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Haemer Julia - - 2014
Plastic pollution is an emerging global threat for marine wildlife. Many species of birds, reptiles and fishes are directly impaired by plastics as they can get entangled in ropes and drown or they can ingest plastic fragments which, in turn, may clog their stomachs and guts. Microplastics of less than ...
Filaire Edith E Laboratoire CIAMS, EA4532, Université Paris-Sud, Université Orléans, Collégium Sciences et Techniques, Orléans Cedex, - - 2014
The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among twenty six professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations. Eating Behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes ...
Cerdá Xim - - 2014
Ants use many different chemical compounds to communicate with their nestmates. Foraging success depends on how efficiently ants communicate the presence of food and thus recruit workers to exploit the food resource. Trail pheromones, produced by different exocrine glands, are a key part of ant foraging strategies. By combing through ...
Shaw Gregory G Sports Nutrition, Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, - - 2014
Swimming is a sport that requires considerable training commitment to reach individual performance goals. Nutrition requirements are specific to the macro-cycle, micro-cycle and individual session. Swimmers should ensure suitable energy availability to support training while maintaining long term health. Carbohydrate intake, both over the day and in relation to a ...
Rai Rajesh Kumar RK 1Tata Institute of Social Sciences,V N Purav Marg,Deonar,Mumbai - - 2014
India's poor performance on critical food and nutrition security indicators despite substantial economic prosperity has been widely documented. These failings not only hamper national progress, but also contribute significantly to the global undernourished population, particularly children. While the recently passed National Food Security Act 2013 adopts a life-cycle approach to ...
Abdulhay Amir A Lehigh University, Department of Biological Sciences, Bethlehem, PA - - 2014
In female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), low circulating levels of ovarian steroids are associated with increased food hoarding and decreased sexual motivation, but these effects are exaggerated in food-restricted females. To determine whether cold ambient temperature has the same effects as food restriction, groups of hamsters were fed ad libitum ...
Wang Yang Y Department of Earth, Ocean & Atmospheric Science, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4100, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects ...
Fanelli E E Marine Environment Research Centre ENEA - Santa Teresa, Pozzuolo di Lerici, 19100, (SP), - - 2014
This study examined the population structure, reproductive cycle and feeding pattern of the lanternfish Lampanyctus crocodilus in the Balearic Basin (north-west Mediterranean Sea) from a depth of 450 to 1800 m and at a seasonal scale. Juveniles were mainly located at shallower depths, but also at deepest stations in autumn, while ...
Lin Tao T Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Urban ecosystems are unique in the sense that human activities are the major drivers of biogeochemical processes. Along with the demographic movement into cities, nutrients flow towards the urban zone (nutrient urbanization), causing the degradation of environmental quality and ecosystem health. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of nutrient ...
Miranda-Dukoski Ludmila L The University of - - 2014
The current experiment examined the degree to which locally varying food probabilities on two keys across time since food presentations can continue to control choice until the next food delivery. In two sets of conditions, the probability of food delivery being made available on one key relative to the other ...
Stevens Carly J CJ Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK. - - 2014
The global nitrogen (N) cycle has been transformed by human use of reactive N as a consequence of increased demand for food and energy. Given the considerable impact of humans on the N cycle, it is essential that we raise awareness amongst the public and policy makers as this is ...
Ito Tomiko T Hokkaido Aquatic Biology, Hakuyo-cho, 3-3-5, Eniwa, Hokkaido, 061-1434 Japan.; Email: - - 2014
The genus Palaeagapetus Ulmer (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae, Ptilocolepinae) is revised in North America. Descriptions of the western species, P. nearcticus Banks 1938, are provided with the first descriptions of the female, pupa, larva, egg and case and with notes on food, habitat and annual life cycle. The male and female of ...
Baek Min Jeong - - 2013
To examine the influence of habitat alteration by tideflat reclamation on the physiological ecology of Ruditapes philippinarum, seasonal variations in its condition, gross biochemical composition, and reproductive cycle were compared for a yearly cycle between a reclaimed flat (Gomsohang, GS) and a natural flat (Hajun, HJ) in Gomso Bay, Korea. ...
Zhang Siduo - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled ...
Kamerud Kristin L - - 2013
Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of ...
McCabe Gráinne Michelle - - 2013
The ability to increase energy storage when food is abundant for later use during late gestation and early lactation is often considered the primary benefit of the capital breeding strategy (clustering conceptions during high food periods, HFP) that promotes reproductive success among females living in unpredictable environments. Capital breeding, however, ...
Dong Bo - - 2013
This paper presents the design, system structure and performance for a wireless and wearable diet monitoring system. Food and drink intake can be detected by the way of detecting a person's swallow events. The system works based on the key observation that a person's otherwise continuous breathing process is interrupted ...
Teixeira Ricardo - - 2013
This study targeted nine different pork pâtés, produced with pork from different meat production systems (conventional, organic and other quality certifications). Besides Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, the study also included a detailed analysis of product nutrition. Results show that the GHG emissions range from 200 g CO2 e per 100g of ...
Blasio Angelo - - 2013
The anti-obesity medication rimonabant, an antagonist of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor, was withdrawn from the market because of adverse psychiatric side effects, including a negative affective state. We investigated whether rimonabant precipitates a negative emotional state in rats withdrawn from palatable food cycling. The effects of systemic administration of rimonabant ...
Roussel Jm - - 2013
Stable isotope analysis of organic matter in sediment records has long been used to track historical changes in productivity and carbon cycling in marine and lacustrine ecosystems. While flow dynamics preclude stratigraphic measurements of riverine sediments, such retrospective analysis is important for understanding biogeochemical cycling in running waters. Unique collections ...
Galloway James N JN Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4123, USA. - - 2013
Nitrogen over the ages! It was discovered in the eighteenth century. The following century, its importance in agriculture was documented and the basic components of its cycle were elucidated. In the twentieth century, a process to provide an inexhaustible supply of reactive N (Nr; all N species except N2) for ...
Rossetti Clara - - 2013
Converging evidence suggests that recurrent excessive calorie restriction causes binge eating by promoting behavioral disinhibition and overeating. This interpretation suggests that cognitive adaptations may surpass physiological regulations of metabolic needs after recurrent cycles of dieting and binging. Intermittent access to palatable food has long been studied in rats, but the ...
Müller Ruth - - 2013
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is a globally invasive prominent vector of viral and parasitic pathogens. To soundly guide insecticide use in control programs it is crucial to use standardized test systems under rigorously controlled environmental conditions that allow for comparisons across laboratories. An acute standard test ...
Sánchez-Ayala Alfonso - - 2013
The influence of mandibular movement timing on food breakdown remains unclear. The authors, therefore, sought to relate chewing rate with masticatory performance. Chewing rate, defined as the number of masticatory cycles habitually achieved per minute, was measured in 55 healthy dentulous subjects (age, 22.2 +/- 5.0 years). Subjects were grouped ...
Miranda Bernadette - - 2013
In mammals Orexin-A and -B are neuropeptides involved in the hypothalamic regulation of diverse physiological functions including food intake and the sleep-wake cycle. This generalization was investigated in meat- (broiler) and layer-type juvenile domestic chickens by immunocytochemical localization of orexin A/B in the hypothalamus, and by measurements of hypothalamic hypocretin ...
Schliep Karen C KC Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Rockville, MD 20852, - - 2013
Effects of caffeine on women's health are inconclusive, in part because of inadequate exposure assessment. In this study we determined 1) validity of a food frequency questionnaire compared with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) for measuring monthly caffeine and caffeinated beverage intakes; and 2) validity of the 24HDR compared with ...
Voznesenskaya Anna A Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-3308, USA. - - 2013
The food, water and sodium intake of laboratory rats fluctuates over the circadian and estrous cycles. Blood calcium and calcium-regulating hormones also wax and wane in response to these cycles, raising the possibility that the same might be true of calcium intake. To investigate this, we monitored the fluid intakes ...
Venesky Matthew D - - 2013
Anuran larvae, which are otherwise simple in shape, typically have complex keratinized mouthparts (i.e., labial teeth and jaw sheaths) that allow them to graze upon surfaces. The diversity in these structures among species presumably reflects specializations that allow for maximal feeding efficiency on different types of food. However, we lack ...
Gianguzza Paola - - 2013
Despite the large body of work published in the last two decades on the reproduction of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the reproductive aspects linked to hydrodynamic conditions and their influence on gonad production remain poorly understood. The present paper aims to evaluate the effect of hydrodynamism on the reproductive ...
Reid William D K - - 2013
The hydrothermal vents on the East Scotia Ridge are the first to be explored in the Antarctic and are dominated by large peltospiroid gastropods, stalked barnacles (Vulcanolepas sp.) and anomuran crabs (Kiwa sp.) but their food webs are unknown. Vent fluid and macroconsumer samples were collected at three vent sites ...
Mascari Thomas M - - 2013
Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of traditional vector control methods. The specific larval food source is unknown for all but a few sand fly species, and this is particularly true for the ...
Ims Rolf A - - 2013
Production cycles in birds are proposed as prime cases of indirect interactions in food webs. They are thought to be driven by predators switching from rodents to bird nests in the crash phase of rodent population cycles. Although rodent cycles are geographically widespread and found in different rodent taxa, bird ...
Blevins James E JE VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Office of Research and Development Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, - - 2012
CCK is hypothesized to inhibit meal size by acting at CCK1 receptors (CCK1R) on vagal afferent neurons that innervate the gastrointestinal tract and project to the hindbrain. Earlier studies have shown that obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which carry a spontaneous null mutation of the CCK1R, are hyperphagic ...
Bos A R - - 2012
During 139 visits between March 2009 and May 2011, it was found that the availability of reef fishes at a local fish market in the Philippines was highly affected by the lunar cycle. The number of vendors selling reef fishes was significantly lower (13·4%) during third lunar quarters (full moon ...
Li Shiying - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has recently been introduced as a potential therapy for the treatment of obesity. The main challenge for the new generation of devices is to achieve desired clinical outcomes at a suitably low level of energy consumption. The aim of this study is to compare the ...
Pendergast Julie S - - 2012
Daily rhythmic processes are coordinated by circadian clocks, which are present in numerous central and peripheral tissues. In mammals, two circadian clocks, the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) and methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator (MASCO), are "black box" mysteries because their anatomical loci are unknown and their outputs are not expressed under normal physiological ...
Watanabe M - - 2012
The increasing human demand for food, raw material and energy has radically modified both the landscape and biogeochemical cycles in many river basins in the world. The interference of human activities on the Biosphere is so significant that it has doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen due to industrial fertiliser ...
Sy Charlotte - - 2012
SCOPE: Carotenoid bioavailability is affected by numerous factors. Our aim was to assess the involvement of known carotenoid physicochemical properties (e.g., hydrophobicity, van der Waals volume,…) on the transport of the main dietary carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and astaxanthin, from their food matrix to their main storage tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Deyrup Cynthia L CL Office of Public Health Science, USDA FSIS, 1400 Independence Ave SW, Washington, DC 20250, - - 2012
To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter ...
Polak-Juszczak Lucyna - - 2012
Mercury concentrations in three flatfish species - flounder (Platichtys flesus), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), and Baltic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), netted in the southern Baltic Sea were assessed and compared to concentrations of this metal in sediments, sea water, and flatfish food - bivalve Macoma balthica, isopod Saduria entomon, and sprat (Sprattus ...
Mustonen Anne-Mari - - 2012
Factors regulating fatty acid (FA) composition of small herbivores are poorly known. Because of the fast response to food deprivation, the tissue FA profiles of voles could be rapidly modified. The selectivity of incorporating dietary FA into tissue total lipids and mobilizing tissue FA was examined in two Microtus vole ...
Arrebola J P - - 2012
Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that have been used for decades in several industrial applications. Although production of polychlorinated biphenyls was restricted from the 1970s in most countries, substantial amounts remain in old equipment and buildings and they have been detected in various environmental and biological matrices. The main ...
Kamalanathan Veenakumari - - 2012
Abstract Kallima albofasciata Moore 1877 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), a species of Oakleaf butterfly reported for the first time from the Andaman Islands in 1874, was recognized as an insular endemic in 1877. Studies so far indicate that it is restricted to the contiguous islands of South and Middle Andamans. On these ...
Criscione Leoluca - - 2012
A study reporting that a peptidomimetic adipotide reduces weight loss in obese monkeys by inducing apoptosis of blood vessels surrounding white adipose tissue may instead reflect a direct effect of adipotide on food consumption.
Dhananjayan V - - 2012
In order to understand whether organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are responsible for the mortality of waterbirds in Nalaban bird sanctuary in Chilika Lake, the current investigation was carried out in tissues of 11 individuals comprising 7 species of birds. One or more residues were detected in all the ...
Noorian Ali Reza - - 2012
Acute ischemic stroke is one of the most prominent causes of death and disability in the modern world. Despite extensive research, the only Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacologic treatment is intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Although reperfusion remains the most robust predictor of clinical outcome, rt-PA has been linked ...
Cammisotto Philippe - - 2012
A major advance in the understanding of the regulation of food intake has been the discovery of the adipokine leptin a hormone secreted by the adipose tissue. After crossing the blood-brain barrier, leptin reaches its main site of action at the level of the hypothalamic cells where it plays fundamental ...
Dejean Alain - - 2012
In the mutualisms involving the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa and Azteca ovaticeps or A. alfari, both predatory, the ants defend their host trees from enemies and provide them with nutrients (myrmecotrophy). A. ovaticeps provisioned with prey and then (15)N-enriched food produced more individuals than did control colonies (not artificially provisioned). This was not ...
Shaw Susan D - - 2012
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are widely used flame retardants that enter coastal waters from multiple sources and biomagnify in marine food webs. PBDEs have been detected at relatively high concentrations in harbor seals, apex predators in the northwest Atlantic. Whereas tri- to hexa-BDEs readily biomagnified from prey ...
Shankar Bhavani - - 2012
Excessive salt intake is linked to cardiovascular disease and several other health problems around the world. The UK Food Standards Agency initiated a campaign at the end of 2004 to reduce salt intake in the population. There is disagreement over whether the campaign was effective in curbing salt intake or ...
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