed ...
Comella C L - - 1997
The Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) assesses the character and severity of cervical dystonia (CD). We developed a teaching tape of the TWSTRS scoring for the motor symptoms of CD. The tape provides investigators with visual representations of each component of the motor section of the TWSTRS as ...
Karita K - - 1997
Thirty-six workers exposed to low or moderate levels of lead at low temperature refining processes were surveyed to examine the route of lead intake. Blood lead level (BPb), delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine, lead in facial skin wipes (Face-Pb) and lead in fingernails (Nail-Pb) were measured and their personal hygienic behavior ...
Wicklum D - - 1997
The effects of cadmium on the hatching success of thecocoons of the freshwater predatory leech Nephelopsis obscura wereexamined together with the survivorship of hatchlings, changes in 96-hLC50 with biomass, preference-avoidance responses and changes inactivity. The 96-h EC50 for cocoons was 832.6 microg Cd/L with adecreasing bounded monotonic function best describing ...
Barbeira P J - - 1997
The determination of traces of Zn, Pb and Cu in rum samples by anodic stripping voltammetry without previous treatment or addition of a supporting electrolyte, using a hanging mercury drop electrode, is described. The choice of an appropriate stripping voltammetric method and deposition potential minimizes the influence of the organic ...
Lintschinger J - - 1997
The practice of sprouting is widely used to improve the nutritional value of grain seeds. Several nutritive factors such as vitamin concentrations and bioavailability of trace elements and minerals increase during germination. The objective of this work was to study the enrichment of various essential trace elements during germination of ...
Ikeda M - - 1997
The objective of the present study was to examine if environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) had any impact on the integrity of the liver among the general Japanese population. A nationwide survey was conducted in the winter seasons of 1991-1995 in 15 prefectures in Japan to collect 24-h food duplicates, ...
Scheuhammer A M - - 1997
Ca, P, Al, and trace metal (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentrations were measured in several aquatic invertebrate taxa used as food by breeding insectivorous waterfowl, sampled from three sites in eastern Canada with widely varying water chemistry. Ca concentrations were highest in molluscs (snails and clams), averaging 200-300 ...
Zhang Z W - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the background exposure of the general population to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in China and in Japan. METHODS: Food duplicates and peripheral blood samples were collected from nonoccupationally exposed subjects, viz 202 Chinese women in four Chinese cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Nanning, and Tainan) and ...
Soengas J L - - 1996
The capacity of carbohydrate and ketone bodies metabolism in brain and liver was evaluated in fed and food-deprived Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a time period covering from 1 to 7 days (Experiment I), and in Atlantic salmon food deprived for 6 weeks, and food deprived for 4 weeks and ...
Zhang Z W - - 1996
Rice samples consumed by local populations were collected between 1990 and 1995 in 17 areas in the world, mostly from Asia (10 areas), but also from 7 areas outside of Asia. In total, 1528 samples were obtained (about one half from Japan) and were analyzed for lead (Pb) by electrothermal ...
Minami T - - 1996
The effects of cadmium on the peak area of metallothionein (MT) protein were studied by capillary zone electrophoresis with a polyacrylamide-coated tube at neutral pH. When cadmium was added to a commercial standard MT-1 isoform prepared from rabbit liver, the peak are of the MT-1 isoform decreased in a time- ...
Linde A R - - 1996
Copper, lead, and cadmium pollution were measured in water and sediments of two Northern Spanish rivers: Piles and Pigäeña. Liver contents of these heavy metals were analyzed in two fish species (eel, Anguilla anguilla, and brown trout, Salmo trutta) collected from the same locations. Significant levels of heavy metal pollution ...
Shimbo S - - 1996
Daily dietary intake of 28 trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) were estimated from the food intake records (collected by the 24-h total food duplicate ...
Capar S G - - 1996
In Fiscal Years 1985/1986, the US Food and Drug Administration conducted a survey of cadmium, lead and other elements in fresh clams and oysters collected from US coastal areas in use for shellfish production. Shellfish were analysed for cadmium and lead by using a dry ash-anodic stripping voltammetric method. Other ...
Vijayram K - - 1996
In the present study, an attempt to assess the heavy metal (Cd and Zn) regulating ability of the commercially important freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards) was made by exposing it to a range of dissolved concentrations of Cd and Zn for 22 days. The prawn tissues accumulated the nonessential ...
Tsuda T - - 1996
Intakes of selected elements from restaurant and box lunches in Shiga Prefecture (Japan) were investigated in 1993 and 1994, respectively. Average intakes of these elements from restaurant and box lunches were, respectively, 14 and 12 micrograms for Cd, 4.6 and 4.5 micrograms for Hg, 85 and 91 micrograms for As, ...
Cabrera C - - 1996
Because milk and dairy products are some of the most widespread foods in the human diet, they contribute a large fraction of mineral intake. We determined levels of chromium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc in 60 samples of 10 widely consumed dairy products. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was ...
Laskowski R - - 1996
Juveniles and adults of the Brown garden snail (Helix aspersa Müll.) were fed on an artificial diet contaminated with Zn (ca. 40-12,000 micrograms.g-1 dry wt), Cu (ca. 9-1600 micrograms.g-1 dry wt), pb (ca. 0.4-12,700 micrograms.g-1 dry wt), Cd (ca. 0.16-145 micrograms.g-1 dry wt), and all four metals mixed together for ...
Dermelj M - - 1996
Accurate and reliable data on microgram and nanogram quantities of some essential and toxic elements in most food articles are very scarce. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), with its essentially blankfree advantage, is a valuable approach in the field of determination of trace elements in different foodstuffs and diets. Accordingly, various ...
Ybañez N - - 1996
Food toxicology (FT) is an old science whose origins may go back to primitive humans. However, due to major environmental damage, daily market launches of new food products, and the analytical ability to detect ever small quantities of toxicants in foods, FT is also an ever-growing science with an enormous ...
Borch-Iohnsen B - - 1996
Samples of liver (n = 78) and kidney (n = 60) from Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik) collected at four different seasons in Svalbard were analysed for their content of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se. The study shows that when animals are exposed to large seasonal variations ...
Allen C B - - 1996
Weanling male rats were fed either copper-adequate (CuA) or copper-deficient (CuD) diets ad lib for 20 wk. A pair-fed group was also studied. Two relative food intake indices (RFIs) and a growth efficiency (GE) index were calculated. Body weights of the CuD group became reduced compared to the CuA group ...
Sapunar-Postruznik J - - 1996
The level of lead and cadmium in foodstuffs in the Republic of Croatia was determined by the method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry from the beginning of 1988 to mid 1993. Mean weekly dietary intake of these toxic metals was then estimated on the basis of the level of contamination and ...
Bolger P M - - 1996
Lead, an environmental contaminant, originates from a variety of sources. For over two decades, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has made a number of efforts to reduce dietary lead exposure of the general population, and especially of vulnerable subpopulations such as infants and children and, indirectly, the foetus. ...
Aït-Oukhatar N - - 1996
Metallothioneins (MT) are well known Zn and Cu tissue proteins. Their level is mainly regulated by Zn. Therefore, they have been suggested as an index of Zn status. The determination of MT has been performed by HPLC (fitted with UV-detector) following a preparation phase (heating, ultracentrifugation and filtration). This method ...
Ikeda M - - 1996
Venous blood samples, 24-h total food duplicate samples, and rice samples were collected from 52 adult non-smoking women in the city of Tainan, southern Taiwan, in 1994, and analyzed for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by wet-digestion followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Daily dietary intake was 10 micrograms ...
Drobne D - - 1996
The effect of zinc (Zn)-contaminated food on the shape of digestive gland epithelium was studied in the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber. In animals fed with 5,000 micrograms Zn g-1 dry wt. of food, the epithelium was flattened in the anterior part of the gland tube. In the posterior part of ...
Laskowski R - - 1996
Accumulation of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd was studied in snails fed for 120 days on diets contaminated with each metal separately and with all metals mixed together. The concentrations of Zn in food were in the range 39 to 12 200 mg kg(-1), Cu 9-1640 mg kg(-1), Pb 0.4-12 ...
Watanabe T - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current levels of exposure of the Japanese population to cadmium and lead, in comparison with the levels in 1980s. DESIGN: A nation wide survey was conducted in 1991-1994 (the 1990 study) in 19 study sites in Japan as a follow-up to a study conducted in 1979-1983 ...
Saari J T - - 1995
We examined the hypothesis that nonenzymatic glycosylatin of proteins (glycation) contributes to the defects of copper deficiency. We studied copper-adequate and -deficient rats while altering two factors known to affect glycation: type of dietary carbohydrate and amount of food intake. Copper deficiency caused cardiac enlargement and anemia, decreased erythrocyte osmotic ...
Glancy J M - - 1995
INTRODUCTION: QTc dispersion has traditionally been calculated from all 12 leads of a standard electrocardiogram (ECG). It is possible that alternative, quicker methods using fewer than 12 leads could be used to provide the same information. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have previously shown a difference in QTc dispersion from ECGs ...
Tsuda T - - 1995
Daily intakes of selected metals from meals in Shiga Prefecture (Japan) were investigated by the duplicate portion method and market basket method. In 1991 and 1992, daily intakes of metals by women, determined by the duplicate portion method, were, respectively, 37 and 27 micrograms for Cd, 4.3 and 3.5 micrograms ...
Brady L D - - 1995
: The distribution of smooth and palmate newts (Triturus vulgaris and Triturus helveticus) may be related to water quality. This study compared the larval growth and feeding behaviour of both species under sublethal levels of aluminium and low pH. The growth of both species was inhibited to a similar degree ...
Srikanth R - - 1995
A study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of cadmium and lead in rice and cereal products commonly consumed in South India. Samples from retail outlets were purchased and analysed for cadmium and lead using graphite tube atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results indicated varying concentrations of these metals in different ...
Dabeka R W - - 1995
During the period 1986-1988, foods were purchased at the retail level in 5 Canadian cities and, for each city, prepared for consumption and combined into 113 composites and 39 composite subsets. Lead and cadmium were determined in all the samples; fluoride, in samples from Winnipeg; and cobalt and nickel, in ...
Brüggemann J - - 1995
In representative samples of bread cereals and cereal products from the former Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the status of 11 trace elements was analysed in 1989. It is demonstrated that the results are quite representative for the former FRG as compared with results published in the previous 15 years. ...
Brüggemann J - - 1995
The effects of food processing on some cereal and potato products are discussed with respect to the status of 11 trace elements. The influences of milling, bread making and cooking of potatoes on the contents of trace elements are demonstrated. It is shown that these recently obtained results are quite ...
Allen P - - 1995
The influence of mercury and lead on cadmium accumulation was investigated by exposing the fish Oreochromis aureus, or Blue Tilapia, to two heavy metals simultaneously. The chronic accumulation profile of cadmium in the liver, brain, gill filaments, intestine, caudal muscle, spleen, trunk kidney, and gonads was determined for exposure to ...
Kraal M H - - 1995
The aim of this study was to assess whether contaminated prey can be a major source of Cd for fish. For this purpose, the uptake and tissue distribution of dietary and aqueous cadmium by the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. The fish were exposed to either Cd-contaminated food or Cd-contaminated ...
Younes B - - 1995
Lead poisoning has proven to be one of the most difficult environmental health problems. Part of this difficulty is based on the lack of distinctive manifestations at an early phase in the process. Breast milk feeding with high lead concentration is one of the first sources of lead exposure in ...
Batzevich V A - - 1995
Concentrations of Zn, Cu, Se, Mn, Hg, Fe, Cr, Co, Sb, Sc and Au were determined in hair samples of 17 ethnic and territorial groups from the former USSR. Hair samples (837 males, 965 females) were taken from individuals of non-industrial native populations of unpolluted areas. Geographical, geochemical, racial and ...
Oskarsson A - - 1995
A risk evaluation of essential and toxic intake of trace elements has been performed by a group within the Nordic Collaboration on food questions. Six elements have been evaluated: selenium, iron, iodine, chromium, copper and magnesium and small safety margins between potentially deleterious and beneficial intakes were revealed. The risk ...
Conroy L M - - 1995
Work space airborne concentrations of lead, chromium, and cadmium were measured during abrasive blasting by bridge painters for the determination of emission rates. The operation used compressed air to blast steel grit at steel or metal surfaces, removing lead-based paint. It was enclosed with plastic tarpaulins to prevent the release ...
Ford T - - 1995
Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the ...
Watkins J H - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc in amalgam on the static mechanical properties and resistance to fatigue-crack propagation of amalgams. METHODS: Fatigue, creep, compressive and flexure tests were performed on high-Cu Dispersalloy (Johnson and Johnson Dental Products Co., East Windsor, NJ, USA) and low-Cu Velvalloy ...
Murthy N K - - 1995
Copper(III) solutions are found to give an instantaneous stable pink-coloured product with 0.2% aqueous p-anisidine in the presence of 0.03N acetic acid. The wavelength of maximum absorption is 533 nm and obeys Beer's law up to 0.89408 g copper(III). It is also recommended as a spot test for copper(III).
Angle C R - - 1995
The objective was to determine, from analysis of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of lead, the relative contribution of food, handdust, housedust, soil and air lead to the absorbed (urinary) lead and the blood lead of children living in a former smelter city. A longitudinal 12 month study was conducted ...
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