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Suominen I - - 2001
Forty-four B. pumilus isolates of food poisoning, clinical, environmental and industrial origins were investigated for toxin production using the boar spermatozoan motility assay, previously shown to be a sensitive method for detecting non-protein toxins from B. cereus and B. licheniformis. The three toxic isolates originated from live tree, indoor air ...
Steele F M - - 2001
The potential for Clostridium perfringens spores to germinate and grow in cooked, ready-to-eat turkey products was evaluated to determine a safe cooling rate within the critical temperatures of 48.9 C (120 F) through 12.8 C (55 F). Raw turkey deli breast roasts were inoculated with a cocktail of C. perfringens ...
Lindström M M Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. - - 2001
The safety of refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum is under continuous evaluation. In the present study, mild (P7.0(85.0) values 0 to 2 min [P, pasteurization value; z-value 7.0 degrees C; reference temperature 85.0 degrees C]) and increased (P7.0(85.0) values 67 to 515 ...
Malone L A - - 2001
Newly emerged adult bees were fed with Nosema apis spores subjected to various treatments, and their longevity, proportions of bees infected, and spores per bee recorded. Spores lost viability after 1, 3, or 6 months in active manuka or multifloral honey, after 3 days in multifloral honey, and after 21 ...
Eneroth A - - 2001
The contamination of pasteurized milk by Bacillus cereus during the filling process was studied in two dairy plants. Samples of pasteurized milk were taken at four different sites along the production line. The samples were stored at 7 degrees C for 7 d, or at 10 degrees C for 5 ...
Le Louarn C - - 2001
Our improved understanding of the functional anatomy of the face and of the action of the botulinum toxin A leads us to determine a new injection procedure which consequently decreases the risk of eyebrow and eyelid ptosis, and increases the toxin injection's possibilities and efficiencies. Variable toxin injection concentrations adapted ...
Moroño A - - 2001
The accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins by bivalves is a serious threat to public health all over the world. However, very little is known about the uptake kinetics of these toxins and the environmental factors that may modify this process. We have studied the effect of mussel size, ...
Van Buynder P G - - 2001
The problem of blue-green algal toxin contamination of recreational waters and drinking water catchments is well described, as is the potential contamination of associated seafood. Algal contamination of Victorian waterways is now a widespread annual occurrence and, in some regions, the intersection of blooms and commercial fishing threatens the food ...
Rasooly A - - 2001
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors are electro-optical instruments used for analyzing real-time protein-protein interactions. This work evaluates an SPR biosensor (Biacore 3000) in the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in foods. A sandwich SPR immunosensor involving two antibodies was used. The capturing antibody, bound covalently to the surface of ...
Kristůfek V - - 2001
Food selection experiments demonstrated that Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) was attracted by Streptomyces species and microscopic fungi in vermiculture substrates and in the gut content of Eisenia andrei earthworms. Consumption of spores and/or mycelia of attractive strains influenced markedly the proliferation of E. crypticus. There was a 74-fold increase in ...
Orr R V - - 2000
Spoilage of fruit juice by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is characterized by a distinct medicinal or antiseptic off odor attributed to guaiacol, a metabolic by product of the bacterium. Detection of low populations of A. acidoterrestris that would precede sensory detection of guaiacol would enable juice processors to select appropriate processing and ...
Shearer A E - - 2000
Sucrose laurates, sucrose palmitate, sucrose stearates, and monolaurin (Lauricidin) were evaluated for inhibitory effects against spores of Bacillus sp., Clostridium sporogenes PA3679, and Alicyclobacillus sp. in a model agar system. The combined treatment of sucrose laurate, high hydrostatic pressure, and mild heat was evaluated on spores of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus ...
Enan G - - 2000
The inhibition of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 viable growth by Lactobacillus plantarum UG1 bacteriocin (plantaricin UG1) in vitro and in food (pasteurized milk and minced meat) was studied. The inhibitory effect against B. cereus food-borne pathogen noticed in this study was due to plantaricin UG1, but not due to lactic ...
Balaban N - - 2000
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that produces a wide array of toxins, thus causing various types of disease symptoms. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), a family of nine major serological types of heat stable enterotoxins, are a leading cause of gastroenteritis resulting from consumption of contaminated food. In addition, SEs ...
Nedelkov D - - 2000
Biomolecular interaction analysis mass spectrometry (BIA-MS) was applied to detection of bacterial toxins in food samples. This two-step approach utilizes surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to detect the binding of the toxin(s) to antibodies immobilized on a surface of a sensor chip. SPR detection is then followed by identification of the ...
Lamdin J M - - 2000
The presence of a unique population of Lagoa crispata, puss caterpillar, in western Oklahoma is reported. A detailed microscopic examination shows the structure of the L. crispata spines resemble the type 4 spines described by [Kawamoto, F., Kumada, N., 1984. Biology and venoms of lepidoptera. In: Tu, A.T. (Ed.), Handbook ...
Metcalf J S - - 2000
Immunoassays are increasingly used to investigate the production, properties and fates of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxic microcystins in vitro and in vivo. Responses of an ELISA immunoassay to microcystins have been determined using the authentic toxin antigen, microcystin-LR, and conjugation products between the toxin and glutathione, cysteine-glycine and cysteine. The antibodies ...
Mikkola R - - 2000
Toxins from three Bacillus licheniformis strains connected to a fatal food poisoning were isolated and their structures elucidated. Toxins were purified from methanol extracts of the B. licheniformis biomass using boar sperm cells as the toxicity indicator. The HPLC purified toxins showed protonated masses m/z 1007, 1021 and 1035 in ...
Schlievert P M - - 2000
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes express pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) that are associated with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP). Most PTSAgs cause TSS in deep-tissue infections, whereas only TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1) is associated with menstrual, vaginal TSS. In contrast, SFP has been linked only with ...
McLauchlin J - - 2000
A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedure was developed for the detection of fragments of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, and SEI together with the toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) genes of Staphylococcus aureus. One hundred and twenty-nine cultures of S. aureus were selected, 39 ...
McGrath S - - 2000
Clostridium botulinum produces a characteristic botulinum neurotoxin which can cause an often fatal neuroparalytic condition known as botulism. Although food-borne botulism is rare, critical screening by food companies is necessary to ensure that food products are safe. At present, the food industry assesses the risks of botulinum neurotoxin production by ...
Kole L - - 2000
A haemorrhagic toxin (VRR-12) from Vipera russelli russelli (Russell's viper) venom has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 followed by size-exclusion HPLC to electrophoretically homogeneous state. It is a 12 kDa single polypeptide having 1 mole of Zn+2 ion. This toxin induces intense intestinal haemorrhage and to a ...
Kotiranta A - - 2000
Bacillus cereus is a causative agent in both gastrointestinal and in nongastrointestinal infections. Enterotoxins, emetic toxin (cereulide), hemolysins, and phoshpolipase C as well as many enzymes such as beta-lactamases, proteases and collagenases are known as potential virulence factors of B. cereus. A special surface structure of B. cereus cells, the ...
Dinges M M - - 2000
This article reviews the literature regarding the structure and function of two types of exotoxins expressed by Staphylococcus aureus, pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) and hemolysins. The molecular basis of PTSAg toxicity is presented in the context of two diseases known to be caused by these exotoxins: toxic shock syndrome and ...
Whittle K - - 2000
Seafood products are important both nutritionally and economically. Within Europe, some 12 billion Pounds of fishery products are consumed annually and an enormous variety of species are available. Although seafood is rarely implicated in food poisoning, compared to other food sources, it does provide some specific human health hazards unique ...
Brown K L - - 2000
Bacterial spores are much more resistant than their vegetative counterparts. The most dangerous spore-former is Clostridium botulinum which produces a potent neurotoxin that can prove fatal. The most common food poisoning from a spore-former is caused by C. perfringens. Other food poisoning spore-formers include Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and B. ...
Stafford K M - - 1999
An array of autonomous hydrophones moored in the eastern tropical Pacific was monitored for one year to examine the occurrence of whale calls in this region. Six hydrophones which recorded from 0-40 Hz were placed at 8 degrees N, 0 degree, and 8 degrees S along longitudes 95 degrees W ...
Gleibs S - - 1999
In the reefs off the Colombian coast (Caribbean Sea) and around Lizard Island, Australia (Pacific), palytoxin (PTX), which has been detected in zoanthid species of the genus Palythoa, also occurred in various other marine organisms living in close association with zoanthid colonies, e.g. sponges (Porifera), soft corals (Alcyonaria), gorgonians (Gorgonaria), ...
Combina M - - 1999
The effects of different organic acids on Alternaria alternata growth and tenuazonic acid production (TeA) were evaluated. Both TeA pure toxin solution and TeA production in solid medium were considered. Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and sodium propionate, all preservatives commonly used by food industry in Argentina, were tested. TeA was ...
Salkinoja-Salonen M S - - 1999
Toxin-producing isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were obtained from foods involved in food poisoning incidents, from raw milk, and from industrially produced baby food. The toxin detection method, based on the inhibition of boar spermatozoan motility, has been shown previously to be a sensitive assay for the emetic toxin of Bacillus ...
Vela M - - 1999
Clostridium perfringens has been implicated as a causative agent of foodborne poisoning, infectious diarrhea (not associated with foods), gas gangrene, and several veterinary diseases. Fecal carriage of enterotoxigenic strains of this bacterium appears to be important in the development of infectious diarrhea and as a source of C. perfringens contamination ...
Hsieh Y M - - 1999
Bacillus cereus is one of the important food pathogens. Since B. cereus group cells, such as B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis and B. mycoides, share many phenotypical properties and a high level of chromosomal sequence similarity, it is interesting to investigate the virulence profiles for B. cereus group cells, ...
Crane J K - - 1999
Food poisoning syndromes caused by four different bacteria are described. For all types, food kept at a permissive temperature allows growth of the vegetative forms of the bacteria and production of a toxin or toxins. The key features of these syndromes, as well as possible new trends of concern, are ...
Udo E E - - 1999
Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were isolated from the hands of food handlers in 50 restaurants in Kuwait City and studied for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, slime and resistance to antimicrobial agents. One or a combination of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B or C were ...
Rasooly L - - 1999
Currently there is no 'real-time' detection system to identify food borne toxins. In order to develop such a system, we have used a evanescent wave biosensor for real time detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in foods. The approach used here is sandwich biosensor, a method utilizing two antibodies. The ...
Miwa N - - 1999
An outbreak of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning occurred in a senior citizen's home in Japan. Japanese food, spinach boiled with fried bean curd, was considered to be the causative food as a result of the detection of the C. perfringens enterotoxin gene by nested PCR. The number of enterotoxin-positive C. ...
Amorim A - - 1999
The accumulation and depuration of hepatotoxins produced by the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied. Mussels were fed daily 10(5) cells/ml of the toxic cyanobacterium that produces microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR), for four days. After that period animals were placed in toxin free water and were fed ...
Schocken-Iturrino R P - - 1999
The isolation of Clostridium botulinum from honey samples is described. Botulism is characterized as an intoxication provoked by ingestion of contaminated foods with this toxin. Infant botulism happens by the ingestion of spores of C. botulinum together with food that in special conditions of the intestinal tract, such as those ...
Noah N - - 1999
The three entirely different forms of food poisoning described in this issue of Eurosurveillance illustrate the extraordinary propensity of the organisms to survive and cause illness. Clostridium botulinum is an organism which produces its toxin (a toxin
Galazka A - - 1999
Human foodborne botulism, in contrast to the other two forms of botulism (wound and infant botulism), is an intoxication that results when preformed botulinum toxin is ingested. Sporadic cases and family and general outbreaks occur when food products are
Hadfield A T - - 1999
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one of the most potent toxins known. BoNT is also a food poison, which means that the toxin must survive the protease action and acidity of the gut. A group of neurotoxin-associated proteins which are only beginning to be identified and characterized are believed to be ...
Cammack R - - 1999
Nitrite is consumed in the diet, through vegetables and drinking water. It is also added to meat products as a preservative. The potential risks of this practice are balanced against the unique protective effect against toxin-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. The chemistry of nitrite, and compounds derived from it, ...
Vieites J M - - 1999
Changes in toxin profile and total toxicity levels of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-containing mussels were monitored during the standard canning process of pickled mussels and mussels in brine using mouse bioassays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Detoxification percentages for canned mussel meat exceeded 50% of initial toxicity. Total toxicity reduction did ...
Devriese P P - - 1999
A description is given of a food intoxication in 1895 at Ellezelles, a village in Belgium. As a result 3 persons died within a few days and others became seriously ill. A thorough investigation by E. van Ermengem led to the discovery of Clostridium botulinum and botulinum toxin. About 75 ...
Vasconcelos V M - - 1999
Toxic cyanobacteria are common in Portuguese freshwaters and the most common toxins are microcystins. The occurrence of microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR) has been reported since 1990 and a significant number of water reservoirs that are used for drinking water attain high levels of this toxin. Aquatic animals that live in eutrophic freshwater ...
Blakistone B - - 1999
Alternatives to hydrogen peroxide are being sought for use in aseptic packaging systems because this sterilant is efficacious at temperatures higher than some of the newer packaging materials can tolerate. Earlier in this century, peracetic acid was known to be bactericidal, sporicidal, and virucidal but was not widely used because ...
King K D - - 1999
The Man-portable Analyte Identification System (MANTIS), the first fully automated, self-contained, portable fiber optic biosensor, was utilized for the detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB), a bacterial toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus that commonly causes food poisoning. Because of its remarkable toxicity and stability, SEB is considered a prime threat ...
Chyka P A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The Arts are replete with examples of presaged events of the future. Since a unique glimpse of the 23rd century is afforded by the television series Star Trek, a survey of the toxin-related events as chronicled by the crew of the USS Starship Enterprise may provide insight to prepare ...
Therre Helene - - 1999
Botulinum toxin was first described as a potent neurotoxin in the late eighteenth century. Currently three main distinct clinical and epidemiological botulism syndromes are described - foodborne botulism, which results from the ingestion of food contamina
Feinberg L - - 1999
The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the ...
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