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Results 401 - 450 of 586
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Johnson E A - - 1999
Toxins are increasingly being used as valuable tools for analysis of cellular physiology, and some are used medicinally for treatment of human diseases. In particular, botulinum toxin, the most poisonous biological substance known, is used for treatment of a myriad of human neuromuscular disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions. Since ...
Joshi S A - - 1998
Three widely-used Galpha(q) chimeras harboring the last five residues of Galpha(i), Galpha(o) and Galpha(z) (qi5, qo5 and qz5) were examined for their ability to serve as substrates for pertussis toxin (PTX)-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. In COS-7 cells coexpressing one of the three opioid receptors (mu, delta, and kappa) and a Galpha(q) chimera, ...
Kusunoki H - - 1998
Flow cytometric method (FCM) with fluorescent-labeled anti-CPE antibody was applied to develop a rapid, specific, and convenient method to detect enterotoxin (CPE) exposed on the surface of spores of Clostridium perfringens. The results obtained indicate that FCM can specifically detect CPE exposed on C. perfringens spores for a short time. ...
Giletto A - - 1998
Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the leading causes of bacterial food poisoning each year. Detection kits for staphylococcal enterotoxins are commercially available and the assays can require from one and a half to twenty-four hours to complete with detection limits ranging from 0.5 to 2 ng enterotoxin per gram ...
Mebs D - - 1998
Animals may acquire toxicity by absorbing toxic compounds from their food, e.g. from plants or other animals. Sequestration and accumulation of toxins may provide protection from predators, which learn to avoid this prey because of unpleasant experiences such as bitter taste. This is a common phenomenon in marine as well ...
Skinner G E - - 1998
Integrating-type time-temperature indicators (TTIs) may be utilized to warn food processors and consumers about storage conditions that may have rendered a food potentially hazardous. As an example of how integrated TTIs could be manufactured to emulate an infinite set of time-temperature situations, a set of conditions which have supported C. ...
Kolstad R A - - 1998
Using the Food and Drug Administration's protocol for testing health care sterilizers, the author investigated the ability of chemical vapor and steam to sterilize handpieces. Five internal sites of six high-speed handpiece models and four internal positions of one low-speed handpiece model were each inoculated with 10(6) Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. ...
Manasherob R - - 1998
Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their toxic crystals are bioencapsulated in the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis, in which the toxin remains stable. Each T. pyriformis cell concentrates the spores and crystals in its food vacuoles, thus delivering them to mosquito larvae, which rapidly die. Vacuoles containing undigested material are ...
Gregory N G - - 1998
AIM: To assess the sickness behaviours of possums after eating a lethal dose of potassium cyanide. METHOD: Spontaneous behaviour and the time to loss of physical responses were examined. RESULTS: Cyanide ingestion caused a short-lasting period of mild respiratory stimulation. There was no salivation, retching or vomiting. Convulsions occurred in ...
Andersson M A - - 1998
Of the toxins produced by Bacillus cereus, the emetic toxin is likely the most dangerous but, due to the lack of a suitable assay, the least well known. In this paper, a new, sensitive, inexpensive, and rapid bioassay for detection of the emetic toxin of B. cereus is described. The ...
Pourshafie M R - - 1998
Cases of botulism in the northern province of Iran were studied in March and April 1997. A total of 27 patients were affected; 1 patient died. The samples were sent to the Department of Bacteriology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, for investigation. To identify the food source, several patients were interviewed ...
Granum P E - - 1997
Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and/or oxy acids: [D-O-Leu-D-Ala-L-O-Val-L-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass ...
Meng X - - 1997
Neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum was isolated from the food implicated in an outbreak of clinically diagnosed type E botulism in China. PCR assay showed that the isolate (LCL 155) contained the type E botulinum toxin gene. This appears to be the first report of neurotoxigenic C. butyricum causing food-borne botulism.
Rasooly L - - 1997
Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) is a leading cause of food poisoning. The current test for functional activity of SEA requires monkeys or kittens. The major drawbacks of animal assays are lack of quantitation, poor reproducibility, low sensitivity, and high cost. In this report we describe and evaluate an alternative ...
Tan A - - 1997
A commercially available ELISA kit was used for the detection of Bacillus diarrhoeal enterotoxin (BDE) in a variety of foods and faeces. The ability of isolates of Bacillus spp., including Bacillus cereus, to produce BDE in Brain Heart Infusion broth containing 0.1% glucose was also checked by use of the ...
Osawa R - - 1997
Cooked rice contaminated with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) was mixed with 'natto', a Bacillus natto fermented soybean food, and the mixture was incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h. Reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) tests performed on the mixture revealed that the RPLA titer against SEA was significantly reduced ...
Hamad A R - - 1997
Staphylococcus aureus produces a set of proteins (e.g., staphylococcal enterotoxin A [SEA], SEB, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 [TSST-1]) which act both as superantigens (SAgs) and toxins. Although their mode of action as SAgs is well understood, little is known about how they enter the body via the intestine and ...
Aguilera J M - - 1997
A number of life forms, including seeds, certain nematodes, bacterial and fungal spores, and cysts of certain crustaceans, show an ability to survive desiccation. The present article reviews the literature available on this subject and critically evaluates the evidence for various mechanisms that may be responsible for these phenomena. Specific ...
Sato S - - 1997
Saxitoxin was identified in a freshwater puffer, Tetraodon fangi, which caused food poisoning in Thailand. Tetrodotoxin, a puffer toxin, was not detected in the species by the HPLC-fluorometric analysis, showing that tetrodotoxin is absent or under any detectable level. The result of this study shows that saxitoxin can be a ...
Rodriguez A - - 1997
Samples of green beans and mushrooms were inoculated with a toxigenic strain of Clostridium botulinum type A and incubated anaerobically at 37 degrees C. At various time intervals, the seeded food samples were tested for the presence of botulinal toxin and C. botulinum by an agar plating method and an ...
Meer R R - - 1997
Clostridium perfringens continues to be a common cause of food-borne disease. Characteristics of this organism that contribute to its ability to cause food-borne illness include the formation of heat-resistant spores that survive normal cooking/heating temperatures, a rapid growth rate in warm food, and the production of enterotoxin (CPE) in the ...
Lehane M J - - 1997
Formed of proteins, glycoproteins, and chitin microfibrils in a proteoglycan matrix, the peritrophic matrix (PM) separates the food from the midgut epithelium in most but not all insects. A PM occurs in two forms. A type I PM is delaminated from the entire midgut epithelium and, in some cases, may ...
Townes J M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Although botulism is rare, recognition of a possible case of this illness represents a public health emergency. To prevent more cases, prompt investigation must be done to determine whether illness is linked to commercial product or restaurant. Botulism can masquerade as other illnesses, and seemingly unlikely foods can harbor ...
Shinagawa K - - 1996
The HEp-2 vacuolation factor (or cereulide) produced by Bacillus cereus isolated from vomiting-type food poisoning, which is supposed to induce emesis, was found to give mouse and suncus lethality after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration. The emetic activity of the factor was also found to be resistant to heating at 121 ...
Lapeyre C - - 1996
An international interlaboratory study was performed by 13 laboratories to validate a commercially available, rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C, D, and E in foods. The 5 enterotoxin serotypes were detected at a level of 0.5 ng/g in mushrooms and ravioli, 0.8 ng/g in meat, ...
Bolton K J - - 1996
About 1% of Staphylococcus aureus cells survived the production of gelatin sheets containing nutrient broth. Those cells which survived showed no evidence of injury. Growth occurred in rubbery state gelatin with a(w) values of 0.98 and 0.93 ; viability decreased during storage at a(w) values of 0.89, 0.62 and 0.36 ...
Nagai H - - 1996
The causative toxins of a red alga Gracilaria coronopifolia poisonings in Hawaii, which broke out in succession in September of 1994, were studied. Two major toxins were isolated from both extracts of the two original algal samples which caused separate poisonings. By spectroscopic method, these toxins were shown to be ...
Agata N - - 1996
The emetic toxin (cereulide) of Bacillus cereus was quantified in several isolates of B. cereus and in various food sources. When the emetic toxin was produced, vomiting-type food poisoning was observed in humans. We also found that the H-1 serovar phenotype was strongly associated with the production of cereulide and ...
al Bustan M A - - 1996
Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning. To determine the incidence of carriage of enterotoxin-producing S. aureus in a sample of the healthy population in Kuwait city, restaurant workers in the city were screened for nasal carriage of S. aureus. 26.6% of 500 workers studied carried ...
Kessin R H - - 1996
We have found a predator-prey association between the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and the free soil living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans feeds on the amoebae and multiplies indefinitely when amoebae are the sole food source. In an environment created from soil, D. discoideum grows and develops, but not in ...
Park C E - - 1996
The RIDASCREEN SET kit (R-Biopharm GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany), a commercial staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) immunoassay kit, utilizes monovalent capture antibodies against SE types A to E (SEA to SEE); therefore, it simultaneously detects and identifies the enterotoxin types. A collaborative study was conducted to ascertain whether the specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and ...
Tempelman L A - - 1996
A new, portable fiber-optic biosensor has been used to detect staphylococcal enterotoxin B, a causative agent of food poisoning, at levels as low as 0.5 ng/ml in buffer. The toxin (SEB) can also be detected and quantitated in other relevant media: human serum, urine, and aqueous extract of ham. The ...
Sellin L C - - 1996
Giant or slow-rising miniature end-plate potentials (GMEPPs) caused by vesicular release of acetylcholine (ACh) occur at any time in about 50% of mouse diaphragm neuro muscular junctions, but generally at frequencies less than 0.03 s-1. Their frequency is, unlike that of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs), not affected by nerve terminal ...
Winter C K - - 1996
AAL toxins and fumonisins comprise a family of highly reactive, chemically related mycotoxins that disrupt cellular homeostasis in both plant and animal tissues. Two critical issues to resolve are the detection of the entire family in food matricies and the mode of cellular disruption. Analysis of the entire set of ...
Granum P E - - 1995
There is at present no accepted nomenclature for bacterial protein toxins, although there have been several attempts at dividing them into groups by their mode of action. In this paper we will not try to describe all known bacterial protein toxins, but concentrate on the toxins involved in food poisoning. ...
Andersson A - - 1995
Spore-forming bacteria are special problems for the food industry. It is not always possible to apply enough heat during food processing to kill spores, thus we have to take advantage of knowledge of the spore-formers to control them. For the meat industry Clostridium perfringens might become a special problem, although ...
Singh B R - - 1995
Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, produced by Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, respectively, are the most poisonous poisons known to mankind. Although botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins share several characteristics, such as similar mol. wts, similar macrostructure, virtually identical mode of action, and a strong amino acid sequence homology, the two neurotoxins ...
Gleibs S - - 1995
In coral reefs of the Caribbean Sea (Colombia) palytoxin (PTX) has been detected in zoanthid species of the genera Palythoa and Zoanthus by assaying the delayed haemolysis in human erythrocytes produced by aqueous extracts, which is inhibited by ouabain pretreatment, and by HPLC. The toxin content of the polyps and ...
Beecher D J - - 1995
Bacillus cereus causes exotoxin-mediated diarrheal food poisoning. Hemolysin BL (HBL) is a well-characterized B. cereus toxin composed of three components (B, L1, and L2) that together possess hemolytic, cytotoxic, dermonecrotic, and vascular permeability activities. Here, we show that HBL causes fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops at a dose ...
Kaaya G P - - 1995
Spores of two entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, were mixed with sterile sand at two different concentrations (1.0 and 0.5 g/liter) and larvae of tsetse flies Glossina morsitans morsitans allowed to pupate in it, simulating field larviposition sites. One gram weight of B. bassiana-sand mixture was estimated to ...
Shinagawa K - - 1995
To study the correlation between emetic toxin and HEp-2 vacuole activity produced by Bacillus cereus isolated from an outbreak of vomiting-type food poisoning, some properties and emetic activities of both purified HEp-2 factor (cereulide) and partially purified factor to rhesus monkeys were determined. The results indicate that both cereulide and ...
Anunciaçao L L - - 1995
Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The ...
Nielsen J - - 1995
The spores of Penicillium chrysogenum are of the noncoagulating type, and after spore germination a culture of disperse mycelia is obtained. In this study, it is shown that when the hyphal elements increase in size, they may agglomerate, and depending on the operating conditions, these agglomerates may develop into pellets ...
Bergdoll M S - - 1995
Many staphylococcal strains produce enterotoxin, the toxin that is the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning. If a strain is enterotoxigenic it is possible for it to be involved in food poisoning. The gel diffusion methods were the first methods developed for detection of the enterotoxins and were thought adequate to ...
Fach P - - 1995
A degenerate primer pair was selected to amplify specifically a 260-bp DNA fragment from Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, F, and G, and five individual probes allowed identification of each toxinotype by hybridization of the PCR products. The 72 strains of different Clostridium species tested and 11 other bacterial ...
Arrow S A - - 1994
The detection of faecal cytotoxicity using tissue culture was compared with three commercial Clostridium difficile enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits; Premier C difficile toxin A (Meridian Diagnostic, Inc.); CD-TOX C difficile toxin A (Porton Cambridge); and Cytoclone A+B EIA (Cambridge Biotech Corporation). Of 160 faecal samples examined by all four methods, ...
Becker H - - 1994
Dried milk products and infant food are known to be frequently contaminated with Bacillus cereus. Sources of the organism and its behaviour in the product and in the equipment during processing are discussed. With regard to the incidence of B. cereus in infant food, 261 samples distributed in 17 countries ...
Bezirtzoglou E - - 1994
Clostridium perfringens and especially its spores, which are more tolerant to various physiochemical effects than the other fecal indicator bacteria, could serve as a useful indicator in ecosystems with stress factors. In order to determine the numbers of Clostridium perfringens in waters of rural North-West Greece, we utilised a new ...
Bennett R W - - 1994
Selected foods containing 4-10 ng each of a mixture of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin serotypes A-E were tested by 15 collaborators. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) was used with polyvalent antisera to these serotypes in a polyclonal antibody double "sandwich" configuration. Controls were free of toxin. Foods (25 g test samples) ...
Lawrence J F - - 1994
The hepatopancreases from lobsters (Homarus americanus) obtained from two locations in eastern Canada (Gaspé and Bay of Fundy) were analysed for paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) before and after the shellfish were cooked by boiling or steaming. Forty-five lobsters from each location were divided into three groups of 15. Two of ...
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