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Ikeda M - - 2000
Information is still scarce for many Asian countries on general population exposure to two potentially toxic heavy metals of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The present review on publications from this study group is intended to provide an overview of the non-occupational exposure to Pb and Cd among general populations ...
Shimbo S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether lead (Pb) in urine and cadmium (Cd) in blood, especially the former, can be used as markers of environmental exposure of general populations to these metals. METHODS: Between 1991 and 1998, spot urine and peripheral blood samples, together with 24 h duplicates of food intake were ...
Charpentier B - - 2000
In forensic science, the analysis of gunshot residues was traditionally done by the detection of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) usually found in a primer. However, the recent development of lead-free ammunition represents a new challenge for ballistic specialists. This analysis study gunshot residues from primers and ammunitions ...
Fabig A - - 2000
On the basis of the reconstruction of general nutritional patterns by trace element data on historic populations, an examination on occupational Ba intakes in the skeleton was carried out for a historical metallurgy population. The concentrations of the trace elements Ba, Sr, and Pb as well as the matrix element ...
Burger J - - 2000
Female birds sequester some heavy metals in their eggs, which are then transferred to the developing embryo. Semiprecocial birds such as albatrosses are fully covered with down at hatching, but are dependent on their parents for food for many weeks. At hatching, levels of metals in the chick's down represent ...
Zhang Z W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to elucidate the current level of environmental lead (Pb) exposure of women in general population in Japan, where the use of organic Pb in automobile gasoline was phased out from 1973 to reach a zero level early in the 1980s. METHODS: A survey ...
Muñoz-Barbosa A - - 2000
Samples of Mytilus californianus were analyzed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of Ag, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations on the northwest coast of Baja California and to compare the results with levels reported for California, USA. The samples were collected at eight sites from ...
Schrey P - - 2000
The dietary intake of metals was studied in seven male and seven female children at the age of 1.5 to 5.3 years living in a remote area of Germany, the North Sea island Amrum. The dietary intake of lead and cadmium was measured by a seven-day-duplicate study using atomic absorption ...
Nogami E M - - 2000
The administration of cadmium, as food supplement, its bioaccumulation, and the effects on the development of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were investigated. The average size and weight and its behavior compared with controls were investigated during the period January 31, 1997, until March 31, 1999. At intervals of 60 days the ...
Nawawi H M HM Chemical Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Tenteram, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, - - 2000
Acarbose inhibits intestinal alpha-glucosidases resulting in diminished and delayed postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH). Studies on effects of acarbose on postprandial lipaemia (PPL) have been inconclusive. Little is known about the effects of acarbose on PPH and PPL following intake of a polysaccharide diet. We studied 30 type 2 diabetic patients on ...
Watanabe T - - 2000
The objectives of the present study are: (a) to clarify the current levels of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in Shaanxi Province in China in comparison with levels in other parts of mainland China; (b) to examine if there is any urban-rural difference in Pb and Cd ...
Zhang H - - 2000
Blood analyses for rare-earth element (REE)-high background regions in South Jiangxi show that the population averages of many of the biochemical indices deviate markedly from normal values in the normal region. These deviations are thought to be caused by prolonged intake of REE through food chains in view of that ...
Smrcka C - - 2000
For our research, one thousand forty-four samples were taken from the femurs of 522 skeletons from 25 sites in Europe from the Neolithic Age (4000-5000 B.C), from La T?ne Period, the Roman Era (500 B.C-400 A.D.), the Middle Ages and from contemporary cadavers. We found the following distribution of elements ...
Watanabe T - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The Japanese people are known to have high environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd). The present survey was initiated to elucidate possible changes in the intensity of Cd exposure to the population by comparison of the present exposure level with the situation some 15 years ago. METHODS: During 1991-1997, 24-h ...
Capar S G - - 2000
Food purchased throughout the United States during 1991-1997 under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study (TDS) program were analyzed for elements and radionuclides. The program is described with emphasis on food analysis and quality control, including independent interlaboratory exercises. Analytical results are summarized for Cd, Pb, Ni, ...
König J S - - 2000
Copper concentration in blood plasma is used mainly as an indicator for alimentary copper supply. This has some limitations because copper concentration in plasma fluctuates with age, exercise and health status and does not increase after a meal nor decrease during short-term fasting. The Austrian Study on Nutritional Status (ASNS) ...
Fichet D - - 1999
The bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn was assessed in different harbours of the Atlantic coast (France). The responses of the two dominant meiobenthic groups (nematodes and copepods) to a heavy metal contamination gradient measured in similar subtidal sediments were observed in field surveys. Heavy metal concentrations were measured ...
Hernández L M - - 1999
The impact of the spill from the mine in Aznalcollar (Seville, Spain) on waterfowl in the Doñana National Park is assessed. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn nd As in the liver and eggs of 16 species of waterfowl found dead in the Park between April and November 1998 ...
Antonini J M - - 1999
It was shown previously that fumes generated from stainless steel (SS) welding induced more pneumotoxicity and were cleared from the lungs at a slower rate than fumes collected from mild steel (MS) welding. These differences in response may be attributed to the metal composition of SS and MS welding fumes. ...
Camous J P - - 1999
A proximal pseudofracture of a Medtronic 6936 defibrillating lead adjacent to the ICD pulse generator was found on X ray. At this site, the multifilar metallic connector joins the stimulating lead before coiling around it. Conventional X ray of the abdomen does not visualize this connection. During ICD replacement, lead ...
Ekmekcioglu C - - 1999
The objective of this study was to show whether analysed nutrient data correlate with calculated values from a food database. For this purpose the calcium, magnesium, copper and zinc contents of 62 menu components from lunch menus were determined with ICP-AES. Then the analysed values were compared with calculated values ...
Reimann C - - 1999
Groundwater samples from 15 boreholes in crystalline bedrock aquifers in South Norway (Oslo area) have been collected in parallel in five different clear plastic bottle types (high density polyethene [HDPE], polypropene [PP, two manufacturers], fluorinated ethene propene copolymer [FEP] and perfluoroalkoxy polymer [PFA]. In the cases of polyethene and polypropene, ...
Edwards H M HM - - 1999
Three zinc depletion-repletion assays were carried out with chicks to determine Zn bioavailability in five sources of ZnO, three sources of ZnSO4.H2O, and two sources of Zn metal. A standard 23% CP corn-soybean meal diet was fed during the first 3 d posthatching, after which it was replaced with a ...
Spahn S A - - 1999
Persistent contaminants in ecosystems are often monitored via organisms that bioaccumulate the pollutant of interest. Several published studies have used colonial wading birds to assess contamination by heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems. Using a nonlethal sampling regimen, this study identified chick feathers and guano as tissues that best reflect local ...
Krełowska-Kułas M - - 1999
The aim of the work was to estimate the content of certain metals in goat's milk. The content of lead, cadmium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese and magnesium was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. It was found that highly toxic elements [Pb, Cd] appeared in both raw and pasteurised goat's milk ...
van Alphen M - - 1999
A method for the determination of atmospheric heavy metal deposition rates has been developed using 0.5-m2 deposition trays at 0.1 m from the ground. Trays were spaced at 150-m intervals along a 1500-m line 500 m east of a Pb-Zn smelter. Ten sampling events of 1-3-h duration were conducted under ...
Christensen J M - - 1999
This study is a part of the Biological Risk Assessment of Human Metal Sensitisation (BRAHMS) project with the aim of elucidating clinical and physiological effects of repeated exposures to low concentrations of metal allergens. Nickel allergic individuals (n = 35) with hand eczema and healthy controls (n = 30) were ...
Moon C S - - 1999
The study was conducted to examine the validity of urinary cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in comparison with the metals in blood as a biological marker of non-occupational exposure of general populations. Participants in four survey sites in Korea (107 non-smoking Korean women aged 30-49 years) offered peripheral blood, morning ...
Thomas K W - - 1999
A National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) field study was performed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region V, providing population-based exposure distribution data for selected elements in several personal, environmental, and biological media. Population distributions are reported for the 11 elements that were measured in water and dietary samples. ...
Bendell-Young L I - - 1999
The objective of this study was to determine if ingestion of grit was a source of metal exposure to the spruce grouse, Dendragapus canadensis. A secondary objective was to assess whether grit could provide a supplemental source of essential minerals to their diet. Ca, P, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Ni, ...
Indeherberg M B - - 1999
Five populations of the planarian Polycelis tenuis, collected from four locations in a metal contaminated stream and from one location in an unpolluted tributary stream, were compared for their sensitivity to cadmium by measuring survival, reproduction, and body size changes during 28 days of exposure via the water. Survival data ...
Matsuo T T Division of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Sanyo Women's College, Hiroshima, - - 1999
We estimated glycemic and insulinemic responses to short-grain rice (Japonica) and a short-grain rice-mixed meal (i.e. short-grain rice and other ingredients) in three healthy male, and five healthy female subjects aged 22-31 years. A 50 g carbohydrate portion of dry rice was used in this study to estimate the glycemic ...
Sheets R W - - 1999
Imported dishes can present human health hazards in two ways: (1) dinnerware that contains toxic metals in excessive amounts may gain entry to the US; and (2) imported decorative ceramic plates may be improperly labeled regarding permissible use with food. In the present study, non-random samples of dishes were purchased ...
Sanchez-Galan S - - 1999
Brown trout (Salmo trutta) and European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) were evaluated as target species to carry out genotoxicity tests. Assessment was made of their relative abundance in wild; their distribution areas; and their sensitivity to heavy metals, intraperitoneally exposing individuals of both species to a low dose (1.7 mg/kg body ...
Deutch B - - 1999
Persistent Organic Pollutants (11 pesticides and 14 PCB-congeners), and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn) were determined in 175 pregnant women and 160 newborn infants (umbilical cord blood) from Disko Bay, Greenland, 1994-96. Among these, 135 women filled out questionnaires about drinking, smoking and intake of traditional ...
Moreno M A - - 1999
Copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc were determined by anodic stripping voltammetry after sample digestion and potentiometric stripping analysis was used for Pb and Cd determination in original samples. Selenium was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry or hydride generation AAS. Element levels found in the whole blood sample in a group ...
Fels L M - - 1999
Cadmium as an environmental or occupational toxin has been well studied. Exposure can fairly easily be detected by analysis of cadmium in biological material. Different routes of cadmium uptake, such as via airborne particles, cigarette smoke or contaminated food, have been identified. Urinary concentrations associated with renal effects vary, depending ...
Dixon S - - 1999
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing strongly recommend that after lead hazard control interventions all walls, ceilings, floors, and other horizontal surfaces be cleaned using a three-step process to reduce lead-contaminated dust and debris. The ...
Arnold M L - - 1999
Manganese is an element which is required by the human body. However, as with most metals, in large amounts manganese can be toxic. People who suffer from severe manganese intoxication have symptoms similar to those of Parkinson's disease. Preclinical symptoms of manganese intoxication have recently been detected in individuals working ...
Tripathi R M - - 1999
Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, ...
Shimbo S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To examine the accuracy of food composition table (FCT)-based estimation of dietary nutrient element intake in reference to the instrumental measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as an extension of the first part of this study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Communities. SUBJECTS: 782 adult non-smoking women in 21 ...
Zhang Z W - - 1999
This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to ...
Morgan J N - - 1999
Metals occur in all foodstuffs. Of particular concern is the presence of toxic metals, which include lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury. The toxic metal content of foods is influenced by many factors ranging from environmental conditions during growth to post-harvest handling, processing, preparation and cooking techniques. For example, metal content ...
Ni B - - 1999
Three kinds of plant leaves, Chinese white aspen, arborvitae, and pine needles, have been sampled from the Yanshan Oil refinery complex, the Capital Iron and Steel Factory, and Badachu, a control area in Beijing, as biomonitors for air-pollution studies. Each sample was divided into two parts, washed, and unwashed. Thirty-one ...
Sallam Kh H - - 1999
A total of 50 random samples of Bagrus bayad were collected from various localities of River Nile at lower Egypt and were analyzed for determination of Hg, Cd and Pb concentrations by AAS. The obtained results revealed that the concentrations of Hg, Cd and Pb in fish muscles were ranged ...
Odendaal J P - - 1999
This study investigated the sublethal effects of CdSO4 on the terrestrial isopod species Porcellio laevis and its capacity to accumulate and compartmentalize cadmium. The ability of P. laevis to discriminate between uncontaminated and CdSO4-contaminated leaves was also studied. It was shown that sublethal effects in terms of mass changes of ...
Skerfving S - - 1999
Recent reports on concentrations of lead, cadmium, methylmercury, arsenic and nickel in some biological media in populations in the Baltic region are reviewed. In particular, children in parts of Poland, the Czech Republic, and Germany have uptakes of lead sufficient to cause adverse effects on the central nervous system and ...
Pyatt F B - - 1999
Early anthropogenic metalliferous activity on the island of Cyprus is outlined. Samples of Corsican pines, obtained from both a largely uncontaminated (control) and a metalliferous part of the Mount Olympus area of Cyprus, were analyzed by means of X-ray microanalysis. A total of 21 ions were recorded from the samples; ...
Masuzawa T - - 1999
Phytoplankton samples were collected during spring bloom of diatoms from three coastal areas of Japan using a NORPAC P-25 net (25-micron opening) with a NGG52 prenet (335-micron opening), and 25 major and trace elements have been analyzed by INAA. Concentration ranges of analyzed phytoplankton samples are much wider than the ...
Raghunath R - - 1998
Leachability of lead by tap water and tamarind solution from Indian pressure cookers while cooking with and without a safety valve is studied. Lead contamination of food by cookers is not very high when compared to the daily intake of lead from various food items consumed by the Indian community. ...
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